- History of slavery
The history of slavery uncovers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures throughout history.
Slavery, generally defined, refers to the "systematic exploitation of labor traced back to the earliest records, such as the Code of Hammurabi(ca. 1760 BC), which refers to it as an established institution. [cite web|url=http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.HTM |title= Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi|quote=e.g. Prologue, "the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves". Code of Laws #7, "If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man".]
The ancient Mediterranean civilizations
Slavery in ancient cultures was known to occur in civilizations as old as
Sumer, and it was found in every civilization, including Ancient Egypt, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient Greece, Ancient Persia, [ [http://www.mariner.org/captivepassage/introduction/int001.html Introduction of Slavery] ] Rome and parts of its empire, and the Islamic Caliphate. Such institutions were a mixture of debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves. [Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves, by W. V. Harris: The Journal of Roman Studies, 1999] In the Roman Empire, probably over 25% of the population was enslaved. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/slavery_01.shtml BBC - History - Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome] ] Scholars believe that 30 to 40% of the total population of Italywas enslaved. [ [http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Rciv/slavery.htm Roman Slavery] ]
slavery in Ancient Greecego as long back as Mycenaean Greece. It is often said that the Greeks as well as philosophers such as Aristotleaccepted the theory of natural slavery i.e. that some men are slaves by nature. [ Ben Kiernan "Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur", Yale University Press, 2007, ISBN 0300100981, 9780300100983, Pages 65-68] [ Léonie J. Archer (1988). "Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour: And Other Forms of Unfree Labour." History Workshop Centre for Social History (Oxford, England), Published by Routledge,ISBN 0415002036, 9780415002035, Page 28] At the time Platoand Socratesthe slavery was so accepted by the Greeks including philosophers that few people indeed protested it as an institution [John M. Rist (1982) "Human Value: A Study in Ancient Philosophical Ethics." BRILL, ISBN 9004067574, 9789004067578, page 26] although voices of opposition were raised against it. During the 8th and the 7nth centuries BC, in the course of the two Messenian Warsthe Spartans reduced an entire population to a pseudo-slavery called "helotry". [ [http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/sparta/a/spartamilitstat.htm Sparta - A Military City-State] ] According to Herodotus(IX, 28–29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. In some Ancient Greekcity states about 30% of the population consisted of slaves, but paid and slave labor seem to have been equally important [ [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741501460_4/Ancient_Greece.html Ancient Greece] ] Romans inherited the institution of slavery from the Greeksand the Phoenician[ "Slavery" The Encyclopedia Americana, 1981, page 19] . As the Roman Republicexpanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply. The people subjected to Roman slavery came from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Such oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts(see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile Warled by Spartacuswas the most famous and severe. Greeks, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls(or Celts), Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labor, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). If a slave ran away, he was liable to be crucified. By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome. Slavery was so common, and citizenship restricted so firmly (only to native-born adult males), that the slaves in Rome far outnumbered the citizens. [ [http://www.dl.ket.org/latinlit/mores/slaves/ Slavery in Ancient Rome] ]
Due to Biblical descriptions, the definitions of slavery in Ancient Egypt are hotly debated. Archaeological discoveries by
Mark Lehnerand Zahi Hawasslead some to claim that the workers who built the pyramids were not enslaved. [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/explore/builders.html] As practiced in ancient Egypt, slavery was likely more akin to slavery in the medieval world rather than trans-Atlantic slavery: Persons generally became enslaved in ancient Egypt by virtue of being captives (or prisoners) of war, committing criminal or other indecent acts, or indebtedness. Slaves in ancient Egypt could be sold, inherited or offered as gifts, but they could sometimes achieve social rank and take other contracts. Hence under Greek, Roman and Ancient Egyptian slavery there was no segregation between slave and society, it was non-racial and slaves could be upwardly mobile.
mediansused slaves such as after crushing the Assyrianwith the help of the Babyloniansand sacked many of the assyrian cities and took the population as slaves.
The Vikings and Scandinavia
Vikingera starting c. 793, the Norse raiders often captured and enslaved weaker peoples they encountered. In the Nordic countriesthe slaves were called " thralls" ( Old Norse: "Þræll"). [ [http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/thralls.shtml Slavery and Thralldom: The Unfree in Viking Scandinavia] ] The thralls were mostly from Western Europe, among them many Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Celts. Many Irish slaves participated in the colonization of Iceland. [ [http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/voyage/subset/iceland/history.html Iceland History] ] There is evidence of German, Baltic, Slavic and south European slaves as well. The slave trade was one of the pillars of Norse commerce during the 6th through 11th centuries. [ [http://www.geocities.com/klevius/vikings.html?1147920871406 Origin of Vikings: Algeidjuborg trafficking of "valkyries" to Islam] ] The Persiantraveller Ibn Rustahdescribed how Swedish Vikings, the Varangiansor Rus, terrorized and enslaved the Slavs. The slave raids came to an end when Catholicism became widespread throughout Scandinavia. As in the rest of Catholic Europe, the Scandinavian representatives for the church held that a Christian could not morally own another Christian. However, the moral aspect was not considered binding by church representatives in regards to the enslavement of Africans. When slavery resurfaced in the post-Viking era in overseas colonies held by the Scandinavian countries, representatives of the church defended it, arguing, among other things, that Africans lacked "humanity" and therefore were better off as slaves, especially if they were converted. [One of the influential representatives of the church expressing this view was the Danish bishop Erik Pontoppidanin 1760, who wrote that, "... since even among the absolutely wildest and coarsest Negro slaves, who seem to have lost all humanity in their own land, there are to be found many examples of such honest and lasting conversion. [Once converted, the slaves] ... neither lie, steal, rebel, nor do anything evil, but become their master's most capable and best workers." (Quoted by Selena Axelrod Winsnes in [http://books.google.com/books?id=PQNOWiJL43oC&pg=PA38&dq=%2BDenmark-Norway+%2B%22slave+trade%22&lr=&sig=qlU9ezkpGJGWUtA4RrzcLvPeex8#PPA38,M1 Encounter Images in the Meetings Between Africa and Europe] , ed. Mai Palmberg, Nordic Africa Institute, 2001, ISBN 9171064788, p. 39.)] The thrall system was finally abolished in the mid-14th century in Scandinavia. Serfdomwas never instituted in Norway, Icelandand Sweden. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-535485/serfdom Serfdom -- Encyclopaedia Britannica] ] [http://www.uib.no/neolatin/HistNote.html A Historical Note] ] An ordinance of 20 June1788 abolished villenagein Denmarkand completely transformed the much-abused hoveri system. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9063349/Christian-Ditlev-Frederik-Count-Reventlow#164906.hook Christian Ditlev Frederik, Count Reventlow] ] Serfdom remained the practice in Swedish Pomeraniauntil July 4, 1806.
Although the thrall system had been abolished, slavery resurfaced again during the 17th century when
Denmark-Norwayand Swedenestablished trade posts in Africa, including the minor Swedish and Danish overseas coloniescalled Swedish Gold Coastand Danish Gold Coast. [Wohlgemuth, Lennart (2002). [http://books.google.com/books?id=a4uXkhuMgrMC&pg=PT28&dq=%2B%22swedish+colony%22+%22de+Geer%22+Ghana&sig=2h-WVhmO75UkbtNZsrJYMxaxhyU The Nordic Countries and Africa: Old and New Relations] . Nordic Africa Institute Scandinavia, ISBN 9171065059.] [ Rawley, James A. and Stephen D. Behrendt (2005). "The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History". U of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0803239610, p. 86.] In the late 18th century, Denmark-Norway set up slave colonies on the Caribbeanislands of Saint Croix, Saint Thomasand Saint John[ [http://www.unesco.no/fredensborg/monuments_and_site_in_st_croix/ Monuments and Sites on St. Croix] . The slave-route project, The Norwegian UNESCO Commission: "The Danish-Norwegian kingdom was not a great colonial power. Our only colonies were three islands in the West Indies".] and the Swedish King Gustav IIIestablished a Swedish slave tradecolony on the Caribbean island Saint Barthelemy. [McAlinden, Tom (2007). [http://networkeurope.radio.cz/feature/swedens-slave-trade Sweden’s slave trade] . Network Europe, 30 March 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2008.] In 1803, Denmark-Norway banned export trade in slaves,, [ [http://www.unesco.no/fredensborg/danish-norwegian_slave_trade/01.htm The 'slave route' project] , Danish-Norwegian Slave Trade, UNESCO. Retrieved 5 February 2008.] the first nation to do so, and in 1813 Sweden followed suit. [ [http://www.dur.ac.uk/4schools/Slavery2/Timeline.htm The Atlantic Slave Trade. A Timeline] . Durham University Library. Retrieved 5 February 2008.] Slavery in the colonies was finally abolished by Sweden (then in union with Norway) in 1847, [ [http://www.kolonin.com/html_sv/pkPage_hf.html Historiska Fakta] . The Colony Project, 4 August 2007. (In Swedish). Retrieved 1 February 2008.] and by Denmark in 1848. [http://www.unesco.no/fredensborg/danish-norwegian_slave_trade/ Danish-Norwegian Slave Trade] . The Norwegian UNESCO Commission. Retrieved 1 February 2008.]
Chaos and invasion made the taking of slaves habitual throughout Europe in the early
Middle Ages. St. Patrick, himself captured and sold as a slave, protested an attack that enslaved newly baptized Christians in his [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Saint_Patrick#Letter_to_the_Soldiers_of_Coroticus_.28c.450.3F.29 Letter to the Soldiers of Coroticus] . In Carolingian Europe approximately 20% of the entire population consisted of slaves. [ [http://www.africultures.com/anglais/Edito%20anglais/Edito6.htm The slave trade: myths and preconceptions] ] At that time, Europewas weak and disunited, and for more than half a century Magyar bands raided European lands as far away as Spain. The Magyars looted towns and took captives for labor, ransom, or sale on the slave market. [ [http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/EastEurope/Magyars.html Magyars] ] [ [http://www.geocities.com/egfrothos/magyars/magyars.html The Magyars of Hungary] ] Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it—or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at, for example, the Council of Koblenz in 1863, the Council of London (1102), and the Council of Armagh (1171). [ [http://scatoday.net/node/3565 Slavery, serfdom, and indenture through the Middle Ages] ] William the Conqueror, too, banned export of English slaves.
The early medieval slave sex trade was mainly to the East: the
Byzantine Empireand the Muslim worldwere the destinations, pagan Central and Eastern Europe, along with the Caucasusand Tartary, were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek and Jewish merchants (known as Radhanites) were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages. [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9378861 Slave trade -- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia] ] [ [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=849&letter=S JewishEncyclopedia.com - slave-trade] ] [ [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pagesSLSlavery.htm Slavery Encyclopedia of Ukraine] ]
Slavs(called Saqalibain the medieval Arab world) were enslaved for so many centuries that the very name 'slave' arguably derived from their name, not only in English, but in other European languages. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24159 Historical survey The international slave trade] ] [ [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/slaved definition of slaved] ] In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions and slave raids by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Pechenegsand the Kipchaks, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north.cite book|last=Klyuchevsky|first=Vasily|title=The course of the Russian history|location=v.1|url=http://www.kulichki.com/inkwell/text/special/history/kluch/kluch16.htm|isbn=5-244-00072-1] [ [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/C/U/Cumans.htm Cumans] ]
Mongol invasionsand conquests in the 13th centurymade the situation worse. [ [https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/RussianHeritage/4.PEAS/4.L/12.III.5.html The Destruction of Kiev] ] The Mongols enslaved skilled individuals, women and children and marched them to Karakorumor Sarai, whence they were sold throughout Eurasia. Many of these slaves were shipped to slave market in Novgorod. [ [http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/rubruck.html William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols] ] [ [http://www.geocities.com/medievalnovgorod/nov10.html Life in 13th Century Novgorod -- Women and Class Structure] ] [ [http://www.sras.org/news2.phtml?m=477 The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia] ]
Slave commerce during the
Late Middle Ageswas mainly in the hands of Venetian and Genoese merchants and cartels, who were involved in the slave trade with the Golden Horde. In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamyshsacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves. Between 1414 and 1423, some 10,000 eastern European slaves were sold in Venice. [ [http://www.roxie.org/books/shoulders/ch02-labor.html How To Reboot Reality — Chapter 2, Labor] ] Genoese merchants organized the slave trade from the Crimeato Mamluk Egypt. For years the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan routinely made raids on Russian principalities forslaves and to plunder towns. Russian chronicles record about 40 raids of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories in the first half of the 16th century. [The Full Collection of the Russian Annals, vol.13, SPb, 1904] In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves. [ [http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=The_Crimean_Khanate The Tatar Khanate of Crimea - All Empires] ]
Haci I Giraydeclared independence from the Golden Horde and established the Crimean Khanate. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empireand the Middle East. In a process called the "harvesting of the steppe", they enslaved many Slavic peasants. About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596. [ [http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/inalcik6.html Supply of Slaves] ] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin and taking thousands of captives as slaves. [ [http://www.economist.com/cities/printStory.cfm?obj_id=9141603&city_id=MCW Moscow - Historical background] ] In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves. [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24157 Historical survey > Slave societies] ]
Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant
warfarebetween Muslimsand Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalusto ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, Portugalin 1189, for example, the Almohadcaliph Yaqub al-Mansurtook 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves. [ [http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier] ]
Byzantine-Ottoman warsand the Ottoman wars in Europebrought large numbers of Christian slaves into the Islamic world too. [ [http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/10/ottoman_dhimmitude.html Ottoman Dhimmitude] ] After the battle of Lepanto approximately 12,000 Christian galleyslaves were freed from the Ottoman Turks. [ [http://www.trivia-library.com/b/famous-battles-in-history-the-turks-and-christians-at-lepanto.htm Famous Battles in History The Turks and Christians at Lepanto] ] Christians were also selling Muslim slaves captured in war. The Knights of Malta attacked pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading, selling captured North Africansand Turks. Maltaremained a slave market until well into the late 18th century. It required a thousand slaves to equip merely the galleys(ships) of the Order. [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1033829 A medical service for slaves in Malta during the rule of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem] ] [ [http://www.hmml.org/centers/malta/hospitallers/hospitallers.html Brief History of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem] ] Slavery in Polandwas forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second enserfment. Slavery remained a major institution in Russiauntil the 1723, when the Peter the Greatconverted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24160 Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery] ]
Portuguese and Spanish explorations
The 15th century Portuguese exploration of the
African coast is commonly regarded as the harbinger of European colonialism.In 1452, Pope Nicholas Vissued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugalthe right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery which legitimized slave trade under catholicbeliefs of that time. This approval of slavery was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifexbull of 1455. These papal bulls came to serve as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism. Although for a short period as in 1462, Pius II declared slavery to be "a great crime".cite encyclopedia | last = Allard | first = Paul | title = Slavery and Christianity | encyclopedia = Catholic Encyclopedia | volume = XIV | publisher = Robert Appleton Company | location = New York | year = 1912 | url = http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14036a.htm | accessdate = 2006-02-04 ] The followers of the church of England and Protestants did not use the papal bull as a justification. The position of the church was to condemn the slavery of Christians, but slavery was regarded as an old established and necessary institution which supplied Europe with the necessary workforce. In the 16th century African slaves had substituted almost all other ethnicities and religious enslaved groups in Europe. [ Klein, Herbert. "The Atlantic Slave Trade".] Within the Portuguese territory of Brazil, and even beyond its original borders, the enslavement of native Americans was carried out by the Bandeirantes.
