Nemastomatidae

Nemastomatidae
Nemastomatidae
Nemastoma bimaculatum from Belgium
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Opiliones
Suborder: Dyspnoi
Superfamily: Nemastomatoidea
Family: Nemastomatidae
Simon, 1872
Species
see text
Diversity
c. 170 species

The Nemastomatidae are a family of harvestmen with about 170 described species in 16 recent genera. Several fossil species and genera are known.

Unlike some related currently recognized families, the Nemastomatidae are monophyletic.[1]

Contents

Description

Members of the Nemastomatidae range in body length from about one to almost six millimeters. Their chelicerae are of normal proportians, but the pedipalps are very elongated and thin in some groups. Leg length is likewise variable.[1]

Distribution

The subfamily Ortholasmatinae (ten species in two genera) occur on both sides of the Pacific Ocean: in western North America from Mexico to British Columbia and eastern Asia (Japan and northern Thailand. The other subfamily, Nemastomatinae, occur all over Europe up to Iceland and the Caucasus, in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa, from Anatolia to northern Iran, with a few species found outside this region, in Central Asia and the Himalayas. Most species are restricted to very small mountainous southern regions.[1]

Relationships

The Nemastomatidae are probably a sister group to the genera Dicranolasma (Dicranolasmatidae) and Trogulus (Trogulidae).[1]

Name

The genus name Nemastoma is a combination of Ancient Greek nema "thread" and stoma "mouth", referring to the elongated pedipalps.[1]

Species

Subfamily Nemastomatinae

  • Nemastomatinae Simon, 1872
  • Buresiolla Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Buresiolla bureschi (Roewer, 1926)
  • Buresiolla abchasica Ljovuschkin & Starobogatov, 1963Abkhazia
  • Buresiolla caecum (Nowikoff, 1931)Crimea
  • Nemaspela Silhavý, 1966
  • Nemaspela sokolovi (Ljovuschkin & Starobogatov, 1963)
  • Nemaspela birsteini Levushkii, 1972
  • Nemaspela taurica (Lebedinskiy, 1914) — Crimea
  • Giljarovia Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Giljarovia rossica Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Giljarovia stridula (Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958)
  • Giljarovia turcica Gruber, 1976
  • subgenus Nemastoma
  • Nemastoma aeginum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma amulleri Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma anatolicum Roewer, 1962
  • Nemastoma armeniacum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma atticum Roewer, 1927
  • Nemastoma bacilliferum Simon, 1879Spain
  • Nemastoma bacilliferum bacilliferum Simon, 1879Pyrenees
  • Nemastoma bacilliferum simoni Roewer, 1914
  • Nemastoma bacilliferum simplex Simon, 1913
  • Nemastoma bacilliferum dipentatum Rambla, 1959
  • Nemastoma bidentatum Roewer, 1914 — central Europe
  • Nemastoma bidentatum bidentatum Roewer, 1914
  • Nemastoma bidentatum sparsum Gruber & Martens, 1968
  • Nemastoma bidentatum relictum Gruber & Martens, 1968
  • Nemastoma bimaculosum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma brevipalpatum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma caecum Grese, 1911 — Crimea
  • Nemastoma cancellatum Roewer, 1917 — Bosnia
  • Nemastoma caporiaccoi Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma carbonarium Simon, 1907 — Spain
  • Nemastoma carpathicum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma clavigerum Menge, 1854 — fossil
  • Nemastoma corcyraeum Roewer, 1917 — Korfu
  • Nemastoma cypricum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma denticulatum Koch & Berendt, 1854 — Baltic amber fossil: oligocene
  • Nemastoma dentigerum Canestrini, 1873Italy
  • Nemastoma dubium Mello-Leitão, 1936 — Spain
  • Nemastoma emigratum Roewer, 1959
  • Nemastoma ferkeri Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma filipes Roewer, 1917 — Transcaucasus
  • Nemastoma formosum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma franzi Kraus, 1959
  • Nemastoma funebre Redikorzev, 1936Russia
  • Nemastoma gallwitzi Roewer, 1923Serbia
  • Nemastoma gigas Sørensen, in Lendl 1894Hungary
  • Nemastoma globuliferum L. Koch, 1867
  • Nemastoma gostivarense Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma gracile Redikorzev, 1936 — Russia
  • Nemastoma hankiewiczii Kulczynski, 1909Portugal
  • Nemastoma hermanni Kraus, 1959
  • Nemastoma ikarium Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma insulare Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma ios Roewer, 1917 — Sporaden
  • Nemastoma kastneri Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma lessinensis Caporiacco, 1940 — Italy
  • Nemastoma leiobunum Wankel, 1851
  • Nemastoma lilliputanum (Lucas, 1847)Algeria
  • Nemastoma lindbergi Roewer, 1959
  • Nemastoma longipalpatum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma longipes Schenkel, 1947Albania
  • Nemastoma maarebense Simon, 1913 — Algeria
  • Nemastoma machadoi Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma mackenseni Roewer, 1923 — Serbia
  • Nemastoma macedonicum Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma manicatum Simon, 1913 — Spain
  • Nemastoma moesiacum Roewer, 1917 — Serbia and Bosnia
  • Nemastoma monchiquense Kraus, 1961
  • Nemastoma montenegrinum Nosek, 1904Montenegro
  • Nemastoma navarrense Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma nervosum Roewer, 1923 — Serbia
  • Nemastoma perfugium Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma polonicum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma pyrenaeum Simon, 1879 — Pyrenees
  • Nemastoma reimoseri Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma rhinoceros Roewer, 1917 — Spain
  • Nemastoma riparium Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma romanium Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma rude Simon, 1881Alps
  • Nemastoma santorinum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma scabriculum Simon, 1879 — Pyrenees
  • Nemastoma schenkeli Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma schuelleri Gruber & Martens, 1968
  • Nemastoma senussium Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma sexmucronatum Simon, 1911 — Spain
  • Nemastoma simplex Giltay, 1933Balkans
  • Nemastoma spinosissima Kraus, 1961
  • Nemastoma spinulosum L. Koch, 1869Greece
  • Nemastoma strasseri Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma stussineri Simon, 1885 — Greece
  • Nemastoma succineum Roewer, 1939 — fossil: Baltic amber
  • Nemastoma tenebricosum Redikorzev, 1936 — Russia
  • Nemastoma tenue Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma titaniacum Roewer, 1914 — Bosnia
  • Nemastoma transsylvanicum Gruber & Martens, 1968
  • Nemastoma triste (C. L. Koch, 1835) — central Europe
  • Nemastoma triste triste C. L. Koch, in Herrich-Schaeffer 1835
  • Nemastoma troglodytes (Wankel, 1861)
  • Nemastoma tuberculatum Koch & Berendt, 1854 — fossil: oligocene
  • Nemastoma tunetanum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma vitynae Roewer, 1927
  • subgenus Dromedostoma
  • Nemastoma acrospinosum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma acrospinosum acrospinosum Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma acrospinosum pretneri Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma bipunctatum Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma bolei Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma corneluttii Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma grabovicae Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma megarae Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma multisignaltum Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma nigrum Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma radewi Roewer, 1926 — cave in Balkans
  • Nemastoma ryla Roewer, 1951
  • Nemastoma sketi Hadzi, 1973
  • subgenus Lugubrostoma
  • Nemastoma boenicum
  • Nemastoma goliae Hadzi, 1973
  • Nemastoma lugubre (Müller, 1776)
  • Nemastoma lugubre lugubre (Müller, 1776)
  • Nemastoma lugubre bimaculatum (Fabricius, 1775) — Europe
  • Nemastoma lugubre unicolor Roewer, 1914 — southern Europe
  • Nemastoma sarae Hadzi, 1973
  • Paranemastoma Redikorzew, 1936
  • Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (C. L. Koch, 1835)
  • Paranemastoma ancae Avram, 1973
  • Paranemastoma charitonovi (Mcheidze, 1952)
  • Paranemastoma kalischevskyi (Roewer, 1951)
  • Paranemastoma kochii (Nowicki, 1870)
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Perty, 1833) — Europe
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum quadripunctatum (Perty, 1833)
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum aurosum L. Koch, 1869
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum armatum Kulczynski, 1909 — southeastern Europe
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum thessalum Simon, 1885 — Greece
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum werneri Kulczynski, 1903 — Asia Minor
  • Paranemastoma quadripunctatum humerale C. L. Koch, 1839 — southeastern Europe
  • Paranemastoma roeweri Starega, 1978
  • Paranemastoma sillii (Hermann, 1871) — central Europe
  • Paranemastoma suchumium (Roewer, 1951)
  • Paranemastoma supersum (Roewer, 1951)
  • Paranemastoma umbo (Roewer, 1951)
  • Paranemastoma aurigerum (Roewer, 1951)
  • Paranemastoma aurigerum aurigerum Roewer, 1951
  • Paranemastoma aurigerum joannae Starega, 1976
  • Histricostoma Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Histricostoma drenskii Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Histricostoma dentipalpe (Ausserer, 1867) — central Europe
  • Histricostoma argenteolunulatum (Canestrini, 1872) — Corcica, Italy
  • Histricostoma caucasicum (Redikorzev, 1936) — Russia
  • Carinostoma Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Carinostoma carinatum (Roewer, 1914) — southeastern Europe
  • Carinostoma elegans (Sørensen, 1894) — Hungary
  • Carinostoma elegans elegans (Sørensen, 1894)
  • Carinostoma elegans batorligetiense (Szalay, 1951)
  • Carinostoma ornatum (Hadzi, 1940)
  • Centetostoma Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • subgenus Centetostoma
  • Centetostoma centetes (Simon, 1881) — Alps
  • subgenus Cretostoma
  • Centetostoma creticum (Roewer, 1927)
  • Mitostoma Roewer, 1951
  • Mitostoma armatissimum Roewer, 1962
  • Mitostoma daccordii Tedeschi & Sciaky, 1997
  • Mitostoma fabianae Tedeschi & Sciaky, 1997
  • Mitostoma sabbadinii Tedeschi & Sciaky, 1997
  • Mitostoma orghidani Avram, 1969
  • Mitostoma dumitrescui Avram, 1969
  • Mitostoma patrizii Roewer, 1958
  • Mitostoma saxonicum
  • Mitostoma asturicum Roewer, 1951
  • Mitostoma omalosum Roewer, 1951
  • Mitostoma chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804) — Europe
  • Mitostoma chrysomelas chrysomelas (Hermann, 1804)
  • Mitostoma chrysomelas michielii Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma chrysomelas multidenticulatum Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma chrysomelas alpinum Hadzi, 1931Yugoslavia
  • Mitostoma anophthalmum (Fage, 1946) — Italy
  • Mitostoma carneluttii Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma helenae Avram, 1970
  • Mitostoma macedonicum Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma moldavica Avram, 1970
  • Mitostoma rodnae Avram, 1970
  • Mitostoma zmajevicae Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma olgae Silhavý, 1946 — Dalmatia, Montenegro
  • Mitostoma olgae olgae Silhavý, 1946
  • Mitostoma olgae decorum Silhavý, 1946
  • Mitostoma olgae kratochvili Silhavý, 1946
  • Mitostoma olgae zorae Hadzi, 1973
  • Mitostoma valdemonense Marcellino, 1977

Subfamily Ortholasmatinae

  • Ortholasmatinae Shear & Gruber, 1983
  • Dendrolasma Banks, 1894
  • Dendrolasma mirabile Banks, 1894 — Washington
  • Dendrolasma angka P. J. Schwendinger & J. Gruber, 1992Thailand
  • Dendrolasma dentipalpe W. A. Shear & J. Gruber, 1983California
  • Dendrolasma parvula (Suzuki, 1963)
  • Halitherses Giribet & Dunlop, 2005
  • Ortholasma Banks, 1894
  • Ortholasma bolivari (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942)Mexico
  • Ortholasma coronadense Cockerell, 1916 — Coronados Islands
  • Ortholasma levipes W. A. Shear & J. Gruber, 1983 — California
  • Ortholasma pictipes Banks, 1911 — California
  • Ortholasma rugosum Banks, 1894 — California
  • Ortholasma sbordonii Silhavý, 1973

incertae sedis

  • Nemastomella Mello-Leitão, 1936
  • Nemastomella integripes Mello-Leitão, 1936 — Spain
  • Hadzinia Silhavý, 1966
  • Hadzinia karamani (Hadzi, 1940)
  • Acromitostoma Roewer, 1951
  • Acromitostoma hispanum (Roewer, 1917) — Spain: Granada
  • Acromitostoma rhinoceros Roewer, 1951
  • Mediostoma Kratochvíl & Miller, 1958
  • Mediostoma graecum (Roewer, 1917)
  • Mediostoma topolium (Roewer, 1951)
  • Mediostoma pamiricum W. Starega, 1986Tajikistan
  • Mediostoma ceratocephalum Gruber, 1976
  • Pyza Starega, 1976
  • Pyza bosnica (Roewer, 1916)
  • Rhabdotarachnoides Haupt, 1956 — fossil
  • Rhabdotarachnoides simoni Haupt, 1956Permian

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e Gruber, Jürgen (2007): Nemastomatidae Simon, 1872. In: Pinto-da-Rocha et al. 2007: 148ff
  2. ^ Giribet & Dunlop 2005

References

  • Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog: Nemastomatidae
  • Giribet, Gonzalo & Dunlop, Jason A. (2005): First identifiable Mesozoic harvestman (Opiliones: Dyspnoi) from Cretaceous Burmese amber. Proceedings of The Royal Society B 272(1567): 1007-1013. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3063 PMID 1599874 - PDF
  • Pinto-da-Rocha, R., Machado, G. & Giribet, G. (eds.) (2007): Harvestmen - The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press ISBN 0-674-02343-9

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