Palmistry

Palmistry
The Fortune Teller, by Caravaggio (1594–95; Canvas; Louvre), depicting a palm reading

Palmistry or chiromancy (also spelled cheiromancy, Greek kheir (χεῖρ, ός), “hand”; manteia (μαντεία, ας), “divination”), is the art of characterization and foretelling the future through the study of the palm, also known as palm reading, or chirology. The practice is found all over the world, with numerous cultural variations. Those who practice chiromancy are generally called palmists, palm readers, hand readers, hand analysts, or chirologists.

The information outlined below is briefly representative of modern palmistry; there are many ― often conflicting ― interpretations of various lines and palmar features across various schools of palmistry.

Contents

History

Palmistry or hast rekha can trace its roots back to Greece from Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) discovered a treatise on the subject of palmistry on an alter of Hermes,[1] which he then presented to Alexander the Great (356–323 B.C.E.), who took great interest in examining the character of his officers by analyzing the lines on their hands. Aristotle stated that "Lines are not written into the human hand without reason. They emanate from heavenly influences and man's own individuality". Accordingly, Aristotle, Hippocrates and Alexander the Great popularized the laws and practice of palmistry. Hippocrates sought to use palmistry to aid his clinical procedures.

The knowledge of palmistry has been used in the cultures of India, Tibet, China, Persia, Egypt and to some countries in Europe. Studies show that most ancient communities like the Sumerians, Tibetans, Hebrews, Babylonians, Egyptians and Persians were greatly interested in the study and practice of palmistry.

Some claim that Palmistry initiated in India in (Hindu) Astrology (known in Sanskrit as Jyotish), Chinese Yijing (I Ching), and Roma (Gypsy) fortune tellers.[2] The Hindu sage Valmiki is thought to have written a book, whose title translates in English as "The Teachings of Valmiki Maharshi on Male Palmistry", comprising 567 stanzas. From India, the art of palmistry spread to China, Tibet, Egypt, Persia and to other countries in Europe [2][3] From China, palmistry progressed to Greece where all india Anaxagoras practiced it.[2] However, modern palmists often combine traditional predictive techniques with psychology, holistic healing, as well as alternative methods of divination.

  • Captain Casimir Stanislas D'Arpentigny published La Chirognomie in 1839.[3]
  • Adrien Adolphe Desbarolles published Les Mysteres de la Main in 1859
  • Katherine Saint-Hill founded the Chirological Society of Great Britain in 1889
  • Edgar de Valcourt-Vermont (Comte de St Germain) founded the American Chirological Society in 1897
  • Count Louis Hamon (Cheiro) published Cheiro's Language of the Hand in 1894.[3]
  • William Benham published The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading in 1900
  • Charlotte Wolff published works from 1936–1969, contributed to scientific chirology
  • Noel Jaquin published works from 1925–1958, contributed to scientific chirology
  • Arnold Holtzman (Psychodiagnostic Chirology)
  • Edward Heron-Allen published various works including in 1883 Palmistry - A Manual of Cheirosophy which is still in print.[3][4]

Techniques

Chiromancy consists of the practice of evaluating a person's character or future life by "reading" the palm of that person's hand. Various "lines" ("heart line", "life line", etc.) and "mounts" (or bumps) (chirognomy), purportedly suggest interpretations by their relative sizes, qualities, and intersections. In some traditions, readers also examine characteristics of the fingers, fingernails, fingerprints and palmar skin patterns (dermatoglyphics), skin texture and color, shape of the palm, and flexibility of the hand.

A reader usually begins by reading the person's 'dominant hand' (the hand he or she writes with or uses the most)(sometimes considered to represent the conscious mind, whereas the other hand is subconscious). In some traditions of palmistry, the other hand is believed to carry hereditary or family traits, or, depending on the palmist's cosmological beliefs, to convey information about past-life or karmic conditions.