Among many other European slave markets,
Genoa, Veniceand Verdun-sur-Meusewere some well known markets, their importance and demand growing after the great plague of the XIII century which decimated much of the European work force. [Bales, Kevin. "Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader" ] The maritime town of Lagos, Portugal, was the first slave market created in Portugal for the sale of imported African slaves - the "Mercado de Escravos", opened in 1444.Goodman, Joan E. (2001). [http://books.google.com/books?id=Ziv7J90u-mAC&pg=PT14&dq=Lagos,+Portugal+first+slave+market&sig=VEEkBG7i9zL9OzT36EtwdIl4ono A Long and Uncertain Journey: The 27,000 Mile Voyage of Vasco Da Gama] . Mikaya Press, ISBN 096504937X.] de Oliveira Marques, António Henrique R. (1972). "History of Portugal". Columbia University Press, ISBN 0231031599, p. 158-160, 362-370.] In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania. Prince Henry the Navigator, major sponsor of the Portuguese African expeditions, as of any other merchandise, taxed one fifth of the selling price of the slaves imported to Portugal. In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas - in the case of Portugal, especially Brazil. In the 15th century one third of the slaves were resold to the African market in exchange of gold. [ Klein, Herbert. "The Atlantic Slave Trade".]
Spain had to fight against relatively powerful civilizations of the
New World. However, the Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas was also facilitated by the spread of diseases (e.g. smallpox) due to lack of biological immunity. [ [http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.html David A. Koplow Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge] ] (like the Europeans that had lack of biological immunity to African diseases) Natives were used as forced labor (the Spanish employed the pre-Columbian draft system called the mita), [ [http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/29.htm U.S. Library of Congress] ] but the diseases caused a labor shortage and so the Spanish colonists were gradually involved in the Atlantic slave trade.
The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the
Spaniardswho laborers on islands such as Cubaand Hispaniola, where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513). The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501. [ [http://www.ukcouncilhumanrights.co.uk/webbook-chap1.html HEALTH IN SLAVERY] ]
Great Britain and Ireland
During and after Roman times, the practice of
slaverywas common in England. Anglo-Saxonscontinued and expanded their slave system, sometimes in league with Norse traders. Chattel slaveryof English Christians was discontinued when William of Normandyconquered England in 1066, but according to the Domesday Bookcensus in 1086, 10% of the country's population was enslaved. [ [http://www.domesdaybook.net/helpfiles/hs2970.htm Domesday Book Slave] ] The trade in serfs and slaves in England was abolished in 1102, although the legal force of the event is open to question. The Council of Westminster, a collection of nobles, issued a decree: "Let no one hereafter presume to engage in that nefarious trade in which hitherto in England men were usually sold like brute animals." However, the Council had no legislative powers, and no act of law was valid unless signed by the monarch.Fact|date=February 2008
The last form of enforced servitude in Britain (
villeinage) had disappeared by the beginning of the 17th century. Slavery resurfaced in that century as a form of punishment against Catholics. Following the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, as many as 100,000 men, women and children were enslaved and transported to the colonies in the British West Indiesand British America[ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/ashorthistory/archive/intro99.shtml The curse of Cromwell] , BBCSee also "To Hell Or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing Of Ireland", by Sean O'Callaghan.] [ [http://www.kavanaghfamily.com/articles/2003/20030618jfc.htm Irish slaves in the Caribbean] ] Over half of all white immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries consisted of indentured servants. [ [http://www.montgomerycollege.edu/Departments/hpolscrv/whiteser.html White Servitude] ] [ [http://www.geocities.com/nai_cilh/servitude.html Indentured Servitude in Colonial America] ]
Britain played a prominent role in the
Atlantic slave trade. The "slave triangle" was pioneered by Francis Drakeand his associates. Slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies, and the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution. [ [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/con_economic.cfm Was slavery the engine of economic growth?] ] In 1807, following many years of lobbying by the Abolitionist movement, the British Parliamentvoted to make the slave trade illegal anywhere in the empire. Thereafter Britain took a prominent role in combatting the trade, although it took another generation before slavery itself was abolished. Between 1808 and 1860, the West Africa Squadronseized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/articles/2007/03/20/abolition_navy_feature.shtml Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore] BBC] Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. [ [http://www.pdavis.nl/Background.htm#WAS The West African Squadron and slave trade] ]
Arthur William Hodgewas the first slave owner executed for the murder of a slave in the British West Indies. [John Andrew, " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN073881931X&id=t2Tu-PJxhb0C&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=yeSrpoXVqP&dq=%22hanging+of+arthur+hodge%22&sig=VroO7PW-JEq1wgBNMGQ9B8V1QNw The Hanging of Arthur Hodge] " [http://www2.xlibris.com/bookstore/bookdisplay.asp?bookid=970] , Xlibris, 2000, ISBN 0-7388-1930-1. The assertion is probably correct; there appear to be no other records of any British slave owners being executed for holding slaves, and, given the excitement which the Hodge trial excited, it seems improbable that another execution could have occurred without attracting attention. Slavery itself as an institution in the British West Indies only continued for another 23 years after Hodge's death.] He though was not, as some have claimed, the first white person to have been lawfully executed for the killing of a slave. [Vernon Pickering, "A Concise History of the British Virgin Islands", ISBN 10-0934139059, page 48] [Records indicate at least two earlier incidents. On November 23, 1739, in Williamsburg, Virginia, two white men, Charles Quin and David White, were hanged for the murder of another white man's black slave; and on April 21, 1775, the Fredericksburg newspaper, the " Virginia Gazette" reported that a white man William Pitman had been hanged for the murder of his own black slave. " [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN078640339X&id=quwi6J7GZ6wC&pg=PA101&lpg=PA101&dq=%22murder+of+a+negro&sig=S2F7SIl7IrkP28ysc_4abwh3Q_0#PPA101,M1 Blacks in Colonial America] ", p101, Oscar Reiss, McFarland & Company, 1997; " [http://departments.umw.edu/hipr/www/Fredericksburg/newspapers/vagaz/12may75s_1_3.htm Virginia Gazette", April 21 1775] , University of Mary WashingtonDepartment of Historic Preservation archives]
It became the custom among the
Mediterraneanpowers to sentence condemned criminals to row in the war- galleysof the state (initially only in time of war). [ [http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi303.htm The Last Galleys] ] The French Huguenotsfilled the galleys after the revocation of the Edict of Nantesin 1685 and Camisard rebellion. [ [http://manakin.addr.com/galleys.html Huguenots and the Galleys] ] Galley-slaveslived in unsavoury conditions, so even though some sentences prescribed a restricted number of years, most rowers would eventually die, even if they survived shipwreckand slaughter or torture at the hands of enemies or of pirates. [ [http://www.milism.net/galere.htm French galley slaves of the ancien régime] ] Naval forces often turned 'infidel' prisoners-of-war into galley-slaves. Several well-known historical figures served time as galley slaves after being captured by the enemy -- the Ottoman corsair and admiral Turgut Reisand the Knights HospitallerGrand Master Jean Parisot de la Valetteamong them. [ [http://www.sanandrea.edu.mt/Senior/CyberFair/knights/5a.html The Great Siege of 1565] ]
second serfdomtook place in Eastern Europeduring this period (particularly in Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Russiaand Poland). Only in 1768 was a law passed in Poland that discontinued the nobility's right of life or death over serfs. Serfdom remained the practice in most of Russia until February 19, 1861. Some of the Roma peoplewere enslaved over five centuries in Romaniauntil abolition in 1864 (see Slavery in Romania). [ [http://www.roconsulboston.com/Pages/InfoPages/Culture/Roma150Yrs.html Roma Celebrate 150 years of Freedom 2005 Romania] ]
Slavery in the
French Republicwas abolished on February 4, 1794however it was re-established by Napoleon Bonapartein 1804. Slavery would be permanently abolished in Franceafter his first exile to Elbain 1814. The Haitian Revolutionestablished Haitias a free republic ruled by blacks, the first of its kind. At the time of the revolution, Haiti was known as Saint-Domingueand was a colony of France.
Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazi regime created many "Arbeitslager" (
labor camps) in Germanyand Eastern Europe. Prisoners in Nazi labor camps were worked to death on short rations and in bad conditions, or killed if they became unable to work. Millions died as a direct result of forced labor under the Nazis. See for instance Eugen Kogon's publication "The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them" [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0374529922 The Theory and Practice of Hell: The German Concentration Camps and the System Behind Them] ]
About 12 million forced laborers, most of whom were
Eastern Europeans, were employed in the German war economy inside the Nazi Germany. [ [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1757323,00.html Final Compensation Pending for Former Nazi Forced Laborers] ] [ [http://summeroftruth.org/enemy/barracks.html Forced Labor at Ford Werke AG during the Second World War] ] More than 2000 German companies profited from slave labor during the Nazi era, including Daimler-Benz, Deutsche Bank, Siemens, Volkswagen, Hoechst, Dresdner Bank, Krupp, Allianz, BASF, Bayer, BMWand Degussa. [ [http://www.charitywire.com/charity11/00257.html Comprehensive List Of German Companies That Used Slave Or Forced Labor During World War II Released] ] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9807EFD6113AF934A25751C0A96F958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2 German Companies Adopt Fund For Slave Laborers Under Nazis] ]
Between 1930 and 1960, the
Sovietregime created many "Lageria" ( labor camps) in Siberia. [ [http://www.heritage.org/Research/RussiaandEurasia/HL-800.cfm Gulag: Understanding the Magnitude of What Happened] ] There were at least 476 separate camp complexes, each one comprising hundreds, even thousands of individual camps. [ [http://www.anneapplebaum.com/communism/2000/06_15_nyrb_gulag.html Anne Applebaum -- Inside the Gulag] ] It is estimated that there may have been 5-7 million people in these camps at any one time. In later years the camps also held victims of Stalin’s purges as well as World War IIprisoners. It is possible that approximately 10% of prisoners died each year. [ [http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/heroesvillains/background/g4_background.htm The National Archives Learning Curve] ] Out of the 91,000Germans captured alive after the Battle of Stalingrad, only 6,000 survived the Gulag and returned home. [ [http://www.worldwar2database.com/html/germanpow.htm German POWs in Allied Hands - World War II] ] Many of these prisoners, however, had died of illness contracted during the siege of Stalingrad and in the forced march into captivity. [ [Antony Beevor] , "Stalingrad"]
Probably the worst of the camp complexes were the three built north of the Arcticcircle at
Kolyma, Norilskand Vorkuta. [ [http://www.arlindo-correia.com/041003.html Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps, by Anne Applebaum] ] [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0921567.html Gulag] ] Prisoners in Soviet labor camps were worked to death on extreme production quotas, brutality, hungerand harsh elements. [ [http://www.artukraine.com/paintings/getman.htm Paintings of the Soviet Penal System by Former Prisoner Nilolau Getman] .] In all, more than 18 million people passed through the " Gulag", [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D00EED61F3DF932A25756C0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print The Other Killing Machine] ] with a further millions being deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=%2Fnews%2F2003%2F03%2F02%2Fwgulag02.xml Stalin's forgotten victims stuck in the gulag] ] The fatality rate was as high as 80% during the first months in many camps. Immediately after the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, the NKVD massacred about 100,000 prisoners who awaited deportation either to NKVD prisons in Moscow or to the Gulag. Michael McFaul, in his " New York Times" article of June 11, 2003, entitled 'Books of the Times; Camps of Terror, Often Overlooked' [http://www.anneappelbaum/com/gulag/mcfaul2003_06_11.html] , has this to say about the state of contemporary dialogue on Soviet slavery:
It should now be known to all serious scholars that the camps began under Lenin and not Stalin. It should be recognized by all that people were sent to the camps not because of what they did, but because of who they were. Some may be surprised to learn about the economic function that the camps were designed to perform. Under Stalin, the camps were simply a crueler but equally inefficient way to exploit labor in the cause of building socialism than the one practiced outside the camps in the Soviet Union. Yet, even this economic role of the camps has been exposed before.
