- Foot binding
Foot binding (simplified Chinese: 缠足; traditional Chinese: 纏足; Mandarin Pinyin: chánzú; Jyutping: gwo2 goek3; literally "bound feet" or Chinese: 縛腳; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: pa̍k-kha) was the custom of binding the feet of young girls painfully tight to prevent further growth. The practice probably originated among court dancers in the early Song dynasty, but spread to upper class families and eventually became common among all classes. The tiny narrow feet were considered beautiful and to make a woman's movements more feminine and dainty. Although reformers challenged the practice, it was not until the early twentieth century that footbinding generally died out, partly from changing social conditions and partly as a result of anti-footbinding campaigns.  Foot-binding resulted in lifelong disabilities for most of its subjects. In the 1990s and early 2000s, some elderly (born until the mid-1940s) Chinese women still suffered from disabilities related to bound feet.
Multiple theories attempt to explain the origin of foot binding, from the desire to emulate the naturally tiny feet of a favored concubine of a prince, to a story of an empress who had club-like feet, which became viewed as a desirable fashion. However, there is little strong textual evidence for the custom prior to the court of the Southern Tang kingdom in Nanjing (937–975), which celebrated the fame of its dancing girls, renowned for their tiny feet and beautiful bow shoes. What is clear is that foot binding was first practiced among the elite and only in the wealthiest parts of China, which suggests that binding the feet of well-born girls represented their freedom from manual labor and, at the same time, the ability of their husbands to afford wives who did not need to work, who existed solely to serve their men and direct household servants while performing no labor themselves.
In contrast to the majority of other Han Chinese, the Hakka did not practice foot binding. Manchu women were forbidden to bind their feet by an edict from the Emperor after the Manchu started their rule of China in 1644. Many other non-Han ethnic groups continued to observe the custom, some of them practiced loose binding which did not break the bones of the arch and toes but simply narrowed the foot. However, by the 17th century, Chinese girls, from the wealthiest to the poorest people, had their feet bound. It was less prevalent among poorer women or those that had to work for a living, especially in the fields. Some estimate[who?] that as many as 2 billion Chinese women had their feet bound from the late 10th century until 1949, when foot binding was outlawed by the Communists (foot binding had also been banned by the Nationalists, but the Nationalists never had thorough political control over the entire country, and were unable to enforce this prohibition universally). According to the author of The Sex Life of the Foot and Shoe, 40–50% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, the figure was almost 100%.
Binding the feet involved breaking the arch of the foot, which ultimately left a crevice approximately 5 cm (2 in) deep, which was considered most desirable. It took approximately two years for this process to achieve the desired effect; preferably a foot that measured 7–9 cm (3–3 1⁄2 in) from toe to heel.While foot binding could lead to serious infections, possibly gangrene, and was generally painful for life, contrary to popular belief, many women with bound feet were able to walk, work in the fields, and climb to mountain homes from valleys below. As late as 2005, women with bound feet in one village in Yunnan Province formed an internationally known dancing troupe to perform for foreign tourists but they are now too old. In other areas, women in their 70s and 80s could be found working in the rice fields well into the 21st century. In the 19th and early 20th century, dancers with bound feet were very popular, as were circus performers who stood on prancing or running horses.
When foot-binding was popular and customary, women and their families and husbands took great pride in tiny feet that had achieved the desired lotus shape. This pride was reflected in the elegantly embroidered silk slippers and wrappings girls and women wore to cover their feet. Walking on bound feet necessitated bending the knees slightly and swaying to maintain the proper movement. This swaying walk became known as the Lotus Gait and was considered sexually exciting by men. Later, the Manchu women who were forbidden to bind their feet, and who were supposedly envious of the Lotus Gait, invented their own type of shoe that caused them to walk in a swaying manner. They wore 'flower bowl' shoes, on a high platform generally made of wood or with a small central pedestal. In fact, bound feet became an important differentiating marker between Manchu and Han women.
The practice of foot-binding continued into the 20th century, when both Chinese and Western missionaries called for reform; at this point, a true anti-foot-binding movement emerged. Educated Chinese began to realise that this aspect of their culture did not reflect well upon them in the eyes of foreigners; social Darwinists argued that it weakened the nation, since enfeebled women supposedly produced weak sons; and feminists attacked the practice because it caused women to suffer. At the turn of the 20th century, well-born women such as Kwan Siew-Wah (known in the West as Brigitte Kwan), a pioneering feminist, advocated for the end of foot-binding. Kwan herself refused the foot-binding imposed on her in childhood, so that she could grow normal feet.
