- Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (1849–1919)
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este Queen consort of Bavaria Tenure 5 November 1913 – 7 November 1918 Spouse Ludwig III of Bavaria Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria
Adelgunde, Princess of Hohenzollern
Princess Maria, Duchess of Calabria
Mathilde, Princess Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg-Kohary
House House of Wittelsbach
House of Austria-Este
Father Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este Mother Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria Born 2 July 1849
Died 3 February 1919(aged 69)
Wildenwart Castle, Chiemgau
Maria Theresia Henriette Dorothee of Austria-Este (2 July 1849 – 3 February 1919) was a Queen consort of Bavaria and a Jacobite pretender. She was the daughter and only child of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. She was the last Queen of Bavaria and the Jacobite pretender as Mary IV and III from 1875 until her death.
Ancestry and Family
Her paternal grandparents were Francis IV, Duke of Modena, and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy. Her maternal grandparents were Archduke Josef Anton of Austria and his third wife Duchess Maria Dorothea of Württemberg.
Maria Theresa was born at Brünn in Moravia, now Brno in the Czech Republic. On 15 December 1849, when she was only five months old, her father Archduke Ferdinand died from typhoid. Maria Theresa was raised by her mother Archduchess Elisabeth.
On 18 April 1854, Archduchess Elisabeth married Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria, Duke of Teschen, by whom she had six children:
- Archduke Franz Joseph (1855-1855)
- Archduke Friedrich (1856–1936)
- Archduchess Maria Christina (1858–1929), later wife of King Alfonso XII of Spain
- Archduke Karl Stephan (1860–1933)
- Archduke Eugen (1863–1954)
- Archduchess Maria Eleonora (1864–1964)
Through her mother, Maria Theresa was also first cousin to Princess Stephanie of Belgium, Crown Princess of Austria-Hungary; and Princess Clementine of Belgium, Princess Napoleon; and Maria Dorothea, Duchess of Orleans.
On February 20, 1868, she married Prince Ludwig, eldest son of Prince Regent Luitpold, in the Augustinerkirche in Vienna. The couple had fallen in love with each other during a visit of Ludwig at Pfingsten in Austria to attend the burial of Archduchess Mathilda of Austria, who was his cousin and a friend of Maria Theresa, in representation of King Ludwig II of Bavaria in 1867, and they decided to marry, which initially angered the Emperor, who had wished for her to marry Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany. The chief witness was Count Antonius Schaffgotsch, just the one who baptised Maria Theresa the new princess.
After marriage, Maria Theresa spent most time raising her children. The couple lived a humble life in spite of the bright future that they would probably become King and Queen of Bavaria in future. With no official salary the family mostly lived on their farms at Leutstetten south of Munich, where Maria Theresa had her famous rose gardens.
Maria Theresa got various orders:
- Dame of the (Austrian) Order of the Starry Cross (January 10, 1865);
- Grand Mistress of the (Bavarian) Order of Theresia and of the (Bavarian) Order of Saint Elisabeth (October 19, 1872);
- Dame of the (Spanish) Order of Maria Luisa;
- The (Austrian) Order of Elisabeth 1st Class, the Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown, the Cross of Merit for the Year 1870/71, the Cross of Merit for Voluntary Nursing, and the (Prussian) Red Cross Medal 2nd Class.
Maria Theresa became queen consort of Bavaria in 1913 when her husband the reigning Prince Regent proclaimed king himself as King Ludwig III in place of his living but insane cousin King Otto. She became the first Catholic queen in Bavaria since Bavaria was made a kingdom 1806. She spoke German, Hungarian, Czech, French, and Italian. In 1914, she hosted great festivities to the royal Bavarian jubilee and appeared with her spouse to announce the war. During World War I, she was a great patriot and also supported the Habsburg monarchy. She encouraged the women of Bavaria to support the soldiers by providing food and clothes for them with references to legendary heroines and visited wounded soldiers.
On November 7, 1918, Ludwig III was forced to abdicate Bavarian throne, and Maria Theresa fled Munich with her family to Wildenwart Castle near Frasdorf, in order to escape from Bolsheviks. The health of the Queen soon fell and she died there on February 3, 1919, and was buried at the local chapel. On November 5, 1921, her remains were transferred to the cathedral of Munich along with those of her husband, who died less than a month before.
