Neo-Lutheranism was a 19th century revival movement within Lutheranism which began with the Pietist driven Erweckung, or Awakening, and developed in reaction against theological rationalism and pietism. This movement followed the Old Lutheran movement and focused on a reassertion of the identity of Lutherans as a distinct group within the broader community of Christians, with a renewed focus on the Lutheran Confessions as a key source of Lutheran doctrine. Associated with these changes was a renewed focus on traditional doctrine and liturgy, which paralleled the growth of Anglo-Catholicism in England. It was sometimes even called "German Puseyism". In the Roman Catholic Church in Germany, neo-Lutheranism was paralleled by Johann Adam Möhler. The chief literary organ of the neo-Lutheranism was Evangelische Kirchenzeitung, edited by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg.
Repristination versus Erlangen school
Neo-Lutheranism was a reaction against the Prussian Union  like Tractarianism against the British Government's decision to reduce the number of Irish bishoprics. A divide developed in neo-Lutheranism whereby one side held to repristination theology which tried to restore historical Lutheranism while the other held to the theology of the Erlangen School. The repristination theology group was represented by Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg, Carl Paul Caspari, Gustav Adolf Theodor Felix Hönecke, Friedrich Adolf Philippi, and C.F.W. Walther . Repristination theology is the mother of later Confessional Lutheranism. Confessionalism to the Erlangen School was not to be static but was to be dynamic. The Erlangen School tried to combine Reformation theology with the new learning. Those of the Erlangen School included Franz Hermann Reinhold von Frank, Theodosius Harnack, Franz Delitzsch, Johann Christian Konrad von Hofmann, Karl Friedrich August Kahnis, Christoph Ernst Luthardt and Gottfried Thomasius .
High Church Lutheranism
However, neo-Lutheranism is sometimes called only theology and activity represented by Theodor Friedrich Dethlof Kliefoth, August Friedrich Christian Vilmar, Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe, August Friedrich Otto Münchmeyer and Friedrich Julius Stahl who had particularly high ecclesiology. They were polemic against idea of invisible church, strongly claiming church as an outward, visible institution of salvation and therefore laid emphasis on ordained ministry instituted by Christ and significance of sacraments above word as Means of Grace. However, unlike the Erlangen School, this neo-Lutheranism did not make lasting influence on Lutheran theology. Properly speaking, High Church Lutheranism began in Germany much later, 1917 the Hochkirchliche Vereinigung Augsburgischen Bekenntnisses was created, inspired by 95 theses Stimuli et Clavi, exactly 100 years after Claus Harms' 95 theses.
Neo-Lutheranism should not be confused with term Neo-Protestantism, represented e.g. by Adolf von Harnack and his followers, which means exclusively liberal theology.
- Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless
- Andreas Gottlob Rudelbach
- Charles Porterfield Krauth
- Ludwig Adolf Petri
- Fredrik Gabriel Hedberg
- Evangelical Catholic
- Old Lutherans
- ^ Scherer, James A. (1993). "The Triumph of Confessionalism in Nineteenth-Century German Lutheran Missions" (– Scholar search). Missio Apostolica 2: 71–78. http://www.lsfmissiology.org/Essays/SchererTriumphofConfessionalism.pdf. [dead link] This is an extract from Scherer's 1968 Ph.D. thesis, "Mission and Unity in Lutheranism". Scherer was Professor of World Mission and Church History at the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago until his retirement.
- ^ "Lutheranism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- ^ a b c Lutheran Theology After 1580 article in Christian Cyclopedia
- Gustaf Aulén: Dogmhistoria, Stockholm 1933
Lutheran history Start of the
Posting of The Ninety-Five Theses · Heidelberg Disputation · Leipzig Debate · Marburg Colloquy · Diet of Speyer 1529 · Protestation at Speyer · Presentation of the Augsburg Confession · Reformation in Denmark-Norway and Holstein · Reformation in Finland · Reformation in Germany · Reformation in Iceland · Reformation in SwedenReformersMartin Luther · Katharina Luther · Philipp Melanchthon · Johannes Bugenhagen · Johannes Brenz · Justus Jonas · Argula von Grumbach · Petrus Särkilahti · Mikael Agricola · Stephan Agricola · Nicolaus von Amsdorf · Laurentius Andreae · Olaus Petri · Laurentius Petri · Stephan Praetorius · Johann Pfeffinger · Frederick the Wise
Early turmoilEventsDissemination of the Augsburg Confession Variata · Diet of Regensburg · Schmalkaldic War · Augsburg Interim · Peace of Passau · Peace of Augsburg · Colloquy of Worms · Publication of the Magdeburg Centuries · Adiaphoristic Controversy · Second Adiaphoristic Controversy · Controversy on the Descent into Hell · Crypto-Calvinist Controversy · Presentation of the Greek Augsburg Confession · Signing of the Formula of ConcordPeopleFactions Orthodox
periodsEarly OrthodoxyHigh OrthodoxyLate Orthodoxy
RevivalsNeo-LutheranRepristination SchoolErlangen schoolGermanyAustralia and New GuineaUnited States of AmericaPresent
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