Warhammer 40,000

Warhammer 40,000
Warhammer 40,000
Current Warhammer 40,000 logo
Manufacturer(s) Games Workshop
Designer(s) Rick Priestley, Andy Chambers et al.[1]
Illustrator(s) John Blanche, Jes Goodwin et al.
Publisher(s) Games Workshop
Years active 1987 to present
Players 2+
Age range 11+
Playing time Varies
Random chance Dice rolling
Skill(s) required Tactical, arithmetic
Website http://www.games-workshop.com/

Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K or simply 40K) is a tabletop miniature wargame produced by Games Workshop, set in a dystopian science fantasy universe. Warhammer 40,000 was created by Rick Priestley and Andy Chambers in 1987 as the futuristic companion to Warhammer Fantasy Battle, sharing many game mechanics. Expansions for Warhammer 40,000 are released from time to time which give rules for urban, planetary siege and large-scale combat. The game is currently in its fifth edition, which was published in 2008.

Players can assemble and paint individual 28 mm (1.1 in) scale miniature figures that represent futuristic soldiers, creatures and vehicles of war. These figurines are collected to compose squads in armies that can be pitted against those of other players. Each player brings a roughly equal complement of units to a tabletop battlefield with handmade or purchased terrain. The players then decide upon a scenario, ranging from simple skirmishes to complex battles involving defended objectives and reinforcements. The models are physically moved around the table and the actual distance between models plays a role in the outcome of combat. Play is turn based, with various outcomes determined by tables and the roll of dice. Battles may last anywhere from a half hour to several days, and battles may be strung together to form campaigns. Many game and hobby stores host games, and official tournaments are held on a regular basis.

Warhammer 40,000's space fantasy setting spans a vast fictional universe set 38 millennia into the future. Its various factions and races include the Imperium of Man, a decentralized yet totalitarian interstellar empire that has ruled the vast majority of humanity for millennia, the Orks (similar to Warhammer Fantasy Orcs), and the Eldar (similar to Elves in Warhammer Fantasy Battle), and Daemons (very similar in both universes, although the precise natures of their creation and existence vary slightly), among others. The background and playing rules of each faction are covered in the game's rule books and supplemental army 'codexes', along with articles in the Games Workshop magazines, White Dwarf and Imperial Armour. The game's miniatures are produced by Citadel Miniatures and Forge World.

The Warhammer 40,000 setting is used for several tabletop games, video games, and works of fiction, including licensed works published by Black Library, a subsidiary of Games Workshop.



The Warhammer 40,000 game takes place in a dystopic, science-fantasy universe.[2] Set in the 41st millennium AD, most of the major storylines that provide the backdrop and history span over millennia.

"...the grim nightmare of the far future, where there is only war and the galaxy's alight and everyone's got a headache..." - Dan Abnett in Eisenhorn[3]

In the WH40K setting, mankind is largely united in the Imperium of Man, which has expanded throughout the Milky Way galaxy.[4] The Imperium interacts with various sentient extraterrestrial races including the Tau, a young and technologically sophisticated civilization of aliens that work for the "greater good" of their empire and its inhabitants; the Necrons, soulless, living-metal constructs tricked into slavery by star-devouring creatures called the C'tan; the Eldar, an ancient and arrogant race whose psykers can predict the future, and their tainted and forsaken brethren, the Dark Eldar, who must consume the souls of others to prevent themselves from dying; the Tyranids, an all-consuming, all-organic, bio-engineered, extragalactic swarm; and the Orks, whose boisterous personality, tactics and biology make them the comic relief of the series.[5] Each race has playable figurines. Other playable armies include the Witch Hunters, Daemonhunters, Sisters of Battle and the Imperial Guard, organizations within the Imperium; the Kroot, first introduced as a member of the Tau Empire; and the Daemons of Chaos.[6] Central to the WH40K setting is the existence of a parallel dimension called "the Warp" or "the Immaterium," which is utilized for interstellar travel. The Warp is a realm without conventional laws of nature that evolves in response to psychic activity in real space, and is inhabited by the four gods of Chaos—Khorne, Tzeentch, Nurgle and Slaanesh—embodiments of vice who attempt to corrupt members of all races to serve their ends. Psykers, humans capable of mentally interacting with the Warp and capable of 'magic' make up the bulk of the Imperium's information infrastructure, handling interstellar navigation and communication, but are always at risk of being perverted by the Warp or being possessed by daemons. The Warp and real space connect in some locations, notably the "Eye of Terror". From here Abaddon the Despoiler, Warmaster of the servants of Chaos, launches "Black Crusades" to conquer the galaxy in service of the Chaos gods.