The basic framework for "Classical" palmistry (the most widely taught and practiced tradition) is rooted in Greek mythology. Each area of the palm and fingers is related to a god or goddess, and the features of that area indicate the nature of the corresponding aspect of the subject. For example, the ring finger is associated with the Greek god Apollo; characteristics of the ring finger are tied to the subject's dealings with art, music, aesthetics, fame, wealth, and harmony.

Significance of the Left and Right Hand

Though there are debates on which hand is better to read from, both have their own significance. It is custom to assume that the left hands shows potential in an individual, and the right showed realized personality. Some sayings about the significance include "The future is shown in the right, the past in the left"; "The left hand is the one we are born with, and the right is what we have made of it"; "The right hand is read for men, while the left is read for women"; “The left is what the gods give you, the right is what you do with it." The choice of hand to read is ultimately up to the instinct and experience of the practitioner.

  • Left The left hand is controlled by the right brain (pattern recognition, relationship understanding), reflects the inner person, the natural self, the anima, and the lateral thinking. It could even be considered to be a part of a person's spiritual and personal development. It is the "yin" of personality (feminine and receptive).
  • Right As opposites are, the right hand is controlled by the left brain (logic, reason, and language), reflects the outer person, objective self, influence of social environment, education, and experience. It represents linear thinking. It also corresponds to the "yang" aspect of personality (masculine and outgoing).

Hand shape

Depending on the type of palmistry practiced, and the type of reading being performed, palmists may look at various qualities of the hand, including the shapes and lines of the palm and fingers; the color and texture of the skin and fingernails; the relative sizes of the palm and fingers; the prominence of the knuckles; and numerous other attributes of the hands.

In most schools of palmistry, hand shapes are divided into four or 10 major types, sometimes corresponding to the Classical elements or temperaments. Hand shape is believed to indicate character traits corresponding to the type indicated (i.e., a "Fire hand" would exhibit high energy, creativity, short temper, ambition, etc. - all qualities believed to be related to the Classical element of Fire).

Although variations abound, the most common classifications used by modern palmists:

  • Earth hands are generally identified by broad, square palms and fingers, thick or coarse skin, and ruddy color. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Air hands exhibit square or rectangular palms with long fingers and sometimes protruding knuckles, low-set thumbs, and often dry skin. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Water hands are seeable by the short, sometimes oval-shaped palm, with long, flexible, conical fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually less than the width across the widest part of the palm, and usually equal to the length of the fingers.
  • Fire hands are characterized by a square or rectangular palm, flushed or pink skin, and shorter fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually greater than the length of the fingers.

The number and quality of lines can also be included in the hand shape analysis; in some traditions of palmistry, Earth and Water hands tend to have fewer, deeper lines, while Air and Fire hands are more likely to show more lines with less clear definition.

The lines

Some of the lines of the hand in Palmistry
1: Life line - 2: Head line - 3: Heart line - 4: Girdle of Venus - 5: Sun line - 6: Mercury line - 7: Fate line

The three lines found on almost all hands, and generally given most weight by palmists:

  • The heart line is the first of the major lines examined by a reader. It is found towards the top of the palm, under the fingers. In some traditions, the line is read as starting from the edge of the palm under the little finger and flowing across the palm towards the thumb; in others, it is seen as starting under the fingers and flowing toward the outside edge of the palm. Palmists interpret this line to represent matters of the heart, that is, more literally, our emotional living; it is therefore believed to be an insight into how the emotional sides of our mindframes will act out and be acted upon during our lifetimes, and often said, to what extent we possess emotional reservoirs within us, for example, a chained or gridded heart line( or emotional line) is often seen in people who are highly strung, nervous and draw upon emotional strength and insight to attain their ambitions,ie they wear their 'emotions' on their sleeves,often to draw strength. Such chaining or gridding on the heart line (emotional line) is often seen in intensely creative artists such as musicians and writers, as well as deeply driven scientists. Dealing with emotions, the line is also claimed to indicate romantic perspectives and intimate relationships, again, a chained or gridded heart line is said to point to a flirtatious attitude to love, and one which can be prone to fall in love easily. On a physical level, the heart line is indirectly associated with heart health, moreso through the affects that emotions can have on the body such as with blood pressure. A chained heart line is often associated with high blood pressure, but also of an 'adrenaline junkie' attitude in life.
  • The next line identified by palmists is the head line. This line starts at the edge of the palm under the index finger and flows across the palm towards the outside edge. Often, the head line is joined with the life line (see below) at inception. Palmists generally interpret this line to represent the person's mind and the way it works, including learning style, communication style, intellectualism, and thirst for knowledge. It is also believed to indicate a preference for creative or analytical approaches to information (i.e., right brain or left brain).
  • Finally, readers look at perhaps the most controversial line on the hand, the life line. This line extends from the edge of the palm above the thumb and travels in an arc towards the wrist. This line is believed to represent the person's vitality and vigor, physical health and general well being. The life line is also believed to reflect major life changes, including cataclysmic events, physical injuries, and relocations. Contrary to popular belief, modern palmists generally do not believe that the length of a person's life line is tied to the length of a person's life.
  • The combined length of these three main lines (heart, head, life) can also be used. If this combined length is longer than a persons foot they may be over bearing. However, if it is shorter they may give in too easily to other people. A similar length suggests a well balanced individual.[5]

The lines on your hand are arab numbers. The right hand has a perfect number 18 while the left hand has a perfect number 81. These two numbers added together give 99, the number of named attributes belonging to Allah[citation needed]. When 18 is subtracted from 81 this equals 63, which is the age the Islamic prophet Muhammad died[citation needed]. Additional major lines or variations include:

  • A simian crease, or fusing of the heart and head lines, has special significance in that both emotional as well as reasoning nature have to be studied from this line alone. The peculiar line is thought to be a combination of the head and heart lines on such hands that are separately marked on the rest of the hands.

According to Cheiro, this line is thought to endow a person with an intensity of purpose or single-mindedness, the nature of which is decided upon by exact position of this line on the hand and the direction of any branches shooting from it, which is normally the case. In hands where such a line exists without any branches as a singular mark, it indicates an extremely intense nature and special care is needed for such persons. The normal position for the line is starting below the index finger and ending where normally the heart line terminates at the edge of the hand below the little finger, indicating average interests for the person and the intense side of the nature is decided purely by the direction of any branches shooting from it. The upper half of the palm lying immediately below the fingers is considered to represent the higher or intellectual nature and the lower half of the palm to represent the materialistic side of the nature. If one of these halves is larger than the other as decided by the central placement of the head line or in this case the single transverse palmar crease it shows greater development of that aspect of the nature. Based on this general principle, if this line is placed below its normal position it indicates an intensely intellectual nature; if it is placed above its normal position it indicates an intensely materialistic nature and interests. The direction in which any branches may be found shooting from this line have a significant impact on the nature of this line resulting in suitable modifications from the above defined results depending on the nature of the mounts on the hand. For instance, if a branch from this line shoots to the mount of Moon lying on the lower edge of the hand exactly opposite the thumb, it indicates an intensely vacillating nature and emotional temperament.

  • The fate line runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the center of the palm towards the middle finger. This line is believed to be tied to the person's life path, including school and career choices, successes and obstacles. Sometimes this line is thought to reflect circumstances beyond the individual's control, or alternately the person's choices and their consequences.
The mounts in Palmistry
Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo, Mercury, Mars positive, Mars negative, plain of mars, Luna mount, Neptune mount, Venus mount.[6]

Other minor lines:

  • Sun Line - parallel to the Fate Line, under the ring finger; believed to indicate fame or scandal
  • Girdle of Venus - starts between the little and ring fingers, runs in a rough arc under the ring and middle fingers to end between the middle and pointer fingers; thought to relate to emotional intelligence and the ability to manipulate
  • Union Lines - short horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the palm between the Heart Line and the bottom of the little finger; believed to indicate close relationships, sometimes - but not always - romantic.
  • Mercury Line - runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the palm towards the little finger; purported to be an indicator of persistent health issues, business acumen, or skill in communication.
  • Travel Lines - these are horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the palm between the wrist and the heart line; each line is said to represent a trip taken by the subject - the longer the line, the more important the trip is to the subject.
  • Other Markings - these include stars, crosses, triangles, squares, tridents, and rings under each of the fingers; their supposed impact and meaning varies by location on the palm and freedom from other interfering lines.
  • "Apollo Line" - the Apollo line means to have a fortunate life; it travels from the Mount of the Moon at the wrist to beneath the Apollo finger.
  • "Ominous Line" - crosses life line and forms 'x' shape; very bad sign to find; palm readers will often not mention this line because of the worry it causes to the person being read. Common indicators of ominous line include 'M' being formed by other lines.

The mounts

In order to be able to interpret the lines—and their effects on our relationships—it is essential to have an understanding of the underlying mounts.

The hand is divided into seven segments called mounts. Each mount relates to a corresponding planet with a specific portfolio. The mounts of the hand provide a tangible record of how we deal with each of these planetary influences, and what our challenges are.

The mounts also represent the colors in the spectrum of the rainbow. The more each mount begins to reflect the characteristics of its own specific light frequency, the more representative it becomes of the superconscious soul or light within.

The mounts are Luna, Venus, Mars (formed by its negative and positive poles), Jupiter, Saturn, Sun, Mercury and Rahu and Ketu.

Following is a brief description of the mounts and the specific characteristics that they reflect.

  • The mount of Luna (or Moon - represents the first stage of our evolutionary process. Luna stands for the original plan of creation, as in the Bible quotation, “in the beginning was the Word...” As such, it relates to the collective unconscious as well as to each person’s individual receptivity to tune into that creative source. Luna pertains to the qualities of perception, creativity, imagination and sensory awareness.
  • Venus - next in the sequence of mounts, represents the actual physical manifestation of the “concept” which was initiated in Luna. (“... and the Word was made flesh....”*). Venus represents the actual cellular makeup—or energy—that manifests itself in physical form. It shows the condition of the body and how at home we feel in our physical form. The mount of Venus reflects the presence or absence of qualities such as harmony, kindness, grace, charm and love. It reflects our degree of physical and sexual health, sensuality and beauty.
  • Mars negative - is the next focus of attention for the unfolding human soul. Symbolically, it relates to the mobilization of the spark of incarnate energy originally conceived and then brought into being through Luna and then Venus. Mars negative stands for our energy, which, when not properly harnessed and channeled, can lead to exhaustion, or possibly to anger and aggression.
  • Jupiter - represents the awakening of the conscious mind. In India, it is referred to as the guru or dispeller of darkness. It speaks of our sense of purpose—what role we want to play in life. Jupiter stands for ambition, confidence, leadership and justice.
  • Saturn - indicates the necessity to search within. It represents the alchemist who is able to synthesize the experiences of Jupiter in order to extract a deeper meaning of life. Saturn stands for wisdom, co-ordination and discernment.
  • The Sun - in our hand indicates our desire to share all that has been learned from the profound nature of Saturn. It is referred to as atma and represents our soul. The Sun shows that aspect within us which can transcend any limitations. Success, charisma and integrity are all characteristic of the Sun.
  • Mercury - In India, stands for the Buddha and reflects an “enlightened” consciousness. It relates to our involvement in the world, and also our ability to be detached from the fruits of our actions. Mercury denotes intuition, spontaneity and the ability to communicate effortlessly.
  • Mars - Next lies the mount of Mars positive (which, with Mars negative—located on the opposite side of the palm—forms the Mars galaxy). Whereas Mars negative relates to our physical energy, Mars positive deals with our mental strength. Positive characteristics include endurance, persistence, and a calm mental state.
  • Rahu and Ketu - are inextricably intertwined. Ketu represents the kinds of circumstances we attracted in the past and our attitudes towards them, whereas Rahu relates to our immediate environment. A famous Sanskrit verse tells us that “our present is the result of all our yesterdays, and the future depends on how well we live today.” This sums up the relationship between Rahu and Ketu.

