- JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston)
JPMorgan Chase Tower Former names Texas Commerce Tower in United Energy Plaza
Texas Commerce Tower
Alternative names Chase Tower General information Type Commercial offices Location 600 Travis Street
Coordinates Coordinates: Construction started 1978 Completed 1982 Height Roof 1,002 ft (305 m) Technical details Floor count 75 Floor area 1,300,000 sq ft (120,000 m2) Elevator count 50 Design and construction Main contractor Turner Construction Architect I.M. Pei & Partners
Ziegler Cooper Architects
Developer Hines Interests Limited Partnership Structural engineer CBM Engineers References 
JPMorgan Chase Tower, formerly Texas Commerce Tower, is a 1,002 ft (305 m), 75-story skyscraper in Houston, Texas. It is currently the tallest building in the city, the tallest building in Texas, the tallest five-sided building in the world, 12th tallest building in the United States, and the 54th tallest building in the world.
The tower was built in downtown Houston at 600 Travis Street in 1981 as Texas Commerce Tower. It was designed by noted architects I. M. Pei & Partners. In some early plans, the building reached up to 80 stories; however, the FAA expressed concern that additional height was a risk for aircraft going into and out of nearby William P. Hobby Airport. Nonetheless, when it was completed, it was the eighth tallest building in the world. The building was developed as part of a partnership between Texas Commerce Bank and Khalid bin Mahfouz.
Upon its completion, the building surpassed Aon Center in Los Angeles to become the tallest building in the United States west of the Mississippi River, a title it held until Los Angeles's Library Tower, now known as the U.S. Bank Tower, was built in 1990.
JPMorgan Chase Tower is also connected to the Houston Downtown Tunnel System. This system forms a network of subterranean, climate-controlled, pedestrian walkways that link twenty-five full city blocks. The lobby of JPMorgan Chase Tower has been designed to harmonize not only with the height of the structure but also with the portico of Jones Hall, home of the Houston Symphony Orchestra, and which occupies the city block immediately to the west. For that reason, a five-story glass wall supported by a stainless steel space frame spans the entire 85 foot width of the front entrance, making the lobby area light and airy, and opening up the space to the plaza outside.
The sky lobby observation deck is located on the 60th floor. The sky lobby acts as a transfer point for persons traveling to the upper (61-75) floors, but also as an observation deck for the public during the working hours of 8:00 a.m. — 5:00 p.m. Monday–Friday, free of charge. One can take the express elevator, providing a panoramic view of the city of Houston thanks to the use of wide glass spans and thirteen-foot ceilings. In the large plaza area at the entrance of the building is a multi-colored sculpture entitled "Personage with Birds", which was designed by painter and sculptor Joan Miró, and which was installed in the plaza in early 1982.
While the tower's name reflects the bank JPMorgan Chase, the only space designated to Chase is a single branch office on the bottom floor. The tower is owned by Prime Asset Management and managed by its original owner, Hines Interests.
On September 13, 2008, many of the tower's windows were blown out as Hurricane Ike moved through the area leaving desks exposed, metal blinds hanging in a twisted heap and smoky black glass covering the streets below. Police were forced to cordon off the area due to the amount of debris lying in the streets.
At first, it was speculated that the glass came off the building due to impact from debris or due to high-speed winds in the confined spaces. However, flying glass debris must be entirely governed by drag and lift forces that overcome gravity for a considerable time period. Also, the high speed in confined spaces theory is not entirely justified since the height of damage seen in the tower exceed too significantly the height of the Chase Center parking garage next to the tower. This theory was proposed because an increase in wind speed produce a drop in external pressure in the side and leeward walls and the pressure inside the building remained normal (high) thus resulting in a force that would overcome design pressures. Other interesting observations include those of ABS Consulting engineers who suggest that glazing damage may have been produced by "organized" vortices produced by the upwind Calpine Center and steady vortices between the Tower and the Chase Center parking garage. The NatHaz Modeling Laboratory at the University of Notre Dame is currently conducting an investigation of the flow field around the structure, modeling the tower and the immediate area surrounding it using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Preliminary findings suggest that the localized damage is the result of a confluence of multiple mechanisms arising from the arrangement of nearby buildings, critical flow directionality and the possible entrapment of debris within evolving flow structures.
The building as seen from a parking lot north of Minute Maid Park.
- List of tallest buildings in Houston
- List of tallest buildings by U.S. state
- List of tallest buildings in Texas
- List of tallest buildings in the United States
- Gulf Building (Houston)
- ^ JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston) at Emporis
- ^ JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston) at Glass Steel and Stone
- ^ JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston) at SkyscraperPage
- ^ JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston) at Structurae
- ^ Unger, Craig. House of Bush, House of Saud. Scribner. 2004. 290.