While the bulk of humanity's military power is found in the Imperial Guard, the Space Marines (Adeptus Astartes)–giant, 8 foot tall, genetically enhanced super-soldiers with world-destroying firepower and unswerving, fanatical loyalty to the Emperor of Mankind–are the most famous.[7] The Emperor created the Space Marines, and their leaders the Primarchs, for use in "The Great Crusade," a two-century effort to re-unite the far-flung colonies of humanity following a "dark age" known as the "Age of Strife". Unfortunately, some of the Primarchs and their legions gave their devotion to the Ruinous Powers, becoming the Chaos Space Marines and bringing war to Holy Terra during a conflict known as the Horus Heresy, after the Primarch who led the attack. This war left the Emperor crippled and dying, and he has since been entombed in the Golden Throne, a comprehensive life-support apparatus that sustains the remaining living cells of his body as he uses his vast psychic powers to combat the gods of Chaos and help smooth interstellar travel.

In former years, Games Workshop released "global campaigns," a political and military scenario detailing a wide-spanning military action. Players who subscribed to the campaign were allowed to send in the results of any matches played in its service, and the results would be tabulated and then translated into story progression. This allowed players to directly impact the franchise's story: for instance, the 13th Black Crusade formed the backdrop to 2003's "Eye of Terror campaign." Players with Chaos-affiliated armies excelled, and Abaddon's forces gained a foothold on the strategically important world of Cadia (the planet nearest to the Eye of Terror, and thus a natural bottleneck and battleground). This was followed up by 2006's The Fall of Medusa V, in which all eight major powers converged on the titular world with their own agendas and goals. Games Workshop announced that it would be the last global campaign for the foreseeable future.


Games are held between two or more players,[8] each of whom fields a group of units they have purchased, assembled and painted. Painting is not always necessary in a friendly game, but it does add to the quality. The size and composition of these groups, referred to as armies, are determined on a point system, with each unit (figurine) assigned a value in points roughly proportional to its worth on the battlefield (a better unit or model is worth more points). Before a game, the gamers agree on how many points will be used as the maximum army size and each assembles an army up to that maximum limit. The composition of these armies is usually constrained by rules contained within the Warhammer 40,000 rulebook, as well as in several army-specific rulebooks called 'codexes'. These rules and preparations are generally taken seriously among players.[9] Common game sizes are between 500 and 2,000 points and played on tables four feet in width and four to eight feet in length, but it is possible to play much larger games.

At the onset of each game, a set of rules and goals is determined for that battle. These are collectively referred to as the scenario or mission being played. Players are assigned basic goals which range from the defense or capture of sections of the board to the destruction of enemy units. Additional rules may represent conditions for fighting at night or in environments that affect troops' abilities. These scenarios may be straightforward, taking only an hour or so to complete, or they may be quite complex and require several hours or even days to complete.[10] A series of scenarios may be organized into a campaign, where two or more players fight against each other in a number of battles. These campaigns may feature their own special rules, and are typically tied together by a storyline that can evolve based on the results of each scenario.[11] Many scenarios and campaigns are designed by Games Workshop and printed in the 'codexes', rulebooks or White Dwarf. Alternatively, gamers may design their own scenarios or build new campaigns from premade scenarios.[12]