There had been earlier but unsuccessful attempts to stop the practice of foot-binding with various emperors issuing unsuccessful edicts against it. The Empress Dowager Cixi (a Manchu) issued such an edict following the Boxer Rebellion in order to appease foreigners, but it was rescinded a short time later. In 1912, after the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the new Republic of China government banned foot binding. Women were told to unwrap their feet lest they be killed. Some women's feet grew 1–3 cm (1⁄2–1 in) after the unwrapping, though some found the new growth process extremely painful as well as emotionally and culturally devastating. Still, societies were founded to support the abolition of foot-binding, with contractual agreements made between families who would promise an infant son in marriage to an infant daughter who did not have bound feet. When the Communists took power in 1949, they were able to enforce a strict prohibition on foot-binding, including in isolated areas deep in the countryside where the Nationalist prohibition had been ignored. The prohibition on foot-binding remains in effect today.
Chinese Muslim Hui women bound their feet just like Han women. It was noticed that it was extremely prevalent among Hui in Gansu, a northwestern province. The Dungan people, descendants of Hui from northwestern China who fled to central Asia, also practiced foot binding up to 1948.
However, in southern China, in Canton the westerner James Legge encountered a mosque which had a placard denouncing footbinding, saying Islam did not allow it since it constituted violating the creation of God.
The process was started before the arch of the foot had a chance to develop fully, usually between the ages of two and five. Binding usually started during the winter months so that the feet were numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme.
First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the binding. Then, the toenails were cut back as far as possible to prevent in-growth and subsequent infections, since the toes were to be pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. To prepare her for what was to come next, the girl's feet were delicately massaged. Cotton bandages, 3 m long and 5 cm wide (10 ft×2 in), were prepared by soaking them in the blood and herb mixture. To enable the size of the feet to be reduced, the toes on each foot were curled under, then pressed with great force downwards and squeezed into the sole of the foot until the toes broke. This was all carried out without the use of pain relief, and was excruciatingly painful for the girl being bound. The broken toes were held tightly against the sole of the foot while the foot was then drawn down straight with the leg and the arch forcibly broken. The actual binding of the feet was then begun. The bandages were repeatedly wound in a figure-eight movement, starting at the inside of the foot at the instep, then carried over the toes, under the foot, and round the heel, the freshly broken toes being pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. At each pass around the foot, the binding cloth was tightened, pulling the ball of the foot and the heel ever close together, causing the broken foot to fold at the arch, and pressing the toes underneath, this would cause the young girl extreme pain. When the binding was completed, the end of the binding cloth was sewn tightly to prevent the girl from loosening it, and the girl was required to stand on her freshly broken and bound feet to further crush them into shape. As the wet bandages dried, they constricted, making the binding even tighter.
The girl's broken feet required a great deal of care and attention, and they would be unbound regularly. Each time the feet were unbound, they were washed, the toes carefully checked for injury, and the nails carefully and meticulously trimmed. When unbound, the broken feet were also kneaded to soften them and make the joints and broken bones more flexible, and were soaked in a concoction that caused any necrotic flesh to fall off. Immediately after this pedicure, the girl's broken toes were folded back under and the feet were rebound. The bindings were pulled ever tighter each time, so that the process became more and more painful. Whilst unbound, the girl's feet were often beaten, especially on the soles, to ensure that her feet remained broken and flexible. This unbinding and rebinding ritual was repeated as often as possible (for the rich at least once daily, for poor peasants two or three times a week), with fresh bindings. It was generally an elder female member of the girl's family or a professional foot binder who carried out the initial breaking and ongoing binding of the feet. This was considered preferable to having the mother do it, as she might have been sympathetic to her daughter's pain and less willing to keep the bindings tight. A professional foot binder would ignore the girl's cries and would continue to bind her feet as tightly as possible. Professional foot binders would also tend to be more extreme in the initial breaking of the feet, sometimes breaking each of the toes in two or three separate places, and even completely dislocating the toes to allow them to be pressed under and bound more tightly. This would cause the girl to suffer from devastating foot pain, but her feet were more likely to achieve the 7 cm (3 in) ideal. The girl was not allowed to rest after her feet had been bound; however much pain she was suffering, she was required to walk on her broken and bound feet, so that her own body weight would help press and crush her feet into the desired shape.