- ^ http://www.absconsulting.com/news/2008/HurricaneIke_ChaseTower.html
- ^ http://www.nd.edu/~nathaz/doc/NATHAZ_Ike_Glass_Dmg.pdf
- JP Morgan Chase Tower Official Site
- Profile of the Chase Tower
- Video of the after effects of Hurricane Ike on the JPMorgan Chase Tower
Records Preceded by
Tallest Building in Houston
Tallest Building in Texas
Aon Center (Los Angeles)
Tallest building in America outside of New York and Chicago
U.S. Bank Tower
Timeline of the tallest buildings west of the Mississippi
Central Tower (91 m) (1898) · Key Bank Center (71 m) (1911) · Smith Tower (141 m) (1914) · Kansas City Power and Light Building (145.1 m) (1931) · Mercantile National Bank Building (166 m) (1942) · Republic Center (183 m) (1954) · Sheraton Dallas Hotel (183 m) (1959) · ExxonMobil Building (185 m) (1963) · Elm Place (191 m) (1965) · 555 California Street (237 m) (1969) · Transamerica Pyramid (260 m) (1972) · Aon Center (262 m) (1973) · JPMorgan Chase Tower (305 m) (1982) · U.S. Bank Tower (310 m) (1990)
JPMorgan Chase Divisions Notable current executives: Notable former executives: Corporate Directors: Historical components:
- Banca Commerciale Italiana Trust Co.
- Bank One Corporation
- Bank of the Manhattan Company
- Bank United of Texas
- Bear Stearns
- Chase Manhattan Bank
- Chemical Bank
- Corn Exchange Bank
- Dime Savings Bank of New York
- First Chicago Bank
- First USA Bank
- Great Western Bank
- H. F. Ahmanson & Co.
- J.P. Morgan & Co.
- Hambrecht & Quist
- Manufacturers Hanover Corporation
- National Bank of Detroit
- Robert Fleming & Co.
- Sears Canada Bank
- Texas Commerce Bank
- Washington Mutual
- 125 London Wall
- 245 Park Avenue
- 270 Park Avenue
- 277 Park Avenue
- 383 Madison Avenue
- Chase Field
- Chase Tower (Amarillo)
- Chase Tower (Chicago)
- Chase Tower (Dallas)
- Chase Tower (Detroit)
- Chase Tower (El Paso)
- Chase Tower (Englewood, Colorado)
- Chase Tower (Indianapolis)
- Chase Tower (Milwaukee)
- Chase Tower (Oklahoma City)
- Chase Tower (Phoenix)
- Chase Tower (Rochester)
- Chater House
- JPMorgan Chase Building (San Francisco)
- JPMorgan Chase Tower (Houston)
- McCoy Building
- One Chase Manhattan Plaza
Supertall skyscrapers Current North America
Aon Center · Bank of America Plaza · Bank of America Tower · Chrysler Building · Empire State Building · Franklin Center (Chicago) · JPMorgan Chase Tower · John Hancock Center · The New York Times Building · Trump Tower Chicago · Two Prudential Plaza · U.S. Bank Tower · Wells Fargo Plaza · Willis Tower
Baiyoke Tower II · Bank of China Tower · The Center · Central Plaza · China World Trade Center Tower III · CITIC Plaza · Guangzhou International Finance Center · International Commerce Centre · International Finance Centre · Jin Mao Tower · Menara Telekom · Minsheng Bank Building · Nanjing Greenland Financial Center · Nina Tower · Northeast Asia Trade Tower · Petronas Towers · Shanghai World Financial Center · Shimao International Plaza · Shun Hing Square · Taipei 101 · Tuntex Sky Tower · Wenzhou World Trade Center
Europe Australia Middle East Under construction North America South America
Gran Torre Santiago
Abenobashi Terminal Building Tower · Busan Lotte World Tower · Dalian Eton Center · East Pacific Business Center · Forum 66 · Gate of the Orient · Gate of Taipei · Gezhouba International Plaza · Global Financial Building · The Gramercy Residences · Grand International Mansion (The Pinnacle) · Hanging Village of Huaxi · Keangnam Hanoi Landmark Tower · Kingkey 100 · Leatop Plaza · Lotte World Premium Tower · MahaNakhon · Orchid Heights · Palais Royale, Mumbai · Pearl River Tower · Ryugyong Hotel · Shanghai Tower · Sino-Steel Tower · Tianjin World Financial Center · The Wharf Times Square · We've the Zenith · Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour
Europe Middle East Construction suspended
Al Quds Endowment Tower · Barwa Tower · BDNI Center 1 · Burj Al Alam · Chow Tai Fook Centre · Dalian International Trade Center · Doha Convention Center Tower · Dubai Towers Dubai · Dubai Towers Doha · Eurasia · Faros del Panamá · Goldin Finance 117 · India Tower · JW Marriott International Finance Centre · Lighthouse Tower · Pingan International Finance Centre · Pentominium · Parc1 Tower A · Plaza Rakyat · Qatar National Bank Tower · Skycity · Square Capital Tower · The Skyscraper (Dubai) · Waterview Tower · White Magnolia Plaza · Xiamen Post & Telecommunications Building
FormerSee also Proposed supertall skyscrapers · List of architects of supertall buildings
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