A Forge World Tyranid Trygon resin kit (unpainted)

Play is divided into "phases" where each player moves, shoots, and/or engages in close combat with various units. In the Movement phase, a player determines the direction and distance individual units will travel, unless a special rule states otherwise. Some units can travel further than others in a single move, and terrain may inhibit movement. In the Shooting phase, the player has the opportunity to make long-distance attacks with units that are within range of the enemy. In the Assault phase, units may engage in close-quarters fighting with nearby enemy units. After one player completes all three phases play is turned over to the opposing player. Contingent events such as weapon hits and misses are determined by the roll of a six sided die (note that the rulebooks use the word "dice" to refer to a single die) and unit characteristics.[13] A specialty die called a scatter die is used to determine deviation for less accurate events such as artillery barrages or reserve units deploying onto the battlefield through irregular means.[14] Unlike some wargames, Warhammer 40,000 is not played on a hex map or any kind of pre-defined gameboard. Instead, units can be placed from 12 inches from the edge to the edge of the table. Range between and among units is important in all three phases of play. Distance is measured in inches using a ruler. Determination of line of sight, is made at "model's eye view"—gamers may bend down to observe the board from the specific model's point of view.[15] Victory is determined by points, awarded for completing objectives and/or destroying enemy units.

Battle between Chaos Daemons and Tau with dice and terrain elements visible. Most miniatures here are unpainted.

Benjamin Fox, in "The Performance of War Games", argues that player interaction on the battlefield reflects all portions of a "performance": script, drama and theater. He compares war games like Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40,000 to role playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons and notes the dynamic nature of battles, where each conflict is different from the last.[16]

Terrain is also an important part of play. Although Games Workshop sells terrain kits, many hobbyists prefer to make their own elaborate and unique set pieces.[17] Common household items like soft drink cans, coffee cups, styrofoam packing material, and pill bottles can be transformed into ruined cathedrals, alien habitats, or other terrain with the addition of plastic cards, putty, and a bit of patience and skill.[18]

There is also the possibility to play Warhammer 40k by Internet through the Java-based VASSAL Engine for which a Warhammer 40k Module has been released. This is a simulation of the board game and can only be played against other players. After the release of the 5.2 version of the module Games Workshop demanded that the lead developer cease development of the module.[19] The module is still played by several hundred players and a new team announced further updates.


Rogue Trader (1987)

Rogue Trader - the first edition of Warhammer 40,000

The first edition of the game, Warhammer 40,000: Rogue Trader, was published in 1987.[20] Game designer Rick Priestley created the original rules set (based on the contemporary second edition of Warhammer Fantasy Battle) alongside the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld. The game play of Rogue Trader was heavily oriented toward role playing rather than strict wargaming. This original version came as a very detailed, though rather jumbled, rulebook, which made it most suitable for fighting small skirmishes.[21] Much of the composition of the units was determined randomly, by rolling dice. A few elements of the setting (bolters, lasguns, frag grenades, Terminator armour) can be seen in a set of earlier wargaming rules called Laserburn (produced by the now defunct company, Tabletop Games) written by Bryan Ansell. These rules were later expanded by both Ansell and Richard Halliwell (both of whom ended up working for Games Workshop), although the rules were not a precursor to Rogue Trader.[22]

In addition, supplemental material was continually published in White Dwarf magazine, which provided rules for new units and models. Eventually, White Dwarf provided proper "army lists" that could be used to create larger and more coherent forces than were possible in the main rulebook. These articles were from time to time released in expansion books along with new rules, background materials and illustrations.[citation needed]

Second Edition (1993)

The second edition of "Warhammer 40,000" was published in late 1993 and responded to the desire by Games Workshop to appeal to a younger fanbase[citation needed]. This new course for the game was forged under the direction of editor Andy Chambers. The second edition came in a boxed set that included Space Marine and Ork miniatures, scenery, dice, and the main rules. An expansion box set titled Dark Millennium was later released, which included rules for psychic powers. Another trait of the game was the attention given to "special characters" who had access to equipment and abilities beyond those of others (the earlier edition only had three generic 'heroic' profiles for each army: champion, minor and major hero).