She was the niece and heir of the childless Francis V, Duke of Modena, Jacobite pretender to the thrones of England and Scotland; as such, Jacobites styled her Queen Mary IV and III after his death in 1875. Her son Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria inherited the Jacobite claim.
Maria Theresa and Ludwig III of Bavaria were parents to thirteen children.
- Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (1869–1955). Married first to Duchess Marie Gabrielle in Bavaria and then Princess Antonia of Luxembourg
- Adelgunde Marie Auguste Therese, Princess of Bavaria (1870–1958). Married Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1864–1927)
- Maria Ludwiga Theresia, Princess of Bavaria (1872–1954). Married Ferdinando Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1869–1960) and had issue
- Karl Maria Luitpold, Prince of Bavaria (1874–1927)
- Franz Maria Luitpold, Prince of Bavaria (1875–1957). Married Princess Isabella Antonie of Croÿ (1890–1982) and had issue
- Mathilde Marie Theresia Henriette Christine Luitpolda, Princess of Bavaria (1877–1906). Married Ludwig Gaston Klemens Maria, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and had issue
- Wolfgang Maria Leopold, Prince of Bavaria (1879–1895)
- Hildegarde Maria Christina Therese, Princess of Bavaria (1881–1948)
- Notburga Karolina Maria Theresia, Princess of Bavaria (1883, lived only a few days)
- Wiltrud Marie Alix, Princess of Bavaria (1884–1975). Married Wilhelm, Duke of Urach (1864–1928)
- Helmtrud Marie Amalie, Princess of Bavaria (1886–1977)
- Dietlinde Maria Theresia Josepha Adelgunde, Princess of Bavaria (1888–1889)
- Gundelinde Maria Josepha, Princess of Bavaria (1891–1983). Married Johann Georg Count von Preysing-Lichtenegg-Moos (1887–1924), and had issue
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 2 July 1849 – 20 February 1868: Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria-Este
- 20 February 1868 – 5 November 1913: Her Imperial & Royal Highness Princess Maria Theresa of Bavaria
- 5 November 1913 – 13 November 1918: Her Majesty The Queen of Bavaria
- 13 November 1918 – 3 February 1919 : Her Majesty Queen Maria Theresa of Bavaria
- Schad, Martha. Bayerns Königinnen. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 1992. Includes a 75 page chapter on Marie Therese.
- Beckenbauer, Alfons. Ludwig III. von Bayern, 1845-1921, Ein König auf der Suche nach seinem Volk. Regensburg: Friedrich Pustet, 1987. The standard modern biography of Marie Therese's husband.
- Glaser, Hubert. Ludwig III. König von Bayern: Skizzen aus seiner Lebensgeschichte. Prien: Verkerhrsverband Chiemsee, 1995. An illustrated catalogue of an exhibition held in Wildenwart in 1995.
Maria Theresa of Austria-Este (1849–1919)Cadet branch of the House of Habsburg-LorraineBorn: 2 July 1849 Died: 3 February 1919
- This page is a translation of its German equivalent.