Ketu is our karmic account book, whose balance sheet portrays the entire record of our thoughts, attitudes, and behavior of the past. Rahu reflects the kind of environment we are likely to attract in the present, and how receptive we are to either making the most of it, or limiting its potentials by resisting opportunities that come our way.

From a metaphysical viewpoint, as the mounts begin to express the ideal characteristics for which they stand—for example, the objective perception of Luna, the unconditional love of Venus, the calmly active energy of Mars—they consequently begin to radiate at their specific light frequencies in the color spectrum. The result is pure radiant light.

Science and criticism

The study of digit ratio, the relative length of one finger to another finger on the same hand of the same individual, has produced some interesting scientific papers concerning the role of androgens during fetal development. These studies, the earliest of which were published during the 1880s, established by measuring the 2D:4D ratio between the index finger and ring finger, it could be shown that a greater proportion of men have shorter index fingers than ring fingers than do women.[7][8] with the statistically significant sex difference in a sample of 201 men and 109 women established by 1930,[9] In recent years, the 2D:4D digit ratio has also been used to predict success in social and economic terms. For instance, a study by a group of Cambridge University scientists led by Dr John Coates, himself a former Wall Street broker, compared the profits made by traders over a period of 20 months with their finger-length. They found that the ring finger length (the leading marker in contemporary studies of digit ratio) was correlated to city stockbrokers' success.[10] Digit ratios have also been linked to other conditions, such as prenatal androgen exposure, sexual dimorphism, homosexuality, depression, reproductive success, and musical aptitude[11].

A considerable amount of research into palm crease and fingerprint whorl variations has been undertaken in mainstream scientific journals, generally with respect to the usefulness of these phenotypic markers in diagnosing genetic medical disorders. Aberrent digit length, which can include having one or more unusually short fingers (brachydactyly) or severely incurved fingers (clinodactyly). has also been scientifically correlated with numerous genetic chromosomal disorders and congenital syndromes. Such research has uncovered strong correlations between the single palmar crease, aberrant fingerprints, and/or aberent finger length and chromosomal disorders such as cri du chat syndrome (chromosome 5), aberrations on chromosome 9[12], Noonan syndrome (chromosome 12), Patau syndrome (chromosome 13), Edward's syndrome (chromosome 18), Down syndrome (chromosome 21), and Aarskog-Scott syndrome (X-linked recessive).

The use of palmar creases for medical diagnosis was the subject of a number of papers published in the 1970s and '80s, with researchers noting some correlation between variation in palmar creases and various pathologies, including: trisomy 21,[13] intrauterine methadone exposure,[14] leprosy,[15] and intrauterine insult leading to mental retardation.[16] However, these studies have been criticized for lacking in objectivity due to lack of strict definitions of what constitutes a crease and its variants, as well as lacking systematicity due to small sample sizes.[17] Additionally, a recent study assessing pediatricians' ability to diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome by way of physical features alone indicates only moderate-to-fair rates of correct assessment by abnormal palm creases, with pediatricians tending to overestimate incidence of the pathology.[18] Palmistry for medical diagnosis is thus suggested to be most useful when combined with other metrics for identification.

Unusual dermatoglyphic or fingerprint patterns have also been shown act as markers to a variety of genetic disorders.[19][20] One study of fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities showed that the development of dermatoglyphic patterns was delayed by more than two weeks in utero.[21]

Despite evidence that supports specific connections between the lines of the palm and chromosomal disorders, between abnormal fingerprint patterns and chromosomal disorders, and between fetal androgen mediated digit ratios and adult behaviours, there has been little widely accepted scientific research verifying palmistry's accuracy as a system of character analysis and no conclusive data have yet been found to support the claims made by hand readers with respect to life expectancy. Some skeptics include palmists on lists of alleged psychics who practice a technique called cold reading in order to appear psychic.[22]