What is remarkable is that the facts about this monstrous system so well documented in Applebaum's book are still so poorly known and even, by some, contested. For decades, academic historians have gravitated away from event-focused history and toward social history. Yet, the social history of the gulag somehow has escaped notice. Compared with the volumes and volumes written about the Holocaust, the literature on the gulag is thin.
(The article draws attention to
Anne Applebaum's Pulitzer Prizewinning text "" [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1400034094] )
Since the fall of the
Iron Curtain, the impoverished former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarusand Ukrainehave been identified as major trafficking source countries for women and children. [ [http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/ukraine/eeeu.htm Eastern Europe Exports Flesh to the EU] ] Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article2547626.ece Crime gangs 'expand sex slavery into shires'] ] It is estimated that 2/3 of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe, three-quarters have never worked as prostitutes before. [ [http://www.catwinternational.org/factbook/EUeast.php Eastern Europe - Coalition Against Trafficking of Women] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3979725.stm A modern slave's brutal odyssey] ] The major destinations are Western Europe (Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, UK, Greece), the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States. [ [http://www.tiraspoltimes.com/node/653 Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution] ] [ [http://www.asiapacificms.com/articles/russian_mafia/ The Russian Mafia in Asia] ]
An estimated 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are working in prostitution in the
EUalone. [ [http://www.unesco.org/courier/2000_02/uk/ethique/intro.htm For East Europe’s Women, a Rude Awakening] ] It is estimated that half million Ukrainian women were trafficked abroad since 1991 (80% of all unemployed in Ukraineare women). [ [http://www.owl.ru/eng/research/thenatasha.htm The "Natasha" Trade - The Transnational Shadow Market of Trafficking in Women] ] [ [http://www.citymayors.com/society/easteurope_cities.html Poverty, crime and migration are acute issues as Eastern European cities continue to grow] ] Russiais a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation, Russian women are in prostitution in over 50 countries. [ [http://www.rferl.org/features/2001/05/23052001122001.asp Russia: With No Jobs At Home, Women Fall Victim To Trafficking] ] [ [http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/07/01/30/10100559.html Court acquits brothers in assault and detention case] ] [ [http://vn.vladnews.ru/Arch/2000/iss239/text/news1.html Police bring home 3 sex slaves from China] ] In poverty-stricken Moldova, where the unemploymentrate for women ranges as high as 68% and one-third of the workforce live and work abroad, experts estimate that since the collapse of the Soviet Union between 200,000 and 400,000 women have been sold into prostitution abroad — perhaps up to 10% of the female population. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3071965/ Sold as a sex slave in Europe] ] [ [http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0603/ijge/gj07.htm Jana Costachi, "Preventing Victimization in Moldova" Global Issues, June 2003] ]
lavery in the Muslim World
Historians say the Arab slave trade lasted more than
millennium. [ [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/Islam&SlaveryWGCS.pdf Islam and Slavery] ] [ [http://www.amazon.com/gp/richpub/syltguides/fullview/22NTE7XMTJIHE "Know about Islamic Slavery in Africa"] ] The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade is thought to have originated with trans-Saharan slavery. [ [http://www.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/Ibn_Battuta/Battuta's_Trip_Twelve.html Battuta's Trip: Journey to West Africa (1351 - 1353)] ] [ [http://www.ralphmag.org/BU/slavery.html Slavery in the Sahara] ] Arab, Indian, and Oriental traders were involved in the capture and transport of slaves northward across the Saharadesert and the Indian Oceanregion into Arabiaand the Middle East, Persia, Central Asiaand the Indian subcontinent. [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A6645-2004Jan10¬Found=true A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight (washingtonpost.com)] ] The slave trade from East Africato Arabiawas dominated by Arab and African traders in the coastal cities of Zanzibar, Dar Es Salaamand Mombasa.cite web|url=http://www.arabslavetrade.com|publisher=" Owen 'Alik Shahadah"|title="Slavery in Arabia"|] [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/gwj1mex8w4pul095/ Slaves And Slave Trading In Shi'i Iran, AD 1500-1900] ] The Moors, starting in the 8th century, raided coastal areas of the Mediterranean, and became known as the Barbary pirates.
Male slaves were employed as servants, soldiers, or laborers, while female slaves were traded to Middle Eastern countries and kingdoms by Arab, Indian, or Oriental traders, some as
domestic servants,. [ [http://www.brandeis.edu/projects/fse/Pages/islamandslavery.html Islam and Slavery] ] [ [http://www.sfusd.edu/schwww/sch618/Ibn_Battuta/Battuta's_Trip_Five.html Battuta's Trip: Anatolia (Turkey) 1330 - 1331] ] [ [http://www.netnative.com/news/02/oct/1009.html Chaman Andam, slavery in early 20th century Iran] ] Some historians estimate that between 11 and 17 million slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desertfrom 650 to 1900 AD. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1523100.stm Focus on the slave trade] ] [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-85410331.html The Unknown Slavery: In the Muslim world, that is -- and it's not over] ]
Racist opinions occurred in the works of some Persian and
Arab- Muslimhistorians and geographers: so in the 14th century, the Tunisian Ibn Khalduncould write: - :"...the Negro nations are, as a rule, submissive to slavery, because (Negroes) have little that is (essentially) human and possess attributes that are quite similar to those of dumb animals..." [ [http://www.al-eman.com/islamlib/viewchp.asp?BID=163&CID=8#s3] . The Muqaddimah, Translated by F. Rosenthal] [ [http://www.colorq.org/Articles/article.aspx?d=2002&x=arabviews West Asian views on black Africans during the medieval era] ] In the same period, the Egyptian Al-Abshibi (1388-1446) wrote, "It is said that when the [black] slave is sated, he fornicates, when he is hungry, he steals." [cite book
last = Lewis
first = Bernard
authorlink = Bernard Lewis
year = 2002
title = Race and Slavery in the Middle East
pages = 93
publisher = Oxford University Press
id = ISBN 0195053265]
In 1400 Timur the Lame invaded
Armeniaand Georgia. More than 60,000 people from the Caucasus were captured as slaves, and many districts of Armenia were depopulated. [ [http://rbedrosian.com/atmi4.htm The Turco-Mongol Invasions] ]
From 1569 the
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthsuffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage and capture slaves into " jasyr". The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainiansbut also Circassians, Russians, Belarusians, Polesand Jews were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. [ [http://www.avalanchepress.com/Soldier_Khan.php Soldier Khan] ] [ [http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/04/the_living_legacy_of_jihad_sla.html The living legacy of jihad slavery] ] Russian conquest of the Crimea led to the abolition of slavery by the 1780s. [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/e91230n234h41020/ Slave trade in the early modern Crimea from the perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish sources] ] paying tribute to the Dey of Algiers. Gradually in the 18th century slave raids became less frequent, but the
last=Oren|first=Michael B.|title=The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815|date=2005-11-03|url=http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/11/michaelOren.html| accessdate=2007-02-18] Slavery was an important part of Ottoman society. In
Istanbul, about 1/5 of the population consisted of slaves. As late as 1908 women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/slavery_7.shtml Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery] ] In the middle of the 14th century, Murad Ibuilt his own personal slave army called the "Kapıkulu". The new force was based on the sultan's right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves were converted to Islamand trained in the sultan's personal service. In the " devşirme" (Turkish for 'gathering'), young Christian boys from the Balkanswere taken away from their homes and families, converted to Islam and enlisted into special soldier classes of the Ottoman army or the civil service. These soldier classes were named Janissaries, the most famous branch of the "Kapıkulu". The Janissaries eventually became a decisive factor in the Ottoman invasions of Europe. [ [http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=266205 Janissary] ] Most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators and "de facto" rulers of the Ottoman Empire, such as Pargalı İbrahim Pashaand Sokollu Mehmet Paşa, were recruited in this way. [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/lewis1.html Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East] ] [ [http://schonwalder.com/Such-n-Such/huns.htm The Turks: History and Culture] ] By 1609 the Sultan's "Kapıkulu" forces increased to about 100,000. [ [http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/inalcik6.html In the Service of the State and Military Class] ] Mamlukswere a slave soldierswho converted to Islamand served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubidsultans during the Middle Ages. The first mamluks served the Abbasidcaliphs in 9th century Baghdad. Over time they became a powerful military caste, and on more than one occasion they seized power for themselves, for example, ruling Egyptin the years 1250-1517. From 1250 Egypthad been ruled by the Bahri dynastyof KipchakTurk origin. White slaves from the Caucasus served in the army and formed an elite corps of troops eventually revolting in Egypt to form the Burgi dynasty. Mamluks were mainly responsible for the expulsion of the Crusaders from Palestineand preventing the Mongol Ilkhanate of Persia and Iraq from entering Egypt. [ [http://www.sunnahonline.com/ilm/seerah/0075_popup11.htm The Mamluk (Slave) Dynasty (Timeline)] ]
The Moroccan Sultan
Moulay Ismail"the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727) raised a corps of 150,000 black slaves, called his Black Guard, who coerced the country into submission. [ [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/lewis1.html Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.] ]
Nautical traders from the
United Statesbecame targets, and frequent victims, of the Barbary pirates, as soon as that nation began trading with Europe and refused to pay the required tribute to the North African states. [Richard Leiby, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A59720-2001Oct14 Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates] , The Washington Post, October 152001] [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_02.shtml British Slaves on the Barbary Coast by Professor Rees Davies] , BBC]
In response to the Hazara uprising of 1892, the Afghan Emir
Abdur Rahmandeclared a " Jihad" against the Shiites. The large army defeated the rebellion at its center, in Oruzgan, by 1892and the local population was severely massacred. According to S. A. Mousavi, "thousands of Hazara men, women, and children were sold as slaves in the markets of Kabul and Qandahar, while numerous towers of human heads were made from the defeated rebels as a warning to others who might challenge the rule of the Amir". Until the 20th century, some Hazaras were still kept as slaves by the Pashtuns; although Amanullah Khanbanned slavery in Afghanistanduring his reign, [ [http://www.afghangovernment.com/Constitution1923.htm Afghan Constitution: 1923] ] the tradition carried on unofficially for many more years. [ [http://www.afghanmagazine.com/2004_06/articles/hsadat.shtml Afghan History: kite flying, kite running and kite banning By Mir Hekmatullah Sadat] ]
It is estimated that as many as 200,000 black south Sudanese children and women (mostly from the Dinka tribe sold by the Sudanese Arabs of the north) have been taken into
slavery in Sudanduring the Second Sudanese Civil War. [ [http://www.iabolish.org/slavery_today/in_depth/sudan-genocide.html War and Genocide in Sudan] ] [ [http://journalism.nyu.edu/pubzone/livewire/archived/the_lost_children_of_sudan/ The Lost Children of Sudan] ] In Mauritaniait is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are currently enslaved, many of them used as bonded labor. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1458_abolition/page4.shtml The Abolition season on BBC World Service] ] Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6938032.stm Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law] ]
The Arab trade in slaves continued into the 20th century. Written travelogues and other historical works are replete with references to slaves owned by wealthy traders, nobility and heads of state in the Arabian Peninsula well into the 1920s. Slave owning and slave-like working conditions have been documented up to and including the present, in countries of the Middle East. Though the subject is considered taboo in the affected regions, a leading Saudi government cleric and author of the country's religious curriculum has called for the outright re-legalization of slavery [http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=35518 Saudi sheik: 'Slavery is a part of Islam' ] ] [http://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/SaudiArabia.htm Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery in Saudi Arabia ] ] .
Children as young as two years old are used for slavery as
child camel jockeys across the Arab countries of the Middle East. Although strict laws have been introduced recently in Qatarand UAE, thanks to better awareness of the issue and lobbying by human rightsorganisations such as the Ansar BurneyTrust, the use of children still continues in outlying areas and during secret night-time races.
Many of the Iraqi women fleeing the
Iraq Warare turning to prostitution, others are trafficked abroad, to countries like Syria, Jordan, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and Iran. [ [http://www.metimes.com/storyview.php?StoryID=20070702-050738-5557r Iraqi sex slaves recount ordeals] ] In Syriaalone, an estimated 50,000 Iraqi refugee girls and women, many of them widows, are forced into prostitution. [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/middle_east/article2701324.ece '50,000 Iraqi refugees' forced into prostitution] ] Cheap Iraqi prostitutes have helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East- many are Saudi men. [ [http://www.radionetherlands.nl/currentaffairs/iraq070824 Iraqi refugees forced into prostitution] ] High prices are offered for virgins. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/29/world/middleeast/29syria.html?ex=1338177600&en=8caf56b484d2ebb9&ei=5124&partner=digg&exprod=digg Desperate Iraqi Refugees Turn to Sex Trade in Syria] ]
In most African societies, there was very little difference between the free peasants and the feudal vassal peasants. Vassals of the
SonghayMuslim Empire were used primarily in agriculture; they paid tribute to their masters in crop and service but they were slightly restricted in custom and convenience. These people were more an occupational caste, as their bondage was relative. In the Kanem Bornu Empire, vassals were three classes beneath the nobles. Marriage between captor and captive was far from rare, blurring the anticipated roles.cite web|url=http://www.arabslavetrade.com|publisher=" Owen 'Alik Shahadah"|title="Slavery In Arabia"|]
Fernand Braudelnoted that slavery was endemic in Africa and part of the structure of everyday life. "Slavery came in different disguises in different societies: there were court slaves, slaves incorporated into princely armies, domestic and household slaves, slaves working on the land, in industry, as couriers and intermediaries, even as traders" (Braudel 1984 p. 435). During the 16th century, Europe began to outpace the Arab worldin the export traffic, with its slave traffic from Africa to the Americas. The Dutch imported slaves from Asia into their colony in South Africa. In 1807 the United Kingdom, which held vast colonial territories on the African continent (including southern Africa), made the practice of slavery illegal throughout its empire. The end of the slave trade and the decline of slavery was imposed upon Africa by its European conquerors.
The nature of the slave societies differed greatly across the continent. There were large plantations worked by slaves in
Egypt, the Sudanand Zanzibar, but this was not a typical use of slaves in Africa as a whole. In most African slave societies, slaves were protected and incorporated into the slave-owning family.Fact|date=August 2007 In Senegambia, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved. In early Islamicstates of the western Sudan, including Ghana (750-1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), and Songhai (1275-1591), about a third of the population were slaves. In Sierra Leonein the 19th century about half of the population consisted of slaves. In the 19th century at least half the population was enslaved among the Duala of the Cameroon, the Igbo and other peoples of the lower Niger, the Kongo, and the Kasanje kingdom and Chokweof Angola. Among the Ashantiand Yoruba a third of the population consisted of slaves. The population of the Kanem was about a third-slave. It was perhaps 40% in Bornu (1396–1893). Between 1750 and 1900 from one- to two-thirds of the entire population of the Fulani jihadstates consisted of slaves. The population of the Sokotocaliphate formed by Hausas in the northern Nigeriaand Cameroon was half-slave in the 19th century. It is estimated that up to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibarwas enslaved. Roughly half the population of Madagascarwas enslaved. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24157 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History] ] [ [http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521374693 Slow Death for Slavery - Cambridge University Press] ] [ [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm Digital History Slavery Fact Sheets] ] [ [http://www.worldheritage.heindorffhus.dk/frame-TanzaniaZanzibar.htm Tanzania - Stone Town of Zanzibar] ] [ [http://bartelby.com/67/871.html 18th and Early 19th Centuries. The Encyclopedia of World History] ] [ [http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/board/showpost.php?p=187188&postcount=25 Fulani slave-raids] ] [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0857229.html Central African Republic: History] ]
The Anti-Slavery Society estimated that there were 2,000,000 slaves in the early 1930s
Ethiopia, out of an estimated population of between 8 and 16 million. [ [http://www.yale.edu/glc/events/cbss/Miers.pdf Twentieth Century Solutions of the Abolition of Slavery] ] Slavery continued in Ethiopia until the brief Second Italo-Abyssinian Warin October 1935, when was abolished by order of the Italian occupying forces. [ [http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6443 CJO - Abstract - Trading in slaves in Ethiopia, 1897–1938] ] In response to pressure by Western Allies of World War IIEthiopia officially abolished slavery and serfdom after regaining its independence in 1942. On August 26, 1942 Haile Selassieissued a proclamation outlawing slavery. [ [http://www.globalmarch.org/resourcecentre/world/ethiopia.pdf Ethiopia] ] [ [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/2691/COS2.html Chronology of slavery] ]
Elikia M’bokolo, April 1998,
Le Monde diplomatique. Quote: "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)." He continues: "Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahiliports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean" [ [http://mondediplo.com/1998/04/02africa The impact of the slave trade on Africa] ]
According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by
Barbary piratesand sold as slaves in North Africaand Ottoman Empirebetween the 16th and 19th centuries. [ [http://krypta.i24.cc/saint.php?dir=slavesI&rtn=saint.php?dir=unknown The Crypt: Slaves in the Islamic world] ] The coastal villages and towns of Italy, Portugal, Spainand Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by them and long stretches of the Italian, Portuguese and Spanish coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants; after 1600Barbary pirates occasionally entered the Atlantic and struck as far north as Iceland. [ [http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=2a1_1187537365 White slaves. Muslim masters.] ]
Khair ad Dincaptured Ischia, taking 4,000 prisoners in the process, and deported to slaverysome 9,000 inhabitants of Lipari, almost the entire population. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2003/09/26/trsic_ed3_.php The mysteries and majesties of the Aeolian Islands] ] In 1551, Turgut Reis(known as Dragut in the West) enslaved the entire population of the Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya. When pirates sacked Viestein southern Italy in 1554 they took 7,000 slaves. In 1555, Turgut Reis sailed to Corsicaand ransacked Bastia, taking 6000 prisoners. In 1558 Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella( Minorca), destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and carried off 3,000 survivors to Istanbulas slaves. [ [http://www.holidays2menorca.com/history.php History of Menorca] ] In 1563 Turgut Reis landed at the shores of the province of Granada, Spain, and captured the coastal settlements in the area like Almuñécar, along with 4,000 prisoners. Barbary pirates frequently attacked the Balearic islands, resulting in many coastal watchtowers and fortified churches being erected. The threat was so severe that island of Formentera became uninhabited. [ [http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/whtslav.htm "When Europeans were slaves: Research suggests white slavery was much more common than previously believed"] ] [ [http://www.elbacomunico.com/inglese/pirates.htm Watch-towers and fortified towns] ] [ [http://islamicexpansionanddecline.blogspot.com/2007/04/chapter-8-slave-society.html Islamic Expansion and Decline: Chapter 8: The Slave Society] ]
In Portugal for instance, the coastal city of
Nazaréwas raided several times during until the 16th centurywhen the local fortress was built (according to Pedro Penteado and his book based in the historical ecclesiastic diaries of Nazaré). The city of Lisbon built the Torre de Belémto defend the capital against these pirates.
Between 1609 and 1616
Englandalone had a staggering 466 merchant ships lost to Barbary pirates. Slave-taking persisted into the 19th centurywhen Barbary pirates would capture ships and enslave the crew. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_01.shtml BBC - History - British Slaves on the Barbary Coast] ] [ [http://www.city-journal.org/html/17_2_urbanities-thomas_jefferson.html Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates by Christopher Hitchens, City Journal Spring 2007] ] Even the United Stateswas not immune. In 1783 the United States made peace with, and gained recognition from, the British monarchy, and in 1784 the first American ship was seized by pirates from Morocco. Payments in ransom and tribute to the Barbary states amounted to 20% of United States government annual revenues in 1800. [cite web|last=Oren|first=Michael B.|title=The Middle East and the Making of the United States, 1776 to 1815|date=2005-11-03|url=http://www.columbia.edu/cu/news/05/11/michaelOren.html| accessdate=2007-02-18] It was not until 1815that naval victories in the Barbary Warsended tribute payments by the U.S., although some European nations continued annual payments until the 1830s. [Richard Leiby, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A59720-2001Oct14 Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates] , The Washington Post, October 152001]
Among the most important slave markets where Pirates operated in the Mediterranean Europe were the ports of Majorca, Toulon, Marseille, Genoa, Pisa, Leghorn and Malta. In Africa, the most important were the ports of Morrocos, Tripoli, Algiers and Tunis. [ [Goodwin, Stefan. "Africa's Legacies of Urbanization: Unfolding Saga of a Continent"]
David Livingstonewrote of the slave trade:
"To overdraw its evils is a simple impossibility.... We passed a slave woman shot or stabbed through the body and lying on the path. [Onlookers] said an Arab who passed early that morning had done it in anger at losing the price he had given for her, because she was unable to walk any longer. We passed a woman tied by the neck to a tree and dead.... We came upon a man dead from starvation.... The strangest disease I have seen in this country seems really to be broken heartedness, and it attacks free men who have been captured and made slaves."
Livingstone estimated that 80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the slave markets of
Zanzibar. [ [http://chi.gospelcom.net/GLIMPSEF/Glimpses/glmps111.shtml David Livingstone; Christian History Institute] ] [ [http://www.pilotguides.com/destination_guide/africa/tanzania_and_zanzibar/slave_trade.php The blood of a nation of Slaves in Stone Town] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6510675.stm BBC Remembering East African slave raids] ] [ [http://firstname.lastname@example.org/zanzibar.html Zanzibar] ] Zanzibar was once East Africa's main slave-trading port, and under Omani Arabs in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the city each year. [ [http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/data/2001/10/01/html/ft_20011001.6.html Swahili Coast] ] Prior to the 16th century, the bulk of slaves exported from Africa were shipped from East Africato the Arabian peninsula. Zanzibarbecame a leading port on this trade. Arab slave traders differed from European ones in that they would often conduct raiding expeditions themselves, sometimes penetrating deep into the continent. They also differed in that their market greatly preferred the purchase of female slaves over male ones.
The increased presence of European rivals along the East coast led Arab traders to concentrate on the overland slave caravan routes across the
Saharafrom the Sahelto North Africa. The German explorer Gustav Nachtigalreported seeing slave caravans departing from Kukawain Bornu bound for Tripoliand Egyptin 1870. The slave trade represented the major source of revenue for the state of Bornu as late as 1898. The eastern regions of the Central African Republichave never recovered demographically from the impact of nineteenth-century raids from the Sudanand still have a population density of less than 1 person/km. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-40699/Central-African-Republic Central African Republic: Early history] ] During the 1870s, European initiatives against the slave trade caused an economic crisis in northern Sudan, precipitating the rise of Mahdist forces. Mahdi’s victory created an Islamic state, one that quickly reinstituted slavery. [ [http://www.american.edu/ted/ice/sudan.htm Civil War in the Sudan: Resources or Religion?] ] [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-20649477.html Slave trade in the Sudan in the nineteenth century and its suppression in the years 1877-80.] ]
Middle Passage, the crossing of the Atlanticto the Americas, endured by slaves laid out in rows in the holds of ships, was only one element of the well-known triangular tradeengaged in by Portuguese, Dutch, French and British. Ships having landed slaves in Caribbeanports would take on sugar, indigo, raw cotton, and later coffee, and make for Liverpool, Nantes, Lisbonor Amsterdam. Ships leaving European ports for West Africawould carry printed cotton textiles, some originally from India, copper utensils and bangles, pewter plates and pots, iron bars more valued than gold, hats, trinkets, gunpowder and firearms and alcohol. Tropical shipworms were eliminated in the cold Atlantic waters, and at each unloading, a profit was made.
Atlantic slave tradepeaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire(Yoruba), Kong Empire, Kingdom of Benin, Kingdom of Fouta Djallon, Kingdom of Fouta Tooro, Kingdom of Koya, Kingdom of Khasso, Kingdom of Kaabu, Fante Confederacy, Ashanti Confederacy, Aro Confederacyand the kingdom of Dahomey. [ [http://www.internetpuppets.org/afrghana.html The Great Slave Empires Of Africa] ] [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/slav/hd_slav.htm The Transatlantic Slave Trade] ] Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and moreover fierce African resistance. The slaves were brought to coastal outposts where they were traded for goods. The people captured on these expeditions were shipped by European traders to the coloniesof the New World. As a result of the War of Spanish Succession, the United Kingdom obtained the monopoly (" asiento de negros") of transporting captive Africans to Spanish America. It is estimated that over the centuries, twelve to twenty million people were shipped as slaves from Africa by European traders, of whom some 15 percent died during the terrible voyage, many during the arduous journey through the Middle Passage. The great majority were shipped to the Americas, but some also went to Europe and the south of Africa.
Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in
Kingdom of Kongo. Despite its establishment within his kingdom, Afonso I of Kongobelieved that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote letters to the King João IIIof Portugal in 1526imploring him to put a stop to the practice. [ [http://www.millersville.edu/~winthrop/Thornton.html African Political Ethics and the Slave Trade] ]
The kings of
Dahomeysold their war captives into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples. [ [http://www.museeouidah.org/Theme-Dahomey.htm Museum Theme: The Kingdom of Dahomey] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-149772/Dahomey Dahomey (historical kingdom, Africa)] ] [ [http://www.finalcall.com/national/slave_trade10-08-2002.htm Benin seeks forgiveness for role in slave trade] ] Like the Bambara Empireto the east, the Khassokingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to warsfor the sole purpose of taking more captives. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French. [ [http://www.histoire-afrique.org/article76.html?artsuite=5 Le Mali précolonial] ] Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold, and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast". [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter7.shtml The Story of Africa] ]
In the 1840s, King Gezo of
Dahomeysaid: [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20855855-28737,00.html West is master of slave trade guilt] ]
"The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…"
In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. The King of Bonny (now in
Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice: [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/9chapter2.shtml African Slave Owners] ]
"We think this trade must go on. That is the verdict of our oracle and the priests. They say that your country, however great, can never stop a trade ordained by God himself."