Third Edition (1998)

The third edition of the game was released in 1998 and, like the second edition, concentrated on streamlining the rules for larger battles.[1] Third edition rules were notably simpler and were less prone to give characters abilities only on the roll of a die.[23] The rulebook was available alone, or as a boxed set with miniatures of Space Marines and the newly introduced Dark Eldar. The system of army 'codexes' continued in third edition, enjoying some popularity.

Towards the end of the third edition, four new army codexes were introduced: the xeno (that is, alien) races of the Necron and the Tau and two armies of the Inquisition: the Ordo Malleus (called Daemonhunters), and the Ordo Hereticus (called Witchhunters); elements of the latter two armies had appeared before in supplementary material (such as Realm of Chaos and Codex: Sisters of Battle). At the end of the third edition, these Inquisition armies were re-released with all-new artwork and army lists. The release of the Tau coincided with a rise in popularity for the game in the United States.[24]

Fourth Edition (2004)

The fourth edition of Warhammer 40,000 was released in 2004.[25] This edition did not feature as many major changes as prior editions, and was "backwards compatible" with each army's third edition codex. The fourth edition was released in three forms: the first was a standalone hardcover version, with additional information on painting, scenery building, and background information about the Warhammer 40,000 universe. The second was a boxed set, called Battle For Macragge, which included a compact softcover version of the rules, scenery, dice, templates, and Space Marines and Tyranid miniatures. The third was a limited collector's edition. Battle for Macragge was a 'game in a box', targeted primarily at beginners. Battle for Macragge was based on the Tyranid invasion of the Ultramarines' homeworld, Macragge. An expansion to this was released called The Battle Rages On!, which featured new scenarios and units, like the Tyranid Warrior.

Fifth Edition (2008)

The fifth edition of Warhammer 40,000 was released on July 12, 2008. While there are some differences between the fourth and fifth editions, the general rule set shares numerous similarities. Codex books designed prior to the fifth edition are still compatible with only some changes to how those armies function.[26] The replacement for the previous edition's Battle for Macragge starter set is called Assault on Black Reach, which features a pocket-sized rulebook (containing the full ruleset but omitting the background and hobby sections of the full-sized rulebook), and starter Ork and Space Marine armies. Each army contains a HQ choice, either an Ork Warboss or a Space Marine Captain.

New additions to the rules include the ability for infantry models to "Go to Ground" when under fire, providing additional protection at the cost of mobility and shooting as they dive for cover. Actual line of sight is needed to fire at enemy models. Also introduced is the ability to run, whereby units may forgo shooting to cover more ground. In addition, cover has been changed so that it is now easier for a unit to get a cover save. Damage to vehicles has been simplified and significantly reduced, and tanks may now ram other vehicles.[26] Some of these rules are modeled after rules that existed in the Second Edition, but were removed in the Third. Likewise, 5th edition codexes have seen a return of many units previously cut out in the previous edition for having unwieldy rules. These units have largely been brought back with most of their old rules streamlined for the new edition. Fifth edition releases focused largely on Space Marine forces, including the abolishment of the Daemonhunters in favour of an army composed almost exclusively of Grey Knights, a special chapter of Space Marines, which, in previous editions, had provided the elite choices of the Daemonhunter's army list. Another major change was the abolition of metal soldiers and the introduction of Resin kits.

Supplements and expansions

There are many variations to the rules and army lists that are available for use, typically with an opponent's consent.[27] These rules are found in the Games Workshop publication White Dwarf, on the Games Workshop website, or in the Forge World Imperial Armour publications.

