- Forced settlements in the Soviet Union
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. Though the most notorious was the
Gulag labor campsystem of penal labor, resettling of entire categories of population was another method of political repression. At the same time, involuntary settlement played a role in the colonizationof remote areas of the Soviet Union. This role was specifically mentioned in the first Soviet decrees about involuntary labor camps. Population transfer in the Soviet Unionthat led to the creation of these settlements was performed in a series of operations organized according to social and national criteria of the deported.
Unlike the Gulag camps, the involuntary settlements had the appearance of "normal" settlements: people lived in families, and there was a significant degree of freedom of travel. However, the travel was permitted only within the specified area, and all settlers were under the monitoring of
NKVD(под надзором НКВД), i.e., once a month a person had to visit a local law enforcement office, at a selsovietin rural areas or at a militsiyadepartment in urban settlements).
Exile settlements (ссыльное поселение, "ssylnoye poselenie") were a kind of
internal exile. The system of political and administrative exile existed in the Imperial Russiaas well. The most notable category of exile settlers in the Soviet Union (ссыльнопоселенцы, "ssylnoposelentsy") were the whole nationalities resettled during Joseph Stalin's rule (1928–1953). At various times, a number of other terms were used for this category :"special settlement" (спецпоселение) ,"special resettlement" (спецпереселение), "administrative exile" (административная высылка, a term which refers to an extrajudicialway of deciding the fates of people " by administrative means".
Exiles were sent to remote areas of the Soviet Union:
Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and the Russian Far East.
The population of the settlements
The major source of the population in exile settlements was victims of what is now called "
ethnic cleansing". The Soviet government feared that people of certain nationalities would act as " fifth column" subversives during the expected war, and took drastic measures to prevent this perceived threat. The deported were sent to prisons, labor camps, exile settlements, and "supervised residence" (residence in usual settlements, but under the monitoring of the NKVD).
Deportations from border territories in 1939–1941
Several waves of forced resettlement occurred from the territories on the Western borders, because the Soviet government believed this to be the most likely direction of a potential strike by the most probable aggressor. These territories included
Murmansk Oblastand the recently annexed lands: parts of Polandand Romania(about 20,000 people: the men were deported to Siberia, while the women and children to Kazakhstan), and the Baltic States.
In territories annexed from Poland (the
Kresyterritories and the Białystok Voivodeship (1919-1939)), the initial wave of repression of 1939 was in a way a continuation of the Polish operation of the NKVDand was rationalized as conviction of "social enemies", or " enemies of the people": military, police and administrative personnel, large landowners, industrialists, merchants. They were usually sentenced to 8–20 years of labor camps. In addition, the population along Poland's Eastern border, as well as forest-guards and railroad workers were interned. Massive deportations of the Polish population into remote areas of the Soviet Union took place in 1940–1941.
Estimates of the total number of deported Poles vary between 400,000 and 1.6 million people.
23 June 1940 Lavrenty Beria, head of the NKVD, ordered the Murmansk Oblastto be cleaned of "foreign nationals", both Scandinaviansand all other nationalities. People of Finnish, Swedish, and Norwegian (see also " Kola Norwegians") ethnicities were moved to Karelo-Finnish SSR. Germans, Koreans, Chinese, and others were moved to Altay.
Deportations of "exiled settlers" from Baltic States (
Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians) and annexed part of Romania ( Bessarabiaand Northern Bukovina) were carried out in May-June 1941.
In 1941 a significant numberquantify|date=August 2008 of Poles were amnestied and freed from "special settlement" (but still barred from border territories).
"Preventive" deportations of nationalities in 1941–1942
These deportations concerned Soviet citizens of "enemy nationality". The affected were ethnic Germans, Finns,
Romanians, Italians, and Greeks. At the end of this period Crimean Tatarswere included in this wave of deportation.
"Punitive" deportations of nationalities in 1943–1944
These deportations concerned ethnicities declared guilty of cooperation with Nazi occupants: a number of peoples of
North Caucasusand Crimea: Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks, Crimean Tatars, and Crimean Bolgars, as well as Kalmyks.
