List of Hawaii birds

List of Hawaii birds

This list of Hawaii birds is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the state of Hawaii as determined by the Hawaiian Audubon Society.This list is based on Robert Pyle's revision dated March 31, 2005. The scope of this list encompasses the entire Hawaiian Islands chain, from Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the north, to the "Big Island" of Hawaii to the south.The following codes define the distribution and relative abundance of species on this list:

*(A) = Accidental occurrence based on a few records, and unlikely to occur regularly.

*(*) = Endemic; a species either entirely confined to the Hawaiian Islands in its natural distribution, or a species whose breeding range is entirely confined to the Hawaiian Islands.
*(E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.

*(EW) = Extinct in the Wild; these species only exist in captive breeding progams, with no documentaion of wild birds found in native habitats.

*(ex) = Extirpated; no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.

*(I) = Introduced population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.This list is presented in taxonomic order. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family accounts.


=Ducks, Geese, and Swans=

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna bicolor" (A)
*Greater White-fronted Goose, "Anser albifrons" (A)
*Emperor Goose, "Chen canagica" (A)
*Snow Goose, "Chen caerulescens" (A)
*Canada Goose, "Branta canadensis"
*Cackling Goose, "Branta hutchinsii"
*Hawaiian Goose, "Branta sandvicensis (*)
*Brant, "Branta bernicla"
*Tundra Swan, "Cygnus columbianus" (A)
*Gadwall, "Anas strepera" