In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. The ministers are accountable to the legislature, elected by the people on the basis of universal adult franchise. The ministers are thus indirectly responsible to the people. But the handful of ministers cannot be expected to deal personally with the manifold problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to carry out this policy.
The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants. A civil servant is any person who is a citizen of India appointed by the Government to any civil service or post in connection with the affairs of the Union and includes a civilian in a Defence Service. Civil servants are employees of the Government of India; however, not all employees of the Government are civil servants. Civil servants in a personal capacity are paid from the Civil List. Civil servants also have some traditional and statutory responsibilities which to some extent protect them from being used for the political advantage of the party in power. Senior civil servants may be called to account by Parliament.
The constitution provides for more Civil Services branches to be set up by giving the power to the Rajya Sabha (upper house of the Parliament of India) to resolve by a two-thirds majority to establish new all-India services or central services. The Indian Forest Service and the Indian Foreign Service are the two services set up under this constitutional provision.
At present, the Central Government is finalising on creation of two new all-India services namely the Indian Judicial Service and the Indian Legal Service.
Power, Purpose and Responsibilities
The responsibility of the civil services is running the administration of India effectively and efficiently. It is believed that the administration of a vast and diverse country like India requires efficient management of its natural, economic and human resources. The country is managed through a number of Central Government agencies in accordance with the policy directions given by the ministries.
The members of the civil services represent as administrators in the central government and state government; emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies; as tax collectors and revenue commissioners; as civil service commissioned police officers; as permanent respresentative(s) and employees in the United Nations and its agencies and as Chairman, Managing Director, full-time functional Director/Member of the Board of Management of various Public Sector Undertakings/ Enterprises, Corporations, Banks and financial institutions. Civil servants are employed to various agencies of India and can also be appointed as advisors or special duty officers or private secretaries to ministers of the Union and the State Government.
Head of the Indian Civil Service
The highest ranking civil servant is the Chief of the Cabinet Secretariat of Republic of India who is also the Cabinet Secretary. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board of the Republic of India; the chief of the Indian Administrative Service and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the Government of India. He also holds the 11th position in the Order of Precedence of India.
The position holder is accountable for ensuring that the Civil Service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment.
A member of the civil service in discharge of his/her functions is to be guided by maintaining absolute integrity, allegiance to the constitution and the law of the nation, patriotism, national pride, devotion to duty, honesty, impartiality and transparency.
Civil Service Codes
The Government of India promotes values and a certain standard of ethics of requiring and facilitating every civil servant:
To discharge official duty with responsibility, honesty, accountability and without discrimination.
To ensure effective management, leadership development and personal growth.
To avoid misuse of official position or information.
To serve as instruments of good governance and foster social economic development.
The CCS are concerned with the administration of the Union Government, unlike the AIS which work for the Union as well as the various State Governments. These services deal with the subjects such as foreign affairs, defense (civil administration), union taxation, economy, engineering, accounts, communication etc. The Central Civil Services are classified into Group A (Class I) and Group B (Class II).
All appointments to Group B, Group C and Group D are made by the authorities specified by a general or special order of the President.
Indian Foreign Service, Group ‘B’ - (General Cadre, Grade I and General Cadre, Grade II only)
Central Secretariat Service, Group 'B' (Section and Assistants’ Grade officers only)
Indian Posts and Telegraphs Accounts and Finance Service, Group ‘B’ Telecommunication Wing.
Indian Posts & Telegraphs Accounts & Finance Service, Postal Wing, Group ‘B’
Indian Salt Service, Group ‘B’
India Meteorological Service, Group ‘B'
Central Secretariat Official Language Service, Group ‘B’
Central Secretariat Stenographers’ Service, (Grade I, Grade II and Selection Grade officers only)
Central Health Service, Group ‘B’
Income Tax Service, Group ‘B’
Botanical Survey of India, Group 'B'.
Geological Survey of India, Group 'B'.
Geological Survey of India, Group 'B'.
Survey of India, Group 'B'.
Zoological Survey of India, Group 'B'.
Central Electrical Engineering Service, Group 'B'.
Central Engineering Service, Group 'B'.
Central Power Engineering Service, Group ‘B’
Postal Superintendents’ Service, Group ‘B’
Postmasters’ Service, Group ‘B’
Telecommunication Engineering Service, Group ‘B’
Telegraphs Traffic Service, Group ‘B
Central Excise Service, Group ‘B’
Customs Appraisers Service, Group ‘B’- (Principal Appraisers and Head Appraisers)
Customs Preventive Service, Group ‘B’ – (Chief Inspectors)
Defence Secretariat Service
Union Territories Administrative Service
Union Territorries Police Service
State Civil Services (SCS/PCS)
The State Civil Services (also known as Provincial Civil Services) examinations and recruitments are conducted by the individual states of India. The state civil services deals with subjects such as land revenue, agriculture, forests, education etc. The officers of the state civil services are recruited by different States through the State Public Service Commissions. The categories of services to which candidates are selected through the state civil services (SCS) examination are as under:
State Civil Services, Class-I (SCS)
State Police Service, Class-I (SPS).
Block Development Officer.
Excise and Taxation Officer.
District Employment Officer.
District Treasury Officer.
District Welfare Officer.
Assistant Registrar Cooperative Societies.
District Food and Supplies Controller/Officer.
Any other Class-I/Class-II service notified as per rules by the concerned State.
Employment by Agency
Federal Government executive branch civilian employment:
The Civil Service Day is celebrated on 21st of April every year. The purpose for this day is to rededicate and recommit themselves to the cause of the people. It is observed by all Civil Services. This day gives civil servants the opportunity for introspection and thinking about future strategies to deal with the challenges being posed by the changing times."
On this occasion, all officers of Central and State Governments are honoured for excellence in public administration by the Prime Minister of India. The 'Prime Minister Award for Excellence in Public Administration' is presented in three categories. Under this scheme of awards instituted in 2006, all the officers individually or as group or as organization are eligible.
The award includes a medal, scroll and a cash amount of Rs.1 lakh. In case of a group, the total award money is Rs.5 lakh subject to a maximum of Rs.1 lakh per person. For an organization the cash amount is limited to Rs.5 lakh.
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