Deportations of Germans from the occupied territories in 1944–1945
Red Armyoccupation lead to the deportation to Siberia of more than 200,000 ethnic Germansof Romania(around 75,000 Transylvanian Saxons), Hungaryand Yugoslavia. Most of them died in prison camps. See Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Unionfor details.
Deportations after the end of
World War IIwere not particularly differentiated or classified by "NKVD operations". The affected were people from the territories that were under the administration of the Axis Powers: family members of persons accused of loyalty to the Axis administration and of persons who continued resistance to Soviet power, which was classified as "banditism". A significant numberquantify|date=August 2008 of former Ostarbeiters were "filtered" into exile as well. "Cleansing" of the annexed territories continued until early 1950s. In July 1949, revolts of the Romanian peasants of Bessarabiaand Northern Bukovinawere repressed and lead to the deportation of around 95,000 people. (this figure was used in the reports presented to Stalin in 1951)
The term "ukaznik" derives from the Russian term "
ukaz" that means "decree". It applies to convicted according to various Soviet "ukazes", but the most common usage refers to a series of decrees related to what later formalized in the Soviet law as "parasitism", or "evasion from socially-useful work". Among the first of these was the decree of June 2, 1942"About the Criminal Answerability for Evasion from Socially Useful Work and for Antisocial Parasitic Way of Life in Agricultural Sector" (Об ответственности за уклонение от общественно полезного труда и за ведение антиобщественного паразитического образа жизни в сельском хозяйстве). It was usually applied to kolkhozniks who failed to carry out their work qouta ("trudodni", "labour-days"). The term of exile was 8 years. During 1948-1952 33,266 "special settlers - "ukazniks" have been registered. Unlike other exile settler categories, children of these exiles were not subject the Decree.
A number of
religious sects (such as Jehovah's Witnesses("свидетели иеговы"), Truly Orthodox Christians("истинно-православные христиане", Innokentians("иннокентьевцы"), Adventists-Reformists("адвентисты-реформисты")) were outlawed for their violation of the Soviet law "On the Separation of Church from the State and the School from the Church". In particular, these sects forbade their members to join the Young Pioneers, the Komsomol, or to serve in Soviet Army. Usually members of these sects and especially their leaders were subject to criminal lawand treated on case-by-case basis. However on March 1, 1953, the USSR Council of Ministersissued a decree, "On Expulsion of Active Participants of the anti-Soviet Illegal Sect of Jehovists and their Family Members" (Постановление Совета Министров СССР о выселении активных участников антисоветской нелегальной секты иеговистов и членов их семей №1290-467 от 3 марта 1951 года). According to this decree, about 9,400 Jehovah's Witnesses, including about 4,000 children, were resettled from the Baltic States, Moldova, and western parts of Belarusand Ukrainein 1951.
In 1954, a decree of the Presidium of the USSR Council of Ministers cancelled the "special settlement" restriction for members of these sects.
The above are the major, most populated categories of exile settlers. There were a number of smaller categories. They were small in the scale of the whole Soviet Union, but rather significant in terms of the affected categories of population. For example, in 1950 all Iranians, with the exception of persons of Armenian ethnicity, were resettled from the
Georgian SSR, a population of some 4,776 persons. In 1948-1951 by a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSRsome group of Azerbaijanisin Armeniabecame partly subject to a "voluntary resettlement" (called by current Azerbaijani sources a " deportation" [ [http://www.azerbembassy.org.cn/eng/31march_bg.html Deportation of 1948-1953] . "Azerbembassy.org.cn"] ) to Azerbaijan [ [http://www.archiveeditions.co.uk/Leafcopy/955LFLT.htm Armenia: Political and Ethnic Boundaries 1878-1948] by Anita L. P. Burdett (ed.) ISBN 1-85207-955-X] .
Labor settlements (трудопоселение, "trudoposelenie") were a method of internal exile that used settlers for obligatory labor. The main category of "labor settlers" (трудопоселенцы, "trudoposelentsy") were
kulaksand members of their families deported in 1930s before the Great Purge. Labor settlements were under the management of Gulag, but they must not be confused with labor camps.