Palmistry in Movies and Television

Palmistry has been shown in a number of films and television shows, including:

  • Amaya (2011)- Through the use of Himalad (Palmistry) the priestess found out that Amaya is the chosen one - the girl with a twin snake who will kill the ferocious Rajah.
  • Eat Pray Love (2010) - Julia Roberts's character goes in for a palmistry reading which transforms her life
  • The Simian Line (2001) - Readings by a quirky psychic set in motion the main plot of the film
  • Before Sunrise (1995) - Julie Delpy's character has her palm read, while Ethan Hawke's character is sidelined, leading to a cynical rant from his character
  • Jacob's Ladder (1990) - Tim Robbins' character has his palm read at a party, which acts as an ominous portent
  • Teen Witch (1989) - While Robyn Lively's character has her palm read, the fortune teller recognizes her as reincarnated witch who will soon be coming into her powers
  • The Simpsons - Palmistry is lampooned in Episode 67, New Kid on the Block.
  • Fun and Fancy Free (1947) - In Mickey and the Beanstalk, Mickey reads the giant's palm

Palmistry Online

As the technology moves Palmistry also has been modernized on the way it works. Online Palmistry readings are offered by various websites. Normally the way that these websites work is that you send photos of your hands and they do the reading remotely.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.paralumun.com/palmistry.htm
  2. ^ a b c Omura.Acupuncture. pp.172 -174. According to this theory, palmistry developed in India and then extended across the world.
  3. ^ a b c d Chinn. Technology. p.24...it was not until the mid- to late nineteenth century that palmreading took off in Britain, France and the United States thanks to three major figures: Casimir Stanislas d'Arpentigny, Edward Heron-Allen and ..Cheiro.
  4. ^ Heron-Allen. Palmistry
  5. ^ www.handanalysis.com/
  6. ^ Sara Sirolli - Palmistry diagram of hand 2008
  7. ^ Ecker A (1875). "Einige Bemerkungen über einen Schwankenden Charakter in den Hand des Menschen[Some remarks about a varying character in the hand of humans]". Archiv fur Anthropologie 8: 68–74. 
  8. ^ Baker F (1888). "Anthropological notes on the human hand". The American Anthropologist 1: 51–75. doi:10.1525/aa.1888.1.1.02a00040. 
  9. ^ George R (1930). "Human finger types". Anatomical Record 46 (2): 199–204. doi:10.1002/ar.1090460210. 
  10. ^ Coates, J. M.; Gurnell, M., Rustichini, A. (7 January 2009). "Second-to-fourth digit ratio predicts success among high-frequency financial traders". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (2): 623–628. doi:10.1073/pnas.0810907106. PMC 2626753. PMID 19139402. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2626753. 
  11. ^ [1].
  12. ^ [2]
  13. ^ Dar H, Schmidt R. (1976). "Topographic approach for analysis of palm crease variants". Journal of medical genetics 13 (4): 310–313. PMID 957380. 
  14. ^ Dar H, Schmidt R, Nitowsky HM. (1977). "Palmar crease variants and their clinical significance: a study of newborns at risk". Pediatric Research 11 (2): 103–108. PMID 138837. 
  15. ^ Eswaraiah G, Bali RS. (1978). "Palmar flexion creases and dermatoglyphics in leprosy patients". International journal of leprosy and other mycobacterial diseases 46 (1). PMID 565756. 
  16. ^ Dar H, Jaffe M. (1983). "Dermatoglyphic and palmar-crease alterations as indicators of early intra-uterine insult in mental retardation". Developmental medicine and child neurology 25 (1): 53–59. PMID 6832498. 
  17. ^ Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun, Jung, Wonsug, Chung, Min Suk (1 January 2010). "Improved analysis of palm creases". Anatomy & Cell Biology 43 (2): 169. doi:10.5115/acb.2010.43.2.169. 
  18. ^ Jones, K. L.; Robinson, L. K., Bakhireva, L. N., Marintcheva, G., Storojev, V., Strahova, A., Sergeevskaya, S., Budantseva, S., Mattson, S. N., Riley, E. P., Chambers, C. D. (1 December 2006). "Accuracy of the Diagnosis of Physical Features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome by Pediatricians After Specialized Training". PEDIATRICS 118 (6): e1734–e1738. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1037. 
  19. ^ Shiono H (1986). "Dermatoglyphics in medicine". Am J Forensic Med Pathol 7 (2): 120–6. doi:10.1097/00000433-198607020-00008. PMID 2943156. 
  20. ^ Katznelson M, Goldman B (1982). "Fetal dermatoglyphics". Clin Genet 21 (4): 237–42. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.1982.tb00757.x. PMID 6213324. 
  21. ^ Suzumori K (1980). "Dermatoglyphic analysis of fetuses with chromosomal abnormalities". Am J Hum Genet 32 (6): 859–68. PMC 1686142. PMID 6449865. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1686142. 
  22. ^ David Vernon in Skeptical — a Handbook of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal, editors: Donald Laycock, David Vernon, Colin Groves, Simon Brown, Imagecraft, Canberra, 1989, ISBN 0-7316-5794-2, p. 44.

