Oligohydramnios Classification and external resources ICD-10 O41.0 ICD-9 658.0 DiseasesDB 9202 eMedicine radio/898 MeSH D016104
Diagnosis is made by ultrasound measurement of the amniotic fluid index (AFI) <5cm. Several different methods exist for calculating AFI, that produce different index numbers below which oligohydramnios is said to be present.
It is typically caused by fetal urinary tract abnormalities such as bilateral renal agenesis ( Potter's syndrome ), fetal polycystic kidneys, or genitourinary obstruction. Uteroplacental insufficiency is another common cause. Most of these abnormalities can also be detected by obstetric ultrasound. It may also occur simply due to dehydration of the mother, maternal use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or without a determinable cause (idiopathic).
Complications may include cord compression, musculoskeletal abnormalities such as facial distortion and clubfoot, pulmonary hypoplasia and intrauterine growth restriction. Amnion nodosum is frequently also present (nodules on the fetal surface of the amnion).
A Cochrane Review concluded that simple maternal hydration appears to increase amniotic fluid volume and may be beneficial in the management of oligohydramnios and prevention of oligohydramnios during labour or prior to external cephalic version.
In severe cases oligohydramnios may be treated with amnioinfusion during labor to prevent cord compression.
- ^ Adeniran AJ, Stanek J, (2007). "Amnion nodosum revisited: clinicopathologic and placental correlations". Arch Pathol Lab Med 131 (12): 1829–33. doi:10.1043/1543-2165(2007)131[1829:ANRCAP]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18081444.
- ^ Johnson JM, Chauhan SP, Ennen CS, Niederhauser A, Magann EF (2007). "A comparison of 3 criteria of oligohydramnios in identifying peripartum complications: a secondary analysis". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 197 (2): 207.e1–7; discussion 207.e7–8. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2007.04.048. PMID 17689653.
- ^ Elsandabesee D, Majumdar S, Sinha S (2007). "Obstetricians' attitudes towards 'isolated' oligohydramnios at term". Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 27 (6): 574–6. doi:10.1080/01443610701469669. PMID 17896253.
- ^ Hofmeyr GJ, Gülmezoglu AM (2000). Novikova, Natalia. ed. "Maternal hydration for increasing amniotic fluid volume in oligohydramnios and normal amniotic fluid volume". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) (2): CD000134. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000134. PMID 10796151.
Pathology of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O, 630–679) PregnancyPregnancy with
abortive outcomeOedema, proteinuria and
hypertensive disordersOther, predominantly
related to pregnancyGestational thrombocytopenia · Pregnancy-induced hypercoagulabilityamniotic fluid (Polyhydramnios, Oligohydramnios) · chorion/amnion (Chorioamnionitis, Chorionic hematoma, Premature rupture of membranes, Amniotic band syndrome, Monoamniotic twins) · placenta (Placenta praevia, Placental abruption, Monochorionic twins, Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, Circumvallate placenta) · Braxton Hicks contractions · Hemorrhage (Antepartum)
Labor Puerperal Other
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