The first official document that decreed wide-scale "
dekulakization" was joint decree of Central Executive Committeeand Sovnarkomby 1 February, 1930. Initially families of kulaks were deported into remote areas "for special settlement" without particular care about their occupation. In 1931-1932 the problems of dekulakization and territorial planning of the exile settlement was handled by a special Politburocommission known as "Andreev-Rudzutak Commission" (комиссия Андреева-Рудзутака) named after Andrey Andreevand Yan Rudzutak. The notions of "labor settlement"/"labor settlers" were introduced in 1934 and were in official use until 1945. Since 1945 the terminology was unified, and exiled kulaks were documented as "special resettlers — kulaks".
Free settlements (вольное поселение, "volnoye poselenie") were for persons released from the confines of labor camps "for free settlement" before their term expiration, as well as for those who served the full term, but remained restricted in their choice of place of residence. These people were known as "free settlers" ("вольнопоселенцы", "volnoposelentsy").
The term was in use earlier, in
Imperial Russia, in two meanings: free settlement of peasants or cossacks (in the sense of being free from serfdom) and non-confined exile settlement (e.g., after serving a katorgaterm).
In the Soviet Union, a decree of
Sovnarkomof 1929 about labor camps said, in part::"For gradual colonization of the regions where concentration camps are to be established, suggest the OGPUand Narkomatof Justice to urgently plan activities based on the following principles: (1) (2) (3) ".
The "free settlers" of the first category were often required to do the work assigned to the corresponding labor camp or some other obligatory work. Later, people could be assigned for "free settement" in other places as well, even in towns, with obligatory work wherever a workforce was required.
For a long time the numbers of people prosecuted in the Soviet Union were based on various estimates, counted in tens of millions and varied by a wide margin. After the
collapse of the Soviet Unionthe researchers gained access to the archives of NKVD. The revealed numbers point rather to lower numbers of the estimate range. In particular, data on January 1, 1953, show "only" 2,753,356 of "deported and "special settlers". Also, Dmitri Volkogonovin his book about Stalin quoted an MVDdocument that reports 2,572,829 on January 1, 1950. This invoked a harsh criticism of both the researchers and the validity of the archived data. Common responses to the criticism is that NKVD offices had all reasons to show the actual number of the registered people, since this demonstrated the "good job" done by the organisation. Furthermore, these data are rather difficult to forge, since they rely on the whole huge volume of the archival information, rather than on several reports. Olga Shatunovskaya, a member of the Soviet Commission of Party Control, and head of a special commission during the 1960s appointed by Khrushchev, has concluded in her report that "from January 1, 1935to June 22, 1941, 19,840,000 enemies of the people were arrested. Of these, seven million were shot in prison, and a majority of the others died in camp." These figures were also found in the papers of Politburomember Anastas Mikoyan. Historian Dmitri Volkogonov, head of a special Russian parliamentary commission, citing KGBdocuments available after the fall of the USSR concluded that "from 1929 to 1952, 21.5 million [Soviet] people were repressed. Of these a third were shot, the rest sentenced to imprisonment, where many also died."
Deportation of Romanians in the Soviet Union
Population transfer in the Soviet Union
The Black Book of Communism
Human rights in the Soviet Union
# Павел Полян, "Не по своей воле..." (
Pavel Polian, " Against Their Will... A History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR"), ОГИ Мемориал, Moscow, 2001, ISBN 5-94282-007-4
# V.N.Zemskov, "Inmates, Special Settlers, Exile Settlers, Exiled and Evicted (Statistical-Geographical Aspect)". In: "History of the USSR", 1991, no.5, pp. 151-165. (in Russian)
# Ioniţoiu, Cicerone, [http://www.procesulcomunismului.com/marturii/fonduri/ioanitoiu/rechizit.htm Genocidul din România, Repere în procesul comunismului] (in Romanian)
# International Socialism Journal, " [http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj83/appendix2.htm Forced migration in 20th century Balkans] ", 1995
Lynne Viola, "The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin's Special Settlements", Oxford University Press(2007) ISBN 0195187695
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