References

  • http://www.palmreadingworld.com
  • Heron-Allen, Edward (reprinted 2008). Palmistry - A Manual of Cheirosophy. Baltzell Press. ISBN 144376535X. 
  • Chinn, Sarah E. (2000). Technology and the logic of American racism. Continuum. ISBN 0826447503. 
  • Yoshiaki Omura (2003). Acupuncture Medicine:Its Historical and Clinical Background. Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 0486428508. 
  • Cheiro. Palmistry for All at Project Gutenberg
  • Doublepalm+ project The Doublepalm+ project is a non-profit site about making palm reading with people on the web more like palm reading in the real world.

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  • Palmistry — Pal mis*try, n. [See {Palmister}.] 1. The art or practice of divining or telling fortunes, or of judging of character, by the lines and marks in the palm of the hand; chiromancy. Ascham. Cowper. [1913 Webster] 2. A dexterous use or trick of the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • palmistry — (n.) divination from the palm of the hand, early 15c., from palme (see PALM (Cf. palm) (n.1)) + obscure second element, perhaps estre (as in M.E. webbestre weaver ) or rie (as in M.E. archerie archery ) …   Etymology dictionary

  • palmistry — ► NOUN ▪ the supposed interpretation of a person s character or prediction of their future by examining the hand. DERIVATIVES palmist noun …   English terms dictionary

  • palmistry — [päm′is trē] n. [altered (by assoc. with PALM2) < ME paumestrie, prob. contr. < paume,PALM2 + maistrie,MASTERY] the supposed telling of a person s character or fortune by interpreting the lines and marks on that person s palm palmist n …   English World dictionary

  • palmistry — palmist, n. /pah meuh stree/, n. the art or practice of telling fortunes and interpreting character from the lines and configurations of the palm of a person s hand. [1375 1425; late ME pawmestry, equiv. to pawm PALM1 + estry (orig. obscure; cf.… …   Universalium

  • palmistry — [[t]pɑ͟ːmɪstri[/t]] N UNCOUNT Palmistry is the practice and art of trying to find out what people are like and what will happen in their future life by examining the lines on the palms of their hands …   English dictionary

  • palmistry — noun Etymology: Middle English pawmestry, probably from paume palm + maistrie mastery Date: 15th century the art or practice of reading a person s character or future from the lines on the palms …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • palmistry — noun Telling fortunes from the lines on the palms of the hand; chiromancy Syn: chiromancy, palm reading See Also: palmist, palmister …   Wiktionary

  • PALMISTRY —    the art of reading character from the lines and marks on the palm of the hand, according to which some pretend to read fortunes as well …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • palmistry — (Roget s IV) n. Syn. chiRomancy, fortunetelling, prediction, prophecy; see divination , forecast …   English dictionary for students

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