German royalty VacantTitle last held byMarie of Prussia Queen consort of Bavaria
5 November 1913 – 13 November 1918
Monarchy abolished Titles in pretence Republic declared — TITULAR —
Queen consort of Bavaria
13 November 1918 – 3 February 1919
VacantTitle next held byAntonia of Luxembourg Preceded by
Robert I and IV
Princesses of Modena 1st Generation 2nd GenerationPrincess Leonora · Princess Isabella Maria 3rd GenerationAnna, Duchess of Guise, Duchess of Nemours · Lucrezia, Duchess of Urbino · Princess Eleonora · Princess Angela Caterina 4th GenerationPrincess Julia · Maria Laura, Duchess of Mirandola · Princess Caterina · Princess Angela Caterina 5th GenerationPrincess Caterina Maria · Margarete, Duchess of Guastalla · Princess Beatrice · Princess Beatrice · Anna Beatrice, Duchess of Mirandola · Ippolita, Lady of Montecchio and Scandiano 6th Generation 7th GenerationMaria Beatrice, Queen of England · Princess Benedetta · Amalia, Marchioness of Villeneuf · Enrichetta, Duchess of Parma 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation 11th GenerationMaria Theresa, Duchess of Orléans* · Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón* 12th GenerationPrincess Anna Beatrice* · Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria**also Archduchess of Austria Austrian archduchesses by birth 1st generationnone 2nd generationArchduchess Helena · Kunigunde, Duchess of Bavaria 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generationElisabeth, Queen of Poland · Maria, Holy Roman Empress* · Anna, Duchess of Bavaria · Archduchess Isabella* · Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg · Archduchess Magdalena · Catherine, Queen of Poland · Eleanor, Duchess of Mantua · Archduchess Margaret · Joan, Princess of Portugal* · Barbara, Duchess of Ferrara · Archduchess Ursula · Archduchess Helena · Joanna, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 6th generationAnna, Queen of Spain · Elisabeth, Queen of France · Archduchess Maria · Archduchess Maria · Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Hetherlands* · Archduchess Margaret · Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy* · Archduchess Eleanor · Archduchess Maria* · Archduchess Martha · Archduchess Anna Eleanor · Archduchess Maria · Anna, Holy Roman Empress · Anna, Queen of Poland · Maria Christina, Princess of Transilvania · Archduchess Catherine Renata · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana · Archduchess Eleanor · Margaret, Queen of Spain · Constance, Queen of Poland · Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 7th generationArchduchess Christine · Anna, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Maria Anna, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Anna Mauritia · Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Margarita Francisca* · Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland · Archduchess Maria Eleanor · Isabella Clara, Duchess of Mantua · Maria Leopoldine, Holy Roman Empress 8th generationArchduchess Maria Margarita* · Archduchess Margarita Maria Catalina* · Archduchess Maria Eugenia* · Archduchess Isabella Maria Teresa* · Maria Anna, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia* · Maria Theresa, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Margarita Teresa, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Theresia Maria Josepha · Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine · Claudia Felicitas, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate · Archduchess Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción* · Archduchess Maria Magdalena 9th generationMaria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia · Archduchess Anna Maria · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Christina · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth · Maria Anna, Queen of Portugal · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Maria Magdalena · Archduchess Maria Margaretha 10th generationMaria Josepha, Queen of Poland · Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Theresa · Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine · Archduchess Maria Amalia 11th generationArchduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Archduchess Johanna** · Archduchess Maria Josepha** · Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples** · Marie Antonia, Queen of France** 12th generationArchduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Marie Christine · Maria Theresia, Queen of Saxony** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia*** · Archduchess Maria Josepha*** · Maria Leopoldine, Electress of Bavaria*** · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria** · Archduchess Maria Amalia** · Archduchess Maria Antonia*** · Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria*** 13th generationArchduchess Ludovika Elisabeth · Marie Louise, Empress of the French · Archduchess Carolina Ferdinande** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Caroline Ludovika · Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil · Clementina, Princess of Salerno · Archduchess Maria Luisa** · Archduchess Alexandrine · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia** · Marie Caroline, Crown Princess of Saxony · Archduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Amalia Theresa · Maria Theresa, Queen of the Two Sicilies · Maria Theresa, Countess of Chambord*** · Archduchess Hermine · Archduchess Franziska · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia · Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón*** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska · Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians 14th generationArchduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria** · Archduchess Maria Maximiliana** · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani** · Archduchess Maria Theresia** · Archduchess Maria Cristina** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg · Archduchess Mathilda · Maria Christina, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Eleonora · Archduchess Elisabeth · Maria Dorothea, Duchess of Orléans · Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis · Archduchess Elisabeth Henriette · Archduchess Klotilde · Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria*** 15th generationArchduchess Sophie · Gisela, Princess Leopold of Bavaria · Archduchess Marie Valerie · Margarete Sophie, Duchess of Württemberg · Archduchess Maria Annunziata · Elisabeth, Princess Aloys of Liechtenstein · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony** · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein** · Archduchess Margareta** · Archduchess Germana** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Maria Theresa** · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha** · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Maria Immaculata, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Henriette** · Maria Christina, Princess Emmanuel of Salm-Salm · Maria Anna, Princess Elias of Bourbon Parma · Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Archduchess Natalie · Archduchess Stephanie · Archduchess Gabrielle · Isabella, Princess Georg of Bavaria · Alice, Baroness Waldbott of Bassenheim · Archduchess Eleonora, Mrs. Alfons von Kloss · Renata, Princess Hieronymus Radziwill · Mechthildis, Princess Olgierd Czartoryski · Archduchess Gisele · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Magdalena 16th generationElisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz · Helena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg** · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Dolores** · Maria Inmaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri** · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio** · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez** · Archduchess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger** · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil** · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg** · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Margarethe, Mrs. Alexander Cech · Ilona, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Archduchess Anna Theresia · Archduchess Maria Kynga, Mrs. Joachim Krist 17th generationArchduchess Adelheid · Charlotte, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Elisabeth, Princess Heinrich of Liechtenstein · Elisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun** · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno** · Marie Antoinette, Baroness of Proff in Irnich** · Archduchess Marie Christine** · Archduchess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso** · Archduchess Verena** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber** · Agnes, Baroness Peter of Fürstenberg** · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski** · Alexandra, Baroness Viktor of Baillou** · Maria Magdalena, Baroness of Holzhausen** · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer** · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein** · Archduchess Maria Margaretha** · Archduchess Ludovica** · Archduchess Allix** · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg** · Valerie, Margravine of Baden** · Alberta, Baroness Alexander of Kottwitz-Erdödy** · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria** · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech** · Archduchess Monika, Mrs. Charles de Rambures · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Raymond van der Meide · Archduchess Maria, Mrs. Wilhelm de Witt · Margherita, Countess Benedikt of Piatti 18th generationAndrea, Hereditary Countess of Neipperg · Monika, Duchess of Maqueda · Michaela, Countess Hubertus of Kageneck · Archduchess Gabriela, Mrs. Christian Meister · Walburga, Countess Archibald Douglas · Maria Beatrix, Countess Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg*** · Isabella, Countess Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi*** · Maria del Pilar, Edle Vollrad-Joachim von Poschinger · Kinga, Baroness Wolfgang of Erffa · Archduchess Marie Adelheid, Mrs. Jaime Corcuerra · Archduchess Viridis, Mrs. Karl Dunning-Gribble · Archduchess Alexandra, Mrs. Héctor Riesle · Maria Constanza, Princess of Auersperg-Trautson · Maria Anna, Princess Peter Galitzine · Catharina, Countess Maximiliano Secco d'Aragona · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. James Litchfield · Sophie, Princess of Windisch-Grätz · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Clemens Guggenberg · Archduchess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks** · Archduchess Alicia** · Archduchess Maria Christina** · Archduchess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner** · Archduchess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner** · Archduchess Hedwig** · Archduchess Veronika** · Archduchess Johanna · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Celina · Archduchess Maria Floriana · Archduchess Sofía · Archduchess Anna Carolina · Archduchess Theresa · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Ladislaya 19th generationArchduchess Eleonore · Archduchess Gloria · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Hilda · Archduchess Maria Laura*** · Archduchess Luisa Maria*** · Archduchess Laetitia Maria*** · Archduchess Sophia · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Margherite · Archduchess Priscilla · Archduchess Marie des Neiges · Marie Christine, Countess Rodolphe of Limburg-Stirum · Archduchess Gabriella · Archduchess Antonia · Archduchess Isabelle · Archduchess Carlotta · Archduchess Paulina · Archduchess Lara · Archduchess Katharina · Archduchess Tatyana** · Archduchess Anabella** · Archduchess Tara** · Archduchess Amaya 20th generationArchduchess Zita · Archduchess Anežka*also an infanta of Spain
**also a princess of Tuscany
***also a princess of Modena
Bavarian princesses by marriage 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generation 6th generationCountess Elisabeth Douglas · Katrin Beatrix Wiegand** · Countess Beatrice of Lodron-Laterano and Castelromano · Countess Gudilia of Plettenberg · Ursula Möhlenkamp** · Marion Malkowsky** · Sandra Burghardt** 7th generationPrincess Anna of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg*also a Princess of Bavaria by birth
*did not have a royal or noble title by birth
Queens of Bavaria
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