The rules of Warhammer 40,000 are designed for games between 500 and 2500 points, with the limits of a compositional framework called the Force Organisation Chart making games with larger point values difficult to play. In response to player comments, the Apocalypse rules expansion was introduced to allow 3000+ point games to be played. Players might field an entire 1000-man Chapter of Space Marines rather than the smaller detachment of around 30-40 typically employed in a standard game. Apocalypse also contains rules for using larger war machines such as Titans.[28]

Cities of Death (the revamp of Codex Battlezone: Cityfight) introduces rules for urban warfare and guerilla warfare, and so-called "stratagems", including traps and fortifications. It also has sections on modeling city terrain and provides examples of armies and army lists modeled around the theme of urban combat.[29]

Planetstrike, released 2009. Sets rules allowing players to represent the early stages of a planetary invasion. New game dynamics, such as dividing the players into an attacker and a defender, each having various tactical benefits tailored to their role; for example, the attacker may deep strike all infantry, jump infantry and monstrous creatures onto the battlefield, while the defender may set up all the terrain on the battlefield.

Planetary Empires, released August 2009, allows players to coordinate full-scale campaigns containing multiple battles, each using standard rules or approved supplements such as Planetstrike, Cities of Death or Apocalypse. Progress through the campaign is tracked using hexagonal tiles to represent the current control of territories within the campaign. The structure is similar to Warhammer Fantasy's Mighty Empires.

Battle Missions, released March 2010, this expansion contains a series of 'missions' with specific objectives, each 'race' has 3 specific missions which can be played, these missions are determined by a dice roll and are usually chosen from the 2 armies being used. They still use the standard rules from the Warhammer 40,000 rule book.

Spearhead, released May/June 2010, allows players to play games with a greater emphasis on armored and mechanized forces. The most notable change to the game is the inclusion of special "Spearhead Formations;" and greater flexibility in force organization. "Spearhead Formations" represent a new and altogether optional addition to the force organization system standard to 40K. Players now have the ability to use all, part or none of the standard force organization. Spearhead also includes new deployment options and game scenarios. This expansion is being released jointly through the Games Workshop website, as a free download, and through the company's monthly hobby magazine White Dwarf.


On December 13, 2010,[30] Ultramarines: A Warhammer 40,000 Movie was released directly to DVD. The movie is a CGI sci-fi thriller based around the Ultramarines Chapter of Space Marines. The screenplay for the movie was written by Dan Abnett, one of the best-selling Games Workshop Black Library authors, who also writes for 2000AD, Marvel Comics and DC Comics. The movie was produced by Codex Pictures, a UK-based company, under license from Games Workshop. The movie was made using advanced animated facial capture technology from Image Metrics. This technology was also used in GTA4, Assassin's Creed II, NBA 2K10, and other video games and movies.

Spin-offs and related fiction

Games Workshop has expanded the Warhammer 40,000 universe over the years to include several spinoff games and fictional works. This expansion began in 1987, when Games Workshop asked Scott Rohan to write the first series of "literary tie-ins". This eventually led to the creation of Black Library, the publishing arm of Games Workshop, in 1997. The books published relate centrally to the backstory in the Warhammer universe. Black Library also publishes Warhammer 40,000 graphic novels.[31]

Several popular miniature game spin-offs were also created, including Space Hulk, Battlefleet Gothic, Epic 40,000, Inquisitor, Gorkamorka and Necromunda. A collectible card game, Dark Millennium, was launched in October 2005 by Games Workshop subsidiary, Sabertooth Games. The story behind the card game begins at the end of the Horus Heresy arc in the game storyline and contains four factions: the Imperium, Orks, Eldar and Chaos.[32]

During the 1990s, Games Workshop partnered with Strategic Simulations (SSI) to produce squad-based tactical games such as Warhammer 40,000: Chaos Gate as well as turn-based operational simulations like Warhammer 40,000: Rites of War. Warhammer 40,000: Space Crusade, one of the earliest video games of the series was praised for being "a faithful conversion of the boardgame, with a board that could be viewed in 2D or isometric projection views (Barker, 1992)."[33][34]

