- Skene's gland
Skene's gland Skene's Gland opening is pictured. Latin glandulae vestibulares minores Gray's subject #252 1213 Precursor Urogenital sinus Dorlands/Elsevier Paraurethral glands
In human anatomy (female), the Skene's glands (also known as the lesser vestibular glands, periurethral glands, skene glands, paraurethral glands, female prostate) are glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina, around the lower end of the urethra. They drain into the urethra and near the urethral opening and may be near or a part of the G-Spot. These glands are surrounded with tissue, which includes the part of the clitoris that reaches up inside the vagina and swells with blood during sexual arousal.
Homology and possible functions
The location of the Skene's gland is the general area of the vulva, glands located on the anterior wall of the vagina around the lower end of the urethra. It has been postulated that the Skene's glands are the source of female ejaculation. In 2002, Emanuele Jannini of L'Aquila University in Italy showed that there may be an explanation both for the phenomenon and for the frequent denials of its existence. Skene's glands have highly variable anatomy, and in some extreme cases they appear to be absent entirely. If Skene's glands are the cause of female ejaculation and G-Spot-orgasms, this may explain the absence in many women.
It has been demonstrated that a large amount of lubricating fluid (filtered blood plasma[specify]) can be secreted from this gland when stimulated from inside the vagina. Some reports indicate that embarrassment regarding female ejaculation, and the mistaken notion that the substance is urine, can lead to purposeful suppression of sexual climax, leading women to seek medical advice and even undergo surgery to "stop the urine".
The Skene's glands are homologous with the prostate gland in males. The fluid that emerges during sex, female ejaculation, has a composition somewhat similar to the fluid generated in males by the prostate gland, containing biochemical markers of sexual function like human urinary protein 1 and the enzyme PDE5 where women without the gland had lower concentrations. When examined with electron microscopy, both glands show similar secretory structures, and both act similarly in terms of prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase studies. Because they are increasingly perceived as merely different versions of the same gland, some researchers are moving away from the name Skene's gland and are referring to it instead as the female prostate.
Disorders of or related to the Skene's gland include:
- Bartholin's gland
- List of homologues of the human reproductive system
- Pudendal nerve
- Vaginal orgasm
- Wolffian duct
- Vaginal lubrication
- ^ "paraurethral glands" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- ^ Rabinerson D, Horowitz E (February 2007). "[G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?]" (in Hebrew). Harefuah 146 (2): 145–7, 163. PMID 17352286.
- ^ Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A (2002). "Sexological approach to ejaculatory dysfunction". Int J Androl 25 (6): 317–23. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2605.2002.00371.x. PMID 12406363.
- ^ Jannini E, Simonelli C, Lenzi A (2002). "Disorders of ejaculation". J Endocrinol Invest 25 (11): 1006–19. PMID 12553564.
- ^ Heath D (1984). "An investigation into the origins of a copious vaginal discharge during intercourse: "Enough to wet the bed" - that "is not urine"". J Sex Res. 20 (2): 194–215. doi:10.1080/00224498409551217.
- ^ Chalker, Rebecca (2002). The Clitoral Truth: The secret world at your fingertips. New York: Seven Stories. ISBN 1583224734. http://books.google.com/?id=m3m3_Uq8qWkC&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94.
- ^ Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J (2000). "Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland)". Anat Embryol (Berl) 201 (1): 51–61. PMID 10603093.
- ^ Kratochvíl S (1994). "Orgasmic expulsions in women". Cesk Psychiatr 90 (2): 71–7. PMID 8004685.
- ^ Wimpissinger, F.; Stifter, K.; Grin, W.; Stackl, W. (2007). "The Female Prostate Revisited: Perineal Ultrasound and Biochemical Studies of Female Ejaculate". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 4 (5): 1388-93. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00542.x. PMID 17634056.
- ^ Zaviacic, M; L Danihel, M Ruzicková, J Blazeková, Y Itoh, R Okutani, T Kawai. (March 1997). "Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate". Histochem J. 29 (3): 219–27. doi:10.1023/A:1026401909678. PMID 9472384.
- ^ Nicola Jones (3 July 2002). "Bigger is better when it comes to the G-Spot". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn2495.
- ^ Zaviacic, Z; V Jakubovská, M Belosovic, J Breza. (January 2000). "Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland)". Anat Embryol (Berl). 201 (1): 51–61. PMID 10603093. http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00429/bibs/0201001/02010051.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- ^ Zaviacic, Z; M Ruzicková, J Jakubovský, L Danihel, P Babál, J Blazeková. (November 1994). "The significance of prostate markers in the orthology of the female prostate". Bratisl Lek Listy. 95 (11): 491–7. PMID 7533639.
- ^ Wernert, N; M Albrech, I Sesterhenn, R Goebbels, H Bonkhoff, G Seitz, R Inniger, K Remberger. (1992). "The 'female prostate': location, morphology, immunohistochemical characteristics and significance". Eur Urol. 22 (1): 64–9. PMID 1385145.
- ^ Tepper, SL; J Jagirdar, D Heath, SA Geller. (May 1984). "Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration". Arch Pathol Lab Med. 108 (5): 423–5. PMID 6546868.
- ^ Pollen, JJ; A. Dreilinger (March 1984). "Immunohistochemical identification of prostatic acid phosphatase and prostate specific antigen in female periurethral glands". Urology. 23 (3): 303–4. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(84)90053-0. PMID 6199882.
- ^ Zaviacic, Z; RJ Ablin. (January 2000). "The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term "prostate" in the human female". Histol Histopathol. 15 (1): 131–42. PMID 10668204.
- ^ Skene's glands at Who Named It?
- ^ Skene A (1880). "The anatomy and pathology of two important glands of the female urethra". Am J Obs Dis Women Child 13: 265–70.
- ^ Miranda EP, Almeida DC, Parente JM, Ribeiro GP, Scafuri AG (2008). "Surgical Treatment for Recurrent Refractory Skenitis". TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 8: 658–660. doi:10.1100/tsw.2008.92. PMID 18661053. http://www.thescientificworld.co.uk/TSW/toc/TSWJ_ArticleLanding.asp?ArticleId=2965.
- ^ Gittes, RF Nakamura RM (may 1996). "Female urethral syndrome. A female prostatitis?". Western Journal of Medicine 164 (5): 435–438. PMC 1303542. PMID 8686301. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1303542.
- ^ S. Gene McNeeley, MD (December 2008). "Skene's duct cyst". Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. Merck. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/print/sec18/ch249/ch249h.html. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- The paraurethral glands in scientific literature
- BBC 2002
- Jones N (3 July 2002). "Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99992495.
- Geddes L (20 February 2008). "Ultrasound nails location of the elusive G spot". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19726444.100-ultrasound-nails-location-of-the-elusive-g-spot.html.
- Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, et al. (March 2008). "Measurement of the thickness of the urethrovaginal space in women with or without vaginal orgasm". J Sex Med 5 (3): 610–8. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x. PMID 18221286.
- LA Times 2008
- Sexuality.org G-spot (information page)
- Glossario di Sessuologia clinica - Glossary of clinical sexology (It - En)
Female reproductive system (TA A09.1–2, TH H3.07.01, GA 11.1254) InternalAdnexaOtherProper of ovary · Suspensory of ovaryGeneral External
Mons pubis · Labia majora (Anterior commissure, Posterior commissure) · Pudendal cleft · Labia minora (Frenulum of labia minora, Frenulum of clitoris) · Vulval vestibule · Interlabial sulci · Bulb of vestibule · Vaginal orificevestibular glands/ducts (Bartholin's glands/Bartholin's ducts, Skene's glands/Skene's ducts)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.