The most common problem with bound feet was infection. Despite the amount of care taken in regularly trimming the toenails, they would often in-grow, becoming infected and causing injuries to the toes. Sometimes for this reason the girl's toenails would be peeled back and removed altogether. The tightness of the binding meant that the circulation in the feet was faulty, and the circulation to the toes was almost cut off, so any injuries to the toes were unlikely to heal and were likely to gradually worsen and lead to infected toes and rotting flesh. If the infection in the feet and toes entered the bones, it could cause them to soften, which could result in toes dropping off—though this was seen as a positive, as the feet could then be bound even more tightly. Girls whose toes were more fleshy would sometimes have shards of glass or pieces of broken tiles inserted within the binding next to her feet and between her toes to cause injury and introduce infection deliberately. Disease inevitably followed infection, meaning that death from septic shock could result from foot-binding, but a surviving girl was more at risk for medical problems as she grew older. In the early part of the binding, many of the foot bones would remain broken, often for years. However, as the girl grew older, the bones would begin to heal, although even after the foot bones had healed they were prone to re-breaking repeatedly, especially when the girl was in her teens and her feet were still soft. Older women were more likely to break hips and other bones in falls, since they could not balance securely on their feet, and were less able to rise to their feet from a sitting position.
Reception and appeal
Part of a series on Violence
Issues Acid throwing · Breast ironing
Bride-buying · Bride burning
Dating violence · Domestic violence
Dowry death · Honor killing
Female genital mutilation
(Gishiri cutting · Infibulation)
Foot binding · Forced prostitution
Human trafficking · Marital rape
Murder of pregnant women
Rape · Sati · Sexual slavery
Violence against prostitutes
Category Violence against women Other Outline of related topics
Bound feet were once considered intensely erotic in Chinese culture, and a woman with perfect lotus feet was likely to make a more prestigious marriage. Qing Dynasty sex manuals listed 48 different ways of playing with women's bound feet. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes" and wrappings. Feng Xun is recorded as stating, "If you remove the shoes and bindings, the aesthetic feeling will be destroyed forever"—an indication that men understood that the symbolic erotic fantasy of bound feet did not correspond to its unpleasant physical reality, which was therefore to be kept hidden.
For men, the primary erotic effect was a function of the lotus gait, the tiny steps and swaying walk of a woman whose feet had been bound. Women with such deformed feet avoided placing weight on the front of the foot and tended to walk predominantly on their heels. As a result, women who underwent foot-binding walked in a careful, cautious, and unsteady manner. The very fact that the bound foot was concealed from men's eyes was, in and of itself, sexually appealing. On the other hand, an uncovered foot would also give off a foul odor, as various saprobic microorganisms would colonize the unwashable folds.
Another attribute of a woman with bound feet was the limitations of her mobility and, therefore, her inability to take part in politics, social life, and the world at large. Bound feet rendered women dependent on their families, particularly their men, and, therefore, became an alluring symbol of chastity and male ownership, since a woman was largely restricted to her home and could not venture far without an escort or the help of watchful servants.
While there are instances of such attractions being labeled erotic, as mentioned above, it is not statistically significant to suppose that an erotic sexual nature surrounded foot binding. There are instances of individuals who perceived the binding as perhaps erotic, saying that the majority at the time felt this way isn't scientifically sophisticated. What is safe to say though, is that it was seen by people as a sign of femininity and status. Women modifying their bodies to attract mates is a very old situation around the world in cultures historically and this was no different in China.
In literature and film
The bound foot has played a prominent part in many works of literature, both Chinese and non-Chinese, modern and traditional. These depictions are sometimes based on observation or research and sometimes on rumor or supposition. This is only to be expected when a practice is so emotionally charged. Sometimes, as in the case of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, the accounts are relatively neutral, implying a respect for Chinese culture and assuming that it is not the role of outsiders to promote reform. Sometimes the accounts seem intended to rouse like minded Chinese and foreign opinion to abolish the custom, and sometimes the accounts imply condescension or contempt for China.
- Ju-Chen Li, Flowers in the Mirror  Lin Tai-yi tr. (University of California Press, 1965 ISBN 978-0-520-00747-5) Includes chapters set in the "Country of Women," where men bear children and have bound feet.
- Feng Jicai (b. 1942) (translated from the Chinese by David Wakefield), The Three-Inch Golden Lotus (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994) presents a satirical picture of the movement to abolish the practice, which is seen as part of Chinese culture.
- In the 1958 film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness Ingrid Bergman portrays British missionary to China Gladys Aylward, who is assigned as a foreigner the task by a local Mandarin to unbind the feet of young women, an unpopular order that the civil government had failed to fulfill.
- Ruthanne Lum McCunn wrote a biographical novel A Thousand Pieces of Gold (later adapted to a film), about Polly Bemis, a Chinese American pioneer woman. It describes her feet being bound, and later unbound when she needed to help her family with farm labour.
- Emily Prager's short story A Visit from the Footbinder, from her collection of short stories of the same name (1982) describes the last few hours of a young Chinese girl's childhood before the professional footbinder arrives to initiate her into the adult woman's life of beauty and pain.
- Lisa Loomer's play The Waiting Room deals with themes of body modification. One of the three main characters is an 18th-century Chinese woman who arrives in a modern hospital waiting room seeking medical help for complications resulting from her bound feet.