Games Workshop licensed Warhammer 40,000 to THQ in 2001 and produced a first-person shooter titled Fire Warrior.[35] The game received generally mediocre reviews, including a 6.0 out of 10.0 from IGN.[36] The later releases from THQ were real-time strategy games: Dawn of War, Dawn of War: Winter Assault, Dawn of War: Dark Crusade, and Dawn of War: Soulstorm. Developed by RTS veterans Relic Entertainment who had previously created the award-winning Homeworld and Impossible Creatures, these were considerably more popular and well received, with Dawn of War netting a 4.5 out of 5 from GameSpy.[37] (who is the host for online part of the game). The sequel to Dawn of War, Dawn of War II was released in February 2009, and its first expansion Chaos Rising in March 2010 and second expansion Retribution in March 2011.[38]

Another game entitled Warhammer 40,000: Space Marine, developed by Relic Entertainment, was announced on May 28, 2009. It is a 3rd Person Action/Shooter for the PS3, Xbox 360 and PC, and was released on September 6, 2011.[39]

Although there were plans to create a full-fledged Warhammer 40,000 "pen and paper" role-playing game from the beginning,[40] these did not come to fruition for many years, and a group of Italian fans started to create an "unofficial" adaptation of the "Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay" rules[41] to play in the Warhammer 40,000 universe.

An official Warhammer 40,000 role-playing game was published only in 2008, with the release of Dark Heresy by Black Industries, a GW subsidiary.

Presently Games Workshop licenses a number of Warhammer 40K themed products to Fantasy Flight Games. Fantasy Flight specializes in board, card and role-play games. Included in the licensed product are:

  • Horus Heresy a board game focusing on the final battle of the Horus Heresy the battle for the Emperor's Palace; this game is a re-imagining of a game by the same name created by Jervis Johnson in the 1990s.
  • "Death Angel - The Space Hulk Card Game" - a game with a merge of board and card game mechanics, based on the popular "Space Hulk" board game, featuring Space Marines against Genestealers.
  • Dark Heresy (2008)
  • Rogue Trader (2009)
  • Deathwatch (2010)
  • Black Crusade (2011)


  1. ^ a b Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998). Warhammer 40,000 (3rd ed.). Nottingham: Games Workshop. ISBN 1-84154-000-5. 
  2. ^ Stableford, Brian M. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Science Fiction Literature. Scarecrow Press. pp. 130. ISBN 9780810849389. 
  3. ^ Abnett, Dan (2004). Eisenhorn. Black Library. ISBN 9781844161560. 
  4. ^ Band, Carol (December 7, 2000). "Weekend Wizards and Table-top Warriors". The Boston Globe: pp. Calendar, 12. 
  5. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 117-118
  6. ^ "The Armies of Warhammer 40,000". www.games-workshop.com. Games Workshop. http://www.games-workshop.com/gws/content/article.jsp?categoryId=cat210004&pIndex=4&aId=9300005&start=5#. Retrieved 2008-10-14. 
  7. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 95-115
  8. ^ Crockett, Stephen A. (July 1, 2002). "In the Games Workshop, a Chance to Exercise Your Demons". The Washington Post: pp. C01. 
  9. ^ Cova, Bernard; Pace, Stefano; Park, David J. (2007). "Global brand communities across borders: the Warhammer case". International Marketing Review (Emerald Group Publishing Limited) 24 (3): 321. doi:10.1108/02651330710755311. ISSN 0265-1335. 
  10. ^ Brodwater, Taryn (September 8, 2001). "War and pieces: Good battles evil in Warhammer 40K, a fantasy game played by true believers". The Spokesman-Review (Cowles Publishing Company): pp. H8. 
  11. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 131, 157-158
  12. ^ Snyder, Tom (January 9, 1997). "Battle on the board: Futuristic fantasy board game is all the rage at Anaheim Hills store". The Orange County Register (Freedom Communications): pp. Anaheim Hills News, p. 1. 
  13. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 41
  14. ^ Alswang, Joel (2003). The South African Dictionary of Sport. New Africa Books. pp. 285–287. ISBN 9780864865359. 
  15. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 42-45
  16. ^ Fox, Benjamin N. (2001). "The Performance of War Games". In Mikotowicz, Tom; Lancaster, Kurt. Performing the Force: Essays on Immersion Into Science-Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Environments. McFarland. pp. 73–76. ISBN 9780786408955. 
  17. ^ McGuire, Patrick (March 24, 1993). "In the grip of Warhammer Help your elf to popular fantasy game". The Sun: pp. 1C. 
  18. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 28-29
  19. ^ GW V40k Legal Action
  20. ^ Priestley, Rick (1987 [1992]). Rogue Trader. Eastwood: Games Workshop. ISBN 1-872372-27-9. 
  21. ^ "The High Lords Speak". White Dwarf (UK edition) (Games Workshop) (343): 35–36. June 2008. 
  22. ^ White Dwarf (June, 2008) pp. 34-35
  23. ^ Driver, Jason. "Warhammer 40K 3rd edition". RPGnet. Skotos Tech. http://www.rpg.net/news+reviews/reviews/rev_1577.html. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  24. ^ Guthrie, Jonathon (July 31, 2002). "Games Workshop runs rings around its rivals". Financial Times: pp. 20. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=143827561&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=11148&RQT=309&VName=PQD. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  25. ^ Chambers, Andy; Priestley, Rick, and Haines, Pete (2004). Warhammer 40,000 (4th ed.). Nottingham: Games Workshop. ISBN 1-84154-468-X. 
  26. ^ a b in the Pipeline. White Dwarf (UK) [editor Mark Latham]. July 2008. 
  27. ^ Priestley, Rick; et al. (1998) pp. 270-272
  28. ^ White Dwarf Online #72. 2007-08-03. 
  29. ^ Hoare, Andy. Cities of Death. Nottingham: Games Workshop. ISBN 1-84154-749-2. 
  30. ^ Ultramarines:A Warhammer 40,000 Movie
  31. ^ Baxter, Stephen (2006). "Freedom in an Owned World:Warhammer Fiction and the Interzone Generation". Vector: the Critical Journal of the British Science Fiction Association (The British Science Fiction Association) 229. http://www.vectormagazine.co.uk/article.asp?articleID=42. 
  32. ^ Kaufeld, John; Smith, Jeremy (2006). Trading Card Games For Dummies. For Dummies. pp. 186. ISBN 9780471754169. 
  33. ^ Eley, Peter (February 18, 1999). "Complex war game develops cult following". The New Zealand Herald. 
  34. ^ "THE GAME ZONE: 'Rites of War' falls short despite good pedigree". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution: pp. 5. September 19, 1999. 
  35. ^ Fox, Fennic. "THQ Shows Off Warhammer FPS". GamePro. http://www.gamepro.com/article/news/27300/thq-shows-off-warhammer-fps/. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  36. ^ Lewis, Ed (February 13, 2004). "Warhammer 40,000: Fire Warrior Review". IGN. http://pc.ign.com/articles/492/492408p2.html. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  37. ^ "GameSpy: Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War Review". Gamespy. http://uk.pc.gamespy.com/pc/warhammer-40000-dawn-of-war/548862p1.html. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  38. ^ Caron, Frank (February 19, 2009). "Dawn of War II riles RTS genre with frantic combat". Ars Technica. http://arstechnica.com/gaming/reviews/2009/02/review-dawn-of-war-ii-riles-rts-genre-with-frantic-combat.ars. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  39. ^ "Space Marine Game Review". 40kforums. http://www.40kforums.com/vb/content.php/275-Space-Marine-Game-Review. Retrieved 2011-08-23. 
  40. ^ Edwards, Darren (1988). "Interview with Rick Priestley". Making Movies (3): 17. 
  41. ^ Warhammer 40,000 "Unofficial" RPG page

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