Some historians conclude that the total loss in persons removed, those who died on the arduous march to coastal slave marts and those killed in slave raids, far exceeded the 65–75 million inhabitants remaining in Sub-Saharan Africa at the trade's end.Fact|date=July 2007 Others believe that slavers had a vested interest in capturing rather than killing, and in keeping their captives alive; and that this coupled with the disproportionate removal of males and the introduction of new crops from the Americas (
cassava, maize) would have limited general population declineto particular regions of western Africa around 1760–1810, and in Mozambiqueand neighbouring areas half a century later. There has also been speculation that within Africa, females were most often captured as brides, with their male protectors being a "bycatch" who would have been killed if there had not been an export market for them.
During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery. The personal monarchy of Belgian King Leopold II in the
Congo Free Statesaw mass killings and slavery to extract rubber. [Adam Hochschild, " King Leopold's Ghost"]
Slavery in Mauritaniawas legally abolished by laws passed in 1905, 1961, and 1981, but it has never been criminalised, ["The last law, in 1981, banned it but failed to criminalise it. However much it is denied, an ancient system of bondage, with slaves passed on from generation to generation, still plainly exists." [http://www.economist.com/world/africa/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_JTNNRGS] , " The Economist"] and several human rightsorganizations report that the practice continues there. In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon; a study has found that more than 800,000 people are still slaves, almost 8% of the population. [ [http://abcnews.go.com/International/Story?id=813618&page=1 The Shackles of Slavery in Niger] ] Descent-based slavery, where generations of the same family are born into bondage, is traditionally practised by at least four of Niger’s eight ethnic groups. It is especially rife among the warlike Tuareg, in the wild deserts of north and west Niger, who roam near the borders with Maliand Algeria. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/4250709.stm Born to be a slave in Niger] ]
The trading of children has been reported in modern
Nigeriaand Benin. In parts of Ghana, a family may be punished for an offense by having to turn over a virgin female to serve as a sex slave within the offended family. In this instance, the woman does not gain the title or status of "wife". In parts of Ghana, Togo, and Benin, shrine slavery persists, despite being illegal in Ghana since 1998. In this system of ritual servitude, sometimes called "trokosi" (in Ghana) or "voodoosi" in Togo and Benin, young virgin girls are given as slaves to traditional shrines and are used sexually by the priests in addition to providing free labor for the shrine. Slavery in Sudancontinues as part of an ongoing civil war. Evidence emerged in the late 1990s of systematic slavery in cacao plantations in West Africa; see the chocolate and slaveryarticle.
Among indigenous peoples
Mesoamericathe most common forms of slavery were those of prisoners-of-warand debtors. People unable to pay back a debt could be sentenced to work as a slave to the person owed until the debt was worked off. Warfare was important to the Maya society, because raids on surrounding areas provided the victims required for human sacrifice, as well as slaves for the construction of temples. [ [http://www.library.umaine.edu/hudson/palmer/Maya/society.asp Maya Society] ] Most victims of human sacrifice were prisoners of war or slaves. [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9367541 human sacrifice -- Britannica Concise Encyclopedia] ] According to Aztecwritings, as many as 84,000 people were sacrificed at a temple inauguration in 1487. [ [http://www.livescience.com/history/human_sacrifice_050123.html Evidence May Back Human Sacrifice Claims |LiveScience] ] Slavery was not usually hereditary; children of slaves were born free. In the Inca Empire, workers were subject to a "mita" in lieu of taxes which they paid by working for the government. Each " ayllu", or extended family, would decide which family member to send to do the work. It is unclear if this labor draft or corveecounts as slavery. The Spanish adopted this system, particularly for their silver mines in Bolivia. [ [http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/29.htm Bolivia - Ethnic Groups] ]
Other slave-owning societies and tribes of the New World were, for example, the
Tehuelcheof Patagonia, the Comancheof Texas, the Caribsof Dominica, the Tupinambáof Brazil, the fishing societies, such as the Yurok, that lived along the coast from what is now Alaska to California, the Pawneeand Klamath. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Slavery in the New World] ] Many of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, such as the Haidaand Tlingit, were traditionally known as fierce warriors and slave-traders, raiding as far as California. Slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war. Among some Pacific Northwesttribes about a quarter of the population were slaves. [ [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/black_voices/voices_display.cfm?id=2 Digital History African American Voices] ] [ [http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/haida/havwa01e.html Haida Warfare] ] One slave narrativewas composed by an Englishman, John R. Jewitt, who had been taken alive when his ship was captured in 1802; his memoir provides a detailed look at life as a slave, and asserts that a large number were held.
Slavery was a mainstay of the Brazilian colonial economy, especially in
miningand sugar caneproduction.Brazil obtained 37% of all African slaves traded, and more than 3 million slaves were sent to this one country. Starting around 1550, the Portuguese began to trade African slaves to work the sugar plantations, once the native Tupi peopledeteriorated. Although Portuguese Prime Minister Marquês de Pombalabolished slavery in mainland Portugal on the February 12th, 1761, slavery continued in her overseas colonies. Slavery was practice among all classes. Slaves were owned by upper and middle classes, by the poor, and even by other slaves. [ [http://isc.temple.edu/evanson/brazilhistory/Bahia.htm Rebellions in Bahia, 1798-l838. Culture of slavery] ]
São Paulothe Bandeirantes, adventurers mostly of mixed Portuguese and native ancestry, penetrated steadily westward in their search for Indian slaves. Along the Amazon riverand its major tributaries, repeated slaving raids and punitive attacks left their mark. One French traveler in the 1740s described "hundreds of miles of river banks with no sign of human life and once-thriving villages that were devastated and empty." In some areas of the Amazon Basin, and particularly among the Guaraniof southern Braziland Paraguay, the Jesuitshad organized their Jesuit Reductionsalong military lines to fight the slavers. In the mid to late 19th century, many Amerindians were enslaved to work on rubberplantations. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9012127/bandeira bandeira] ] [ [http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9356505/bandeira Bandeira - Encyclopedia Britannica] ] [ [http://www.v-brazil.com/information/history/bandeirantes.html Bandeirantes] ]
Resistance and abolition
Escaped slaves formed Maroon communities which played an important role in the histories of Brazil and other countries such as Suriname, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Jamaica. In Brazil the Maroon villages were called palenques or
quilombos. Maroons survived by growing vegetables and hunting. They also raided plantations. At these attacks, the maroons would burn crops, steal livestock and tools, kill slavemasters, and invite other slaves to join their communities. Jean-Baptiste Debret, a French painter who was active in Brazil in the first decades of the 19th Century, started out with painting portraits of members of the Brazilian Imperial family, but soon became concerned with the slavery of both blacks and indigenous inhabitants. His paintings on the subject (two appear on this page) helped bring attention to the subject in both Europe and Brazil itself.
Clapham Sect, a group of evangelical reformers, campaigned during much of the 19th century for the United Kingdom to use its influence and power to stop the traffic of slaves to Brazil. Besides moral qualms, the low cost of slave-produced Brazilian sugar meant that British colonies in the West Indies were unable to match the market prices of Brazilian sugar, and each Briton was consuming 16 pounds (7 kg) of sugar a year by the 19th century. This combination led to intensive pressure from the British government for Brazil to end this practice, which it did by steps over several decades.
First, foreign slave trade was banned in 1850. Then, in 1871, the sons of the slaves were freed. In 1885, slaves aged over 60 years were freed. The Paraguayan War contributed to end slavery, since slaves enlisted in exchange for freedom. In Colonial Brazil, slavery was more a social than a racial condition. In fact, some of the greatest figures of the time, like the writer
Machado de Assisand the engineer André Rebouçashad black ancestry.
Brazil's 1877-78 "Grande Seca" (Great Drought) in the cotton-growing northeast led to major turmoil, starvation, poverty and internal migration. As wealthy plantation holders rushed to sell their slaves south, popular resistance and resentment grew, inspiring numerous emancipation societies. They succeeded in banning slavery altogether in the province of Ceará by 1884. [(Mike Davis, "Late Victorian Holocausts", 88-90)] Slavery was legally ended nationwide on
May 13by the " Lei Aurea" ("Golden Law") of 1888. In fact, it was an institution in decadence at these times, as since the 1880s the country had begun to use European immigrant labor instead. Brazil was the last nation in the Western Hemisphereto abolish slavery.
However, in 2004 the government acknowledged to the
United Nationsthat at least 25,000 Brazilians work under conditions "analogous to slavery." The top anti-slavery official puts the number of modern slaves at 50,000. [Hall, Kevin G., [http://www.mongabay.com/external/slavery_in_brazil.htm "Slavery exists out of sight in Brazil"] , "Knight Ridder Newspapers", 2004- 09-05.] More than 1,000 slave laborers were freed from a sugar cane plantation in 2007 by the Brazilian government, making it the largest anti-slavery raid in modern times in Brazil. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6266712.stm "'Slave' laborers freed in Brazil"] , "BBC News", 2007- 07-03.]
Other South American countries
During the period from late 19th and early 20th centuries, demand for the labor-intensive harvesting of rubber drove frontier expansion and slavery in
Latin Americaand elsewhere. Indigenous people were enslaved as part of the rubber boom in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. [Michael Edward Stanfield , "Red Rubber, Bleeding Trees: Violence, Slavery, and Empire in Northwest Amazonia, 1850-1933"] In Central America, rubber tappers participated in the enslavement of the indigenous Guatuso-Maleku people for domestic service. [Mark Edelman, "A Central American Genocide: Rubber, Slavery, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Guatusos-Malekus," Comparative Studies in Society and History (1998), 40: 356-390.]
British and French Caribbean
Slavery was commonly used in the parts of the
Caribbeancontrolled by Franceand the British Empire. The Lesser Antillesislands of Barbados, St. Kitts, Antigua, Martinique and Guadeloupe, which were the first important slave societies of the Caribbean, began the widespread use of African slaves by the end of the 17th century, as their economies converted from sugarproduction. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEEDC103EF934A1575BC0A963958260 Involuntary Immigrants] ] Among white Caribbeans there exists an underclass known as Redlegs; the descendants of English, Scottish and Irish indentured servants, and prisonersimported to the island. [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/white_slavery.htm White Slavery, what the Scots already know] ] [ [http://www.irlandeses.org/0711rodgers2.htm The Irish in the Caribbean 1641-1837: An Overview] ] The Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series of 1701 records 25,000 slaves in Barbados, of which 21,700 were white. [ [http://www.itzcaribbean.com/barbadoshistory Caribbean History] ]
By the middle of the 18th century, British
Jamaicaand French Saint-Dominguehad become the largest slave societies of the region, rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans. Due to overwork and tropical diseases, the death rates for Caribbean slaves were greater than birth rates. The conditions led to increasing numbers of slave revolts, escaped slaves forming Maroon communities and fighting guerrillawars against the plantationowners. Campaigns against slavery began during the period of the Enlightenment and grew to large proportions in Europeand United Statesduring the 19th century (see Abolitionism).
To regularise slavery, in 1685 Louis XIV had enacted the "
code noir," which accorded certain human rights to slaves and responsibilities to the master, who was obliged to feed, clothe and provide for the general well-being of his slaves. Free blacks owned one-third of the plantation property and one-quarter of the slaves in Saint Domingue (later Haiti). [ [http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/chap8a.html Slavery and the Haitian Revolution] ] Slavery in the French Republicwas abolished on February 4, 1794. When it became clear that Napoleon intended to re-establish slavery, Dessalines and Pétion switched sides, in October 1802. On January 1, 1804, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the new leader under the dictatorial 1801 constitution, declared Haitia free republic. Thus Haiti became the second independent nation in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States, and the only successful slave rebellion in world history. [http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h34-np2.html Haiti, 1789 to 1806] ]
Slavery in Colonial America, Slavery in Canada, History of slavery in the United States, Atlantic slave trade, Indian slavery, Slavery among the Cherokee, History of slavery in Kentucky, History of slavery in Missouri
The first slaves used by Europeans in what later became United States territory were among
Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón's colonization attempt of North Carolinain 1526. The attempt was a failure, lasting only one year; the slaves revolted and fled into the wilderness to live among the Cofitachiqui people. [http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1752906]
The first historically significant slave in what would become the
United Stateswas Estevanico, a Moroccan slave and member of the Narváez expeditionin 1528 and acted as a guide on Fray Marcos de Niza's expedition to find the Seven Cities of Gold in 1539.
In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of
Jamestown, Virginiaas indentured servants. It is possible that Africans were brought to Virginia prior to this, both because neither John Rolfeour source on the 1619 shipment nor any contemporary of his ever says that this was the first contingent of Africans to come to Virginia and because the 1625 Virginia census lists one black as coming on a ship that appears to only have landed people in Virginia prior to 1619. [Vaughn, Alden T. "Blacks in Virginia: A Note on the First Decade" in "William and Mary Quarterly" 29 (1972) no. 3, p. 474] The transformation from indentured servitude to racial slavery happened gradually. It was not until 1661 that a reference to slavery entered into Virginialaw, directed at Caucasian servants who ran away with a black servant. It was not until the Slave Codes of 1705that the status of African Americansas slaves would be sealed. This status would last for another 160 years, until after the end of the American Civil Warwith the ratification of the 13th Amendment in December 1865.
Only a fraction of the enslaved Africans brought to the
New Worldended up in British North America-- perhaps 5%. The vast majority of slaves shipped across the Atlantic were sent to the Caribbeansugar colonies, Brazil, or Spanish America.
Slavery in American Colonial Law
Massachusettsbecomes the first colony to legalize slavery.
Virginiaofficially recognizes slavery by statute.
* 1662: A
Virginiastatute declares that children born would have the same status as their mother.
* 1664: Slavery is legalized in
New Yorkand New Jersey. [McElrath, Jessica, [http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/timeline_slave.htm "Timeline of Slavery in America-African American History"] , "About.com", URL last accessed 2006- 12-06.]
Development of slavery
The shift from indentured servants to African slaves was prompted by a dwindling class of former servants who had worked through the terms of their indentures and thus became competitors to their former masters. These newly freed servants were rarely able to support themselves comfortably, and the tobacco industry was increasingly dominated by large planters. This caused domestic unrest culminating in
Bacon's Rebellion. Eventually, chattel slavery became the norm in regions dominated by plantations.
Many slaves in
British North Americawere owned by plantation owners who lived in Britain. The British courts had made a series of contradictory rulings on the legality of slavery [ [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/blackhistory/rights/slave_free.htm#top (National Archives Link)] ] which encouraged several thousand slaves to flee the newly-independent United States as refugees along with the retreating British in 1783. The British courts having ruled in 1772 that such slaves could not be forcibly returned to North America (see James Somersettand Somersett's Casefor a review of the Somerset Decision), the British government resettled them as free men in Sierra Leone. See Black Loyalists.
slave rebellions took place during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Early United States law
Northwest Ordinanceof 1787 (also known as the "Freedom Ordinance") under the Continental Congress, slavery was prohibited in the territories north of the Ohio River. In the East, though, slavery was not abolished until later. The importation of slaves into the United Stateswas banned on January 1, 1808; [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/30/opinion/30foner.html Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom,"] "New York Times." December 30, 2007.] but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally.
Aggregation of northern free states gave rise to one contiguous geographic area, north of the
Ohio Riverand the old Mason-Dixon line. This separation of a free North and an enslaved South launched a massive political, cultural and economic struggle.
Refugees from slavery fled the South across the Ohio River to the North via the
Underground Railroad, and their presence agitated Northerners. Midwestern state governments asserted States Rightsarguments to refuse federal jurisdiction over fugitives. Some juries exercised their right of jury nullificationand refused to convict those indicted under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.
The Dred Scott decision of 1857 asserted that one could take one's property anywhere, even if one's property was
chatteland one crossed into a free territory. It also asserted that African Americans could not be citizens, as many Northern states granted blacks citizenship, who (in some states) could even vote. This was an example of Slave Power, the plantation aristocracy's attempt to control the North. While traditionally, this has been viewed as turning Northern public opinion against the South, it should be noted that pro-slavery forces made gains in the 1858 elections and it was the anti-slavery Republicans who were on the defensive on the issue. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, armed conflict broke out in Kansas Territory, where the question of whether it would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state had been left to the inhabitants. The radical abolitionist John Brown was active in the mayhem and killing in " Bleeding Kansas." The true turning point in public opinion is better fixed at the LeCompton Constitution fraud. Pro-slavery elements in Kansas had arrived first from Missouri and quickly organized a territorial government that excluded abolitionists. Through the machinery of the territory and violence, the pro-slavery faction attempted to force an unpopular pro-slavery constitution through the state. This infuriated Northern Democrats, who supported popular sovereignty, and was exacerbated by the Buchanon administration reneging on a promise to submit the constitution to a referendum - which it would surely fail. Anti-slavery legislators took office under the banner of the Republican Party.
Approximately one Southern family in four held slaves prior to war. According to the 1860 U.S. census, about 385,000 individuals [Gary A. Warner, [http://www.dailypress.com/travel/dp-travslave26jun24,0,2277645.story Journey to freedom] , Daily Press,
24 June, 2005] (i.e. 1.4% of White Americansin the country, or 4.8% of southern whites) owned one or more slaves. [ [http://americancivilwar.com/authors/black_slaveowners.htm Black Slaveowners] ] [ [http://www.southernhistory.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9406&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 Southern History] ] 95% of blacks lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to 1% of the population of the North. Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North. [James McPherson, Drawn with the Sword, page 15]
In the election of 1860, the Republicans swept
Abraham Lincolninto the Presidency (with only 39.8% of the popular vote) and legislators into Congress. Lincoln however, did not appear on the ballots in most southern states and his election split the nation along sectional lines. After decades of controlling the Federal Government, several of the southern states declared they had seceded from the U.S. (the Union) in an attempt to form the Confederate States of America.
Northern leaders like Lincoln viewed the prospect of a new Southern nation, with control over the Mississippi River and the West, as unacceptable. This led to the outbreak of the Civil War, which spelled the end for chattel slavery in America. However, in August 1862, Lincoln wrote to editor
Horace Greeleythat despite his own moral objection to slavery, the objective of the war was to save the Union and not either to save or to destroy slavery. He went on to say that if he could save the Union without freeing a single slave, or by freeing all the slaves, or by freeing only some of the slaves, he would do it. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamationof 1863 was a reluctant gesture, that proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy, although not those in strategically important border states or the rest of the Union. However, the proclamation made the abolition of slavery an official war goal and it was implemented as the Union captured territory from the Confederacy. Slaves in many parts of the south were freed by Union armies or when they simply left their former owners. Many joined the Union Armyas workers or troops, and many more fled to cities in the north.
Illegally, slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on
December 6, 1865(with final recognition of the amendment on December 18), eight months after the cessation of hostilities. Only in the Border state of Kentucky did a significant slave population remain by that time.
After the failure of Reconstruction, freed slaves in the United States were treated as second class citizens. For decades after their emancipation, many former slaves living in the South sharecropped and had a low standard of living. In some states, it was only after the
civil rightsmovement of the 1950s and 60s that blacks obtained legal protection from racial discrimination ("see segregation").
Although slavery has been illegal in the United States for nearly a century and a half, the
United States Department of Laboroccasionally prosecutes cases against people for false imprisonmentand involuntary servitude. These cases often involve illegal immigrantswho are forced to work as slaves in factories to pay off a debt claimed by the people who transported them into the United States. Other cases have involved domestic workers. Long IslandMahender Sabhnani, 52, an international perfumemaker, was convicted by US Federal District Court Judge Arthur Spatt (in Central IslipN.Y.) of slavery of 2 Indonesian housekeepers in his $ 2 million Muttontown home, and sentenced on June 27, 2008 to 3 years and 4 months in prison with fine of $ 12,500. His wife, Varsha, was sentenced to 11 years in prison. A 12-count federal indictment included charges of forced labor, conspiracy, involuntary servitude and harboring aliens, specifically "beating slaves with brooms and umbrellas, slashed with knives, and forced to climb stairs and to take freezing showers for misdeeds that included sleeping late or stealing food from the trash because they were poorly fed." [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/28/nyregion/28slave.html?ref=nyregion nytimes.com, Man in Slave Case Sentenced to 3 Years] ] [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jBr01Uk1hYUWVPqB_-Us4SEM-UBAD91ILMEG0 ap.google.com, 2nd NY millionaire gets prison in slavery case] ]
The Greek historian
Arrianwrites in his book Indica:
"This also is remarkable in India, that all Indians are free, and no Indian at all is a slave. In this the Indians agree with the
Lacedaemonians. Yet the Lacedaemonians have Helots for slaves, who perform the duties of slaves; but the Indians have no slaves at all, much less is any Indian a slave."
Though any formalised slave trade has not existed in
South Asia, unfree labor has existed for centuries in the Medieval ages, in different forms. The most common forms have been kinds of bonded labor. During the epoch of the Mughals, debt bondage reached its peak, and it was common for money lenders to make slaves of peasants and others who failed to repay debts. Under these practices, more than one generation could be forced into unfree labor; for example, a son could be sold into bonded labor for life to pay off the debt, along with interest.
The early Arab invaders of Sind in the 700's, the armies of the Umayyad commander
Muhammad bin Qasim, are reported to have enslaved tens of thousands of Indian prisoners, including both soldiers and civilians. [Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, tr., The Chachnamah, an Ancient History of Sind, 1900, reprint (Delhi, 1979), pp. 154, 163. This thirteenth-century source claims to be a Persian translation of an (apparently lost) eighth centuryArabic manuscript detailing the Islamic conquests of Sind. ] [Andre Wink, Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, Seventh to Eleventh Centuries (Leiden, 1990)] In the early 11th centuryTarikh al-Yamini, the Arab historian Al-Utbi recorded that in 1001 the armies of Mahmud of Ghaznaconquered Peshawar and Waihand, "in the midst of the land of Hindustan", and captured some 100,000 youths. [Muhammad Qasim Firishta, Tarikh-i-Firishta (Lucknow, 1864).] [ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, vol. 2, The Slave Kings and the Islamic Conquest, 11th-13th Centuries (Leiden, 1997)] Later, following his twelfth expedition into India in 1018-19, Mahmud is reported to have returned to with such a large number of slaves that their value was reduced to only two to ten dirhams each. This unusually low price made, according to Al-Utbi, "merchants [come] from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Central Asia, Iraq and Khurasan were swelled with them, and the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, mingled in one common slavery". Elliot and Dowson refers to "five hundred thousand slaves, beautiful men and women.". [Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Utbi, Tarikh al-Yamini (Delhi, 1847), tr. by James Reynolds, The Kitab-i-Yamini (London, 1858), ] [Wink, Al-Hind, II] [ Henry M. Elliot and John Dowson, History of India as told by its own Historians, 8 vols (London, 1867-77), II, ] Later, during the Delhi Sultanateperiod (1206-1555), references to the abundant availability of low-priced Indian slaves abound. Levi attributes this primarily to the vast human resources of India, compared to its neighbours to the north and west (Mughal Indian population being approximately 12 to 20 times that of Turan and Iran at the end of 16th century) .. [Dale, Indian Merchants, ] Arab slave traders also brought slaves as early as the first century AD from Africa. Most of the African slaves were brought however in the 17th century and were taken into Western India. The Siddipeople are of mainly East African descent.
Much of the northern and central parts of the subcontinent was ruled by the so-called
Slave Dynastyof Turkic origin from 1206-1290: Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a slave of Muhammad Ghorirose to power following his master's death. For almost a century, his descendants ruled presiding over the introduction of Tankas and building of Qutub Minar.
According to Sir
Henry Bartle Frere(who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves. Slavery was abolished in both Hinduand Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. Provisions of the Indian Penal Codeof 1861 effectively abolished slavery in India by making the enslavement of human beings a criminal offense. [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-24160 Slavery :: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Historical survey > Slave-owning societies] ] [ [http://www.wluml.org/english/pubs/pdf/occpaper/OCP-07.pdf Islamic Law and the Colonial Encounter in British India] ] [ [http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=40A67F228E2C056228208BC3FD05D1C0.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=126588 Hindus Beyond the Hindu Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade] ]
Human Rights Watch, there are currently more than 40 million bonded laborers in India, [ [http://www.unesco.org/courier/2001_09/uk/doss22.htm India’s “hidden apartheid”] ] who work as slaves to pay off debts; a majority of them are Dalits. [ [http://www.cbc.ca/ideas/features/untouchables/index.html The Untouchables] ] There are also an estimated 5 million bonded workers in Pakistan. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4042207.stm Life as a modern slave in Pakistan] ] As many as 200,000 Nepali girls, manyunder 14, have been sold into the sex slaveryin India. Nepalese women and girls, especially virgins, are favored in India because of their fair skin and young looks. [ [http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/4/23/184354.shtml Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery] ] [ [http://www.thefullmonte.com/traffic.htm Fair skin and young looks: Nepalese victims of human trafficking languish in Indian brothels] ]
Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924. [Tucci, Giuseppe. (1952). "Journey to Mustang, 1952". Trans. by Diana Fussell. 1st Italian edition, 1953; 1st English edition, 1977. 2nd edition revised, 2003, p. 22. Bibliotheca Himalayica. ISBN 99933-0-378-X (South Asia); 974-524-024-9 (Outside of South Asia). ]
Chinahas repeatedly come in and out of favor. Due to the enormous population of the region throughout most of its history, China has relatively had an almost unlimited workforce of cheap labor. Thus, the economy would naturally rely on a system of serfdom, slavery, or a combination of both. Approximately 5% of China's population was enslaved in ancient Han China (206 BC–220 AD), later included kidnapped or bought Negritosfrom the Philippines, and slavery continued in China until the early 20th century.Fact|date=October 2008
:"In the houses of wealthy citizens, it is not unusual to find twenty to thirty slaves attending upon a family. Even citizens in the humbler walks of life deem it necessary to have each a slave or two. The price of a slave varies, of course, according to age, health, strength, and general appearance. The average price is from fifty to one hundred dollars, but in time of war, or revolution, poor parents, on the verge of starvation, offer their sons and daughters for sale at remarkably low prices. I remember instances of parents, rendered destitute by the marauding bands who invested the two southern "Kwangs" in 1854-55, offering to sell their daughters in Canton for five dollars apiece. . . .
:The slavery to which these unfortunate persons are subject, is perpetual and hereditary, and they have no parental authority over their offspring. The great-grandsons of slaves, however, can, if they have sufficient means, purchase their freedom. . . .
:Masters seem to have the same uncontrolled power over their slaves that parents have over their children. Thus a master is not called to account for the death of a slave, although it is the result of punishment inflicted by him." [Gray, John Henry. (1878). "China: A History of the Laws, Manners and Customs of the People", pp. 241-243. Reprint: Dover Publications, Mineola, New York. (2002).]
:"In former times slaves were slain and offered in sacrifice to the spirit of the owner when dead, or by him to his ancestors: sometimes given as a substitute to suffer the death penalty incurred by his owner or in fulfillment of a vow. It used to be customary in Kuei-chou (and Szü-chuan too, I believe) to inter living slaves with their dead owners; the slaves were to keep a lamp burning in the tomb....
:Slavery exists in China, especially in Canton and Peking.... It is a common thing for well-to-do people to present a couple of slave girls to a daughter as part of her marriage dowery [sic] . Nearly all prostitutes are slaves. It is, however, customary with respectable people to release their slave girls when marriageable. Some people sell their slaves girls to men wanting a wife for themselves or for a son of theirs.
:I have bought three different girls: two in Szü-chuan for a few taels each, less than fifteen dollars. One I released in Tientsin, another died in Hongkong; the other I gave in marriage to a faithful servant of mine. Some are worth much money at Shanghai." [
William Mesny. (13th May, 1905). "Mesny's Miscellany", Vol IV, p. 399.]
Private slavery in China was technically abolished in 1910, [ [http://www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/class/cfe/ceth/abolition/history.htm Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project] ] although the practice apparently still continues unofficially in some regions. ["Chinese Police Find Child Slaves." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7374864.stm] ] ["Convictions in China slave trial" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6902459.stm] ] The Chinese government continues to practice slavery in the form of forced prison labor for a wide variety of raw material processing and manufacture of goods for both domestic consumption and export. It is estimated that in the last 50 years more than 50 million people was sent to the "
Laogai" forced-labor camps. [ [http://news.sbs.com.au/dateline/inside_the_lao_gai_130581 Inside the Lao Gai] ]
Japanwas, for most of its history, indigenous, since the export and import of slaves was restricted by Japan being a group of islands. Korean slaves were shipped to Japan during the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 16th century. [ [http://www.cartography.henny-savenije.pe.kr/ Korea through western cartographic eyes.] ] [ [http://www.samurai-archives.com/hak.html Hideyoshi and Korea] ] The export of a slave from Japan is recorded in 3rd century Chinese document, although the system involved is unclear. These slaves were called nihongo|"seiko"|生口, lit. "living mouth".
8th century, a slave was called nihongo|"nuhi"|奴婢 and series of laws on slavery was issued. In an area of present-day Ibaraki Prefecture, out of a population of 190,000, around 2,000 were slaves; the proportion is believed to have been even higher in western Japan.
By the time of the
Sengoku period(1467-1615), the attitude that slavery was anachronistic had become widespread. However, notably, in a meeting with Catholic priests, Oda Nobunagawas presented with a black slave, the first recorded encounter between a Japanese and an African. With the arrival of the leading Jesuit Francis Xavierin 1549, Catholicism developed as a major religious force in Japan. The tolerance towards Western "padres" was initially linked to trade concerned and part of that trade was slaves. There arose concern about the slavery of mainly Japanese women between the Christian Dyamo and the Portuguese Maranos, involving around 500,000 Japanese, mainly in a trade for gunpowder [cite book
last = Onizuka
first = Hideaki
title = The Rosary of the Showa Emperor
publisher = Bainbridgebooks/Trans-Atlantic Publications
quote = Japan would exchange a barrel of gunpowder for fifty slaves. (In this case it would be specified as white-skinned (light skinned) good –looking (pleasing to the eyes) young Japanese women/maidens) In the name of God, if Japan can be occupied/possessed I am sure the price can be increased.
year = 2006
pages = 225
isbn = 4-88086-200-2] [cite book
last = Tokutomi
first = Soho
title = History of Modern Japanese People: The Toyotomi Era
publisher = Bainbridgebooks/Trans-Atlantic Publications
year = 1998
pages = 337-387
isbn = 1-8916-960-5X] which affected Hideyoshi's reaction to Christianity. In 1588,
Toyotomi Hideyoshiordered all slave trading to be abolished. This was continued by his successors.
World War II
Empire of Japanannexed Asian countries, from the late 19th century onwards, archaic institutions including slavery were abolished in those countries. However, during the Second Sino-Japanese Warand the Pacific War, the Japanese military used millions of civilians and prisoners of waras forced labor, on projects such as the Burma Railway.
According to a joint study by historians including Zhifen Ju, Mitsuyoshi Himeta, Toru Kubo and Mark Peattie, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the "Kōa-in" (Japanese Asia Development Board) for forced labour. [Zhifen Ju, "Japan's Atrocities of Conscripting and Abusing North China Draftees after the Outbreak of the Pacific War", Joint study of the Sino-Japanese war, 2002, http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~asiactr/sino-japanese/minutes_2002.htm] According to the Japanese military's own record, nearly 25% of 140,000 Allied
POWsdied while interned in Japanese prison camps where they were forced to work ( U.S.POWs died at a rate of 37%). [ [http://www.japantoday.com/jp/book/115 How Japanese companies built fortunes on American POWs] ] [ [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bataan/peopleevents/e_atrocities.html Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines] ] More than 100,000 civilians and POWs died in the construction of the Burma-Siam Railway. [ [http://www.mansell.com/pow_resources/links.html links for research, Allied POWs under the Japanese ] ] The U.S. Library of Congress estimates that in Java, between 4 and 10 million " romusha" (Japanese: "manual laborer"), were forced to work by the Japanese military. [ [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+id0029) Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942-50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942-45"] Access date: February 9, 2007. ] About 270,000 of these Javanese laborers were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. (For further details, see Japanese war crimes.) [ [http://www.counterpunch.org/reed02022006.html Christopher Reed: Japan's Dirty Secret, One Million Korean Slaves] ]
Koreanswere conscripted into forced labor from 1939 to 1945. About 670,000 of them were taken to Japan, where about 60,000 died between 1939 and 1945 due mostly to exhaustion or poor working conditions. Many of those taken to Karafuto Prefecture(modern-day Sakhalin) were trapped there at the end of the war, stripped of their nationality and denied repatriation by Japan; they became known as the Sakhalin Koreans.cite news|last=Lankov|first=Andrei|publisher=The Korea Times|date=2006-01-05|accessdate=2006-11-26|title=Stateless in Sakhalin|url=http://times.hankooki.com/lpage/opinion/200601/kt2006010516434554130.htm] The total deaths of Korean forced laborers in Korea and Manchuriafor those years is estimated to be between 270,000 and 810,000. [cite book | first=R. J. | last=Rummel | coauthors= | title=Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1990 | publisher=Lit Verlag | location= | year=1999 | editor= | id=ISBN 3-8258-4010-7Available online: cite web | title=Statistics of Democide: Chapter 3 - Statistics Of Japanese Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources | work=Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War | url=http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP3.HTM | accessdate=2006-03-01]
As many as 200,000 women, [ [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/10/15/congress_backs_off_of_wartime_japan_rebuke Congress backs off of wartime Japan rebuke] ] mostly from
Koreaand China, and some other countries such as the Philippines, Taiwan, Burma, the Dutch East Indies, Netherlands, [ [http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200703/200703190023.html Comfort Women Were 'Raped': U.S. Ambassador to Japan] ] and Australia [ [http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/abe-ignores-evidence-say-australias-comfort-women/2007/03/02/1172338881441.html Abe ignores evidence, say Australia's 'comfort women'] ] were forced into sexual slaveryduring the World War II. (See Comfort women)
Indigenous slaves existed in
Korea. Slavery was officially abolished with the Gabo Reformof 1894 but remained extant in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty(1392–1910) about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Encyclopædia Britannica - Slavery] ] Slavery was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment. [ [http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2007/03.22/35-mm.html Edward Willett Wagner - The Harvard University Gazette] ] There was a slave class with both government and privately owned slaves, and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. During poor harvests and famine, many peasants would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive. In the case of private slaves they could buy their freedom. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-693609/history-of-Korea Korea, history pre-1945: slavery -- Encyclopaedia Britannica] ] [ [http://www.geog.buffalo.edu/~geobl/main/lectures/l17.html The Choson Era: Late Traditional Korea] ] [ [http://ideas.repec.org/p/snu/ioerwp/no26.html Korean Nobi] ] [ [http://muninn.net/blog/2005/04/nobi-rescuing-the-nation-from-slavery.html Nobi: Rescuing the Nation from Slavery] ]
There was a large slave class in
Khmer Empirewho built the enduring monuments in Angkor Watand did most of the heavy work. [ [http://travel.mongabay.com/cambodia/angkorwat.htm Cambodia Angkor Wat] ] Slaves had been taken captive from the mountain tribes. [ [http://asia.msu.edu/seasia/Cambodia/history.html Windows on Asia] ] People unable to pay back a debt to the upper ruling class could be sentenced to work as a slave too. [ [http://www.cambodia-travel.com/khmer/society.htm Khmer Society - Angkor Wat] ] Between the 17th and the early 20th centuries one-quarter to one-third of the population of some areas of Thailandand Burmawere slaves. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Slavery] ]
Siam, the war captives became the property of the king. During the reign of Rama III(1824-1851), there were an estimated 46,000 war slaves. Slaves from independent hill populations were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese, the Anamites, and the Cambodians" (Colquhoun 1885:53). [ [http://kyotoreviewsea.org/slavery4.htm Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand] ] Yi peoplein Yunnanpracticed a complicated form of slavery. People were split into the Black Yi (nobles, 7% of the population), White Yi (commoners), Ajia (33% of the Yi population) and the Xiaxi (10%). Ajia and Xiaxi were slave castes. The White Yi were not slaves but had no freedom of movement. The Black Yi were famous for their slave-raids on Han Chinesecommunities. After the 1959 some 700,000 slaves were freed. [ [http://www.istp.murdoch.edu.au/ISTP/casestudies/Case_Studies_Asia/tour_yi/tour_yi.html The Yi Nationality] ] [ [http://yi.peoples.org/learn/profiles/general.htm General Profile of the Yi] ] [ [http://www.china.org.cn/e-groups/shaoshu/shao-2-yi.htm The Yi ethnic minority] ]
Torajasociety in Indonesiawere family property. Sometimes Torajans decided to become slaves when they incurred a debt, pledging to work as payment. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Torajan slaves were sold and shipped out to Javaand Siam. Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free women—a crime punishable by death. Slavery was abolished in 1909 by the Dutch East Indiesgovernment. [ [http://www.indonesiaphoto.com/content/view/150/45/ Tana Toraja Traditional Settlement] ] [ [http://www.everyculture.com/East-Southeast-Asia/Toraja-History-and-Cultural-Relations.html Toraja History and Cultural Relations] ]
There are currently an estimated 300,000 women and children involved in the sex trade throughout
Southeast Asia. [ [http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=26296 Sex-slave trade flourishes in Thailand] ] It is common that Thaiwomen are lured to Japanand sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price. [ [http://www.nationmultimedia.com/search/page.arcview.php?clid=3&id=126551&date=2006-01-23 "Woman's Dying Wish: to punish traffickers who ruined her life"] "The Nation", January 23 2006] [ [http://www.hrw.org/reports/1993/thailand/ A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand] ]
According to the
International Labor Organization(ILO), an estimated 800,000people are subject to forced labor in Myanmar. [ [http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/GC29Ae02.html ILO cracks the whip at Yangon] ] In November 2006, the International Labor Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous forced labor of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice. [cite news|url=http://in.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-11-16T163442Z_01_NOOTR_RTRJONC_0_India-276537-1.xml&archived=False |title=ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities |publisher=Reuters|date= 2006-11-16|accessdate=2006-11-17 ]
Central Asia and the Caucasus
Russian conquest of the
Caucasusled to the abolition of slavery by the 1860s [ [http://chnm.gmu.edu/lostmuseum/lm/311/ "Horrible Traffic in Circassian Women—Infanticide in Turkey," New York Daily Times, August 6, 1856] ] [ [http://www.parliament.ge/pages/archive_en/history/his8.html Georgia in the Beginning of Feudal Decomposition. (XVIII cen.)] ] and the conquest of the Central AsianIslamic khanates of Bukhara, Samarkand, and Khiva by the 1870s. [ [http://www.ferghana.ru/ancient/urta_osie.html Khiva, Bukhara, Khokand] ] The Russian administration liberated the slaves of the Kazakhsin 1859. [ [http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/sympo/97summer/galiev.html Traditional Institutions in Modern Kazakhstan] ] A notorious slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Khanate of Khivafrom the 17th to the 19th century. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810930,00.html Adventure in the East - TIME] ] During the first half of the 19th century alone, some one million Persians, as well as an unknown number of Russians, were enslaved and transported to Central Asian khanates. [ [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281379/Ichan-Kala Ichan-Kala] , Encyclopedia Britannica] [ [http://www.amazon.com/Fabled-Cities-Central-Asia-Samarkand/dp/0896599647 Fabled Cities of Central Asia: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva: Robin Magowan, Vadim E. Gippenreiter] ] When the Russian troops took Khiva in 1873 there were 29,300 Persian slaves, captured by Turkoman raiders. According of Josef Wolff (Report of 1843-1845) the population of the Khanate of Bukhara was one million two hundred thousand, of whom 200,000 were Persian slaves. [ [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/5246/trade.html Report of Josef Wolff 1843-1845] ] At the beginning of the 21st century Chechens and Ingush kept Russian captives as slaves or in slave-like conditions in the mountains of the northern Caucasus. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1875162.stm Slave of the Caucasus] ]
In the first half of the nineteenth century, small-scale slave raids took place across
Polynesiato supply labor and sex workers for the whalingand sealing trades, with examples from both the westerly and easterly extremes of the Polynesian triangle. By the 1860s this had grown to a larger scale operation with Peruvianslave raids in the South Sea Islandsto collect labor for the guanoindustry.
Ancient Hawaiiwas a caste society. People were born into specific social classes. Kauwa were the outcast or slave class. They are believed to have been war captives, or the descendents of war captives. Marriage between higher castes and the kauwa was strictly forbidden. The kauwa worked for the chiefs and were often used as human sacrifices at the " luakiniheiau". (They were not the only sacrifices; law-breakers of all castes or defeated political opponents were also acceptable as victims.) [ [http://www.mythichawaii.com/hawaiian-culture-society.htm Kapu System and Caste System of Ancient Hawai'i] ]
Aotearoa / New Zealand
Māorisociety of Aotearoa, prisoners of warbecame "taurekareka", slaves, unless released, ransomed or tortured. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0014-1801(196121)8%3A2%3C144%3AMPASIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5 Maori Prisoners and Slaves in the Nineteenth Century] ] With some exceptions, the child of a slave remained a slave. As far as it is possible to tell, slavery seems to have increased in the early nineteenth century, as a result of increased numbers of prisoners being taken by Māori military leaders such as Hongi Hikaand Te Rauparahain the Musket Wars, the need for labor to supply whalers and traders with food, flax and timber in return for western goods, and the missionary condemnation of cannibalism. Slavery was outlawed when the British annexed New Zealandin 1840, immediately prior to the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, although it did not end completely until government was effectively extended over the whole of the country with the defeat of the Kingi movement in the Wars of the mid 1860s.
One group of
Polynesianswho migrated to the Chatham Islandsbecame the Morioriwho developed a largely pacifist culture. It was originally speculated that they settled the Chathams direct from Polynesia, but it is now widely believed they were disaffected Māori who emigrated from the South Island of New Zealand.cite book
last = Clark
first = Ross
title = Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence. In Sutton, Douglas G. (Ed.) (1994), "The Origins of the First New Zealanders"
publisher = Auckland University Press
year = 1994
location = Auckland
pages = pp123-135
isbn = ] [cite book
last = Solomon
first = Māui
coauthors = Denise Davis
title = Moriori
publisher = Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
date = updated 2006-06-09
url = http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/Moriori/en
isbn = ] cite web
last = Howe
first = Kerry
title = Ideas of Māori origins
publisher = Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
date = updated 9-June-2006
url = http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/IdeasOfMaoriOrigins/en
accessdate = ] cite book
last = King
first = Michael
title = Moriori: A People Rediscovered
publisher = Viking
date = 2000 (Original edition 1989)
isbn = ISBN 0-14-010391-0] Their pacifism left the Moriori unable to defend themselves when the islands were invaded by mainland Māori in the 1830s. Some 300 Moriori men, women and children were massacred and the remaining 1,200 to 1,300 survivors were enslaved. [ [http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/Moriori/4/en Moriori - The impact of new arrivals - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand] ] [ [http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php?pageid=607&PHPSESSID=1c2fab7979e45ccc7c3e7336e8636142 New Zealand A to Z |Chatham Islands] ]
Rapa Nui / Easter Island
The isolated island of
Rapa Nui/ Easter Islandwas inhabited by the Rapanui, who suffered a series of slave raids from 1805 or earlier, culminating in a near genocidal experience in the 1860s. The 1805 raid was by American sealers and was one of a series that changed the attitude of the islanders to outside visitors, with reports in the 1820s and 1830s that all visitors received a hostile reception. In December 1862, Peruvianslave raiders took between 1,400 and 2,000 islanders back to Peru to work in the guanoindustry; this was about a third of the island's population and included much of the island's leadership, the last "ariki-mau" and possibly the last who could read Rongorongo. After intervention by the French ambassador in Lima, the last 15 survivors were returned to the island, but brought with them smallpox, which further devastated the island.
Slavery has existed, in one form or another, throughout the whole of human history. So, too, have movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves.
Mosesled Israelite slaves from ancient Egyptaccording to the Biblical Book of Exodus- possibly the first mythical account of a movement to free slaves.Fact|date=July 2008 However, abolitionismshould be distinguished from efforts to help a particular group of slaves, or to restrict one practice, such as the slave trade.
slavery of Iran" Cyrus the Great, the founder of Persian Empiretemporarily prohibited the systematic enslavement of conquered non-combatant population. Cyrus also freed slaves and allowed all deported peoples whom were enslaved by former kings, return to home. It is said that he freed up to 40,000 Jews and allowed them to return home. Cylinder of Cyrus the Greatcontaining the Decree on the conquered non-combatant population. Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War - Page 44-45 by Kaveh Farrokh - History - 2007 - 320 pages] [ Yunus Jaffery (1981) "History of Persian Literature" Published by Triveni Publications, University of Michigan, page 121] [Hirad Abtahi, Gideon Boas, Richard May (2006). "The Dynamics of International Criminal Justice: Essays In Honour Of Sir Richard May" Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006, page 15-16]
In 1772, the Somersett Case ("R. v. Knowles, ex parte Somersett") [(1772) 20 State Tr 1; (1772) Lofft 1] of the English
Court of King's Benchruled that slaverywas unlawful in England(although not elsewhere in the British Empire). A similar case, that of Joseph Knight, took place in Scotland five years later and ruled slavery to be contrary to the law of Scotland.
Following the work of campaigners in the United Kingdom, the Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade was passed by Parliament on
March 25, 1807, coming into effect the following year. The act imposed a fine of £100 for every slave found aboard a British ship. The intention was to outlaw entirely the Atlantic slave tradewithin the whole British Empire.
Slavery Abolition Act, passed on August 23, 1833, outlawed slavery itself in the British colonies. On August 1, 1834all slaves in the British West Indies, were emancipated, but still indentured to their former owners in an apprenticeship system which was finally abolished in 1838. [ [http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/thisday/2006/08/slavery-abolished-in-british-empire.php This Day at Law: Slavery abolished in the British Empire] ]
Britain abolished slavery in both
Hinduand Muslim India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843. [ [http://www.commonlii.org/in/legis/num_act/bla1941111/ Indian Legislation] ]
Domestic slavery practised by the educated African coastal elites (as well as interior traditional rulers) in
Sierra Leonewas abolished in 1928. A study found practices of domestic slavery still widespread in rural areas in the 1970s. [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmintdev/923/923m21.htm House of Commons - International Development - Memoranda] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/story/0,,1998227,00.html Response The 1833 Abolition of Slavery Act didn't end the vile trade] ]
There were slaves in mainland
France, but the institution was never fully authorized there. However, slavery was vitally important in France's Caribbeanpossessions, especially Saint-Domingue. In 1793, unable to repress the massive slave revolt of August 1791 that had become the Haitian Revolution, the French Revolutionary commissioners Sonthonaxand Polvereldeclared general emancipation. In Paris, on February 4, 1794, Abbé Grégoireand the Convention ratified this action by officially abolishing slavery in all French territories. Napoleonsent troops to the Caribbean in 1802 to try to re-establish slavery. They succeeded in Guadeloupe, but the ex-slaves of Saint-Domingue defeated the French army and declared independence. The colony became Haiti, the first black republic, on January 1, 1804. [http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/earlyhaiti/dessalines.htm A Brief History of Dessalines from 1825 Missionary Journal] ]
Slavery is defined as a
crime against humanityby a French law of 2001. fr icon Cite web | title=Loi n° 2001-434 du 21 mai 2001 tendant à la reconnaissance de la traite et de l'esclavage en tant que crime contre l'humanité | publisher= " French National Assembly" | date= May 21, 2001| accessdate= 2006-04-26 | url=http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/11/dossiers/esclavage.asp]
Slaves in the
United Stateswho escaped ownership would often make their way to Canadavia the " Underground Railroad". The more famous of the African American abolitionistsinclude former slaves Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truthand Frederick Douglass. Many more people who opposed slavery and worked for abolition were northern whites, such as William Lloyd Garrisonand John Brown. Slavery was legally abolished in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The British designated
Sierra Leonein Africa as a destination country for former slaves of the British Empire, and some Americans hoped to send freed American slaves to Liberiain a similar kind of "repatriation".
While abolitionists agreed on the evils of slavery, there were differing opinions on what should happen after African Americans were freed. Some abolitionists, worried about the difficulties of integrating numerous uneducated people into a hostile environment, hoped to send freed people to Africa. By the time of Emancipation, most African-Americans were now native to the United States and did not want to leave. They believed that their labor had made the land theirs as well as that of the whites;
trade unions feared competition in supplying an affordable labor force against former slaves. Most freed people stayed in the United States by choice.Fact|date=February 2008
Congress of Vienna
The "Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of 8th of February 1815" (Which also formed ACT, No. XV. of the Final Act of the
Congress of Viennaof the same year) included in its first sentence the concept of the "principles of humanity and universal morality" as justification for ending a trade that was "odious in its continuance". [The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, Published by s.n., 1816 Volume 32. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=I8ETAAAAYAAJ&pg=P74#PPT24,M1 p. 200] ]
Twentieth century worldwide
1926 Slavery Convention, an initiative of the League of Nations, was a turning point in banning global slavery. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly, explicitly banned slavery. The United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slaverywas convened to outlaw and ban slavery worldwide, including child slavery. In December 1966, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which was developed from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Article 8 of this international treaty bans slavery. The treaty came into force in March 1976 after it had been ratified by 35 nations. As of November 2003, 104 nations had ratified the treaty.
According to the British Anti-Slavery Society, "Although there is no longer any state which recognizes any claim by a person to a right of property over another, there are an estimated 27 million people throughout the world, mainly children, in conditions of slavery." [ [http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2005/issue3/0305p28.html UN Chronicle |Slavery in the Twenty-First Century] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/2010401.stm BBC Millions 'forced into slavery'] ] [ [http://www.downbound.com/Slavery_s/29.htm Slavery: Modern Slavery: Debt Bondage & Slave Exploitation] ] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101930621-161939,00.html The Skin Trade - TIME] ]
* Types of slavery:
* Types of slave trades:
African slave trade
Arab slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
Coastwise slave trade
Swedish slave trade
* Present-day slavery:
Slavery in modern Africa
Trafficking in human beings;People
List of famous slaves
* Notable abolitionists
William Wilberforce- UK
* Types of slave soldiers:
Saqaliba;Ideals and organisations
Religious Society of Friends
Society for effecting the abolition of the slave trade
United States National Slavery Museum
International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition;Other
History of slavery in the United States:
Origins of the American Civil War
North Carolina v. Mann
Religion and slavery
Slavery at common law
William Lynch Speech
History of Liverpool#Slavery
Serfdom in Russia
* [http://www.ungift.org UN.gifT] - Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
* [http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=8780&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html "Slave Trade Archives Project", UNESCO]
* [http://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade Parliament & The British Slave Trade 1600 - 1807]
* [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/slav_fact.cfm "Digital History - Slavery Facts & Myths"]
* [http://www.voiceofdharma.com/books/mssmi Muslim Slave System in Medieval India]
* [http://www.arabslavetrade.com Arab Slave Trade]
* [http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/abolition/ "Scotland and the Abolition of the Slave Trade - schools resource"]
* [http://www.africanholocaust.net African Holocaust Society] - Anti-slavery and self-determination working to educate via media
* [http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Classroom/9912/easterntrade.html The Forgotten Holocaust: The Eastern Slave Trade]
* [http://www.blackhistory4schools.com/slavetrade/ Teaching resources about Slavery and Abolition on blackhistory4schools.com]
* [http://www.swagga.com/maafa.htm African history by Africans]
* [http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=332&issue=115 "What really ended slavery?"]
Robin Blackburn, author of a two-volume history of the slave trade, interviewed by International Socialism
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.