- Lensey Namioka, Ties that Bind, Ties that Break. 2000
- Donna Jo Napoli, Bound. (Atheneum Books, 2004) (young adult novel)
- Lisa See (2005-06-28). Snow flower and the secret fan: a novel. Random House Inc. ISBN 9781400060283. http://books.google.com/?id=jUs3bOvKwy8C.
- Adeline Yen Mah writes in her memoir Falling Leaves that her grand-aunt Chang Yu-Yi as an infant had refused foot binding, tearing off the wrappings when they were applied and finally going on a hunger strike until the adults gave in. In 1910 she founded the Shanghai Women's Savings Bank.
- Attraction to disability
- Artificial cranial deformation
- Body modification
- Sexual fetishism
- Female genital cutting
- Cosmetic surgery
- Foot Emancipation Society
- This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity, by James Legge, a publication from 1880 now in the public domain in the United States.
- ^ Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Cambridge Illustrated History of China (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nd ed., 2010), pp. 160-61.
- ^ a b c d Painful Memories for China's Footbinding Survivors, by Louisa Lim, Morning Edition, March 19, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- ^ "The Art of Footbinding" Bella OnLine Date accessed: 9 September 2010
- ^ Lawrence Davis, Edward (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Routledge, p. 333.
- ^ Mark C. Elliott. The Manchu Way : The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2001 ISBN 978-0-8047-3606-0),p. 247
- ^ Lin, Louisa. "Painful Memories for China's Footbinding Survivors". http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=8966942. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- ^ Levy (1992), p. 322
- ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. EDINBURGH: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. http://books.google.com/books?id=eEwTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA893&dq=dungan+foot+binding&hl=en&ei=vtkfTb-bMoTGlQe-xez2Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEMQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved January 1, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
- ^ Touraj Atabaki, Sanjyot Mehendale; Sanjyot Mehendale (2005). Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora. Psychology Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-415-33260-6. http://books.google.com/?id=OWMyFWAZLCwC. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
- ^ James Legge (1880). The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity. LONDON: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 111. http://books.google.com/books?id=fpcuAAAAYAAJ&q=mohammedan#v=snippet&q=mohammedan&f=false. Retrieved June 28, 2010. (Original from Harvard University)
- ^ Jackson, Beverley (1997) Splendid Slippers. Berkeley: Tenspeed Press
- ^ Levy, Howard S: The Lotus Lovers: The Complete History of the Curious Erotic Tradition of Foot Binding in China. New York:Prometheus Books 1991
- ^ Cummings, S. & Stone, K. (1997) "Consequences of Foot Binding Among Older Women in Beijing China", in: American Journal of Public Health EBSCO Host. Oct 1997
- ^ a b Jackson, Beverley (1998). Splendid Slippers: A Thousand Years of an Erotic Tradition. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-957-8. http://books.google.com/?id=0z_GjuiW5l4C.
- ^ "Foot binding began as a luxury among the rich; it made the women more dependant on others and less useful around the house." "... since a bound foot woman was largely restricted to her home, bound feet became a symbol of chastity. The thinking was that the bound foot, once it was formed, could not be unlocked like a chastity belt." Date accessed: 9 September 2010.
- ^ Patricia Ebrey, "Gender and Sinology: Shifting Western Interpretations of Footbinding, 1300–1890," Late Imperial China 20.2 (1999): 1?34.
- Dorothy Ko, Cinderella’s Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.
- Dorothy Ko, Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for Bound Feet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001). Catalogue of a museum exhibit, with extensive comments.
- Dorothy Ko, "Perspectives on Foot-binding," ASIANetwork Exchange, Vol. XV, No. 3, Spring 2008 . Comments on the craft of shoemaking among women.
- Beverley Jackson Splendid Slippers – A Thousand Years of an Erotic Tradition: Ten Speed Press
- Howard S. Levy, The Lotus Lovers: Prometheus Books, New York, 1992
- Eugene E.Berg, , M.D. Chinese Footbinding. Radiology Review – Orthopaedic Nursing 24, no. 5 (September/October) 66–67
- The Virtual Museum of The City of San Francisco, Chinese Foot Binding - Lotus Shoes
- Ping, Wang. Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China. New York: Anchor Books, 2002.
- Fan Hong (1997) Footbinding, Feminism and Freedom. London: Frank Cass
- "Chinese Girl with Bound Feet" Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.
- Page from thinkquest
- Yang Shaorong, Bound foot shoe collector with images of peasant/winter models and western-style models
- A photograph
- A page on foot binding
- Marie Vento, One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding: Its Origins, Popularity and Demise One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding: Its Origins, Popularity and Demise (Term Paper/Core 9: Chinese Culture/ March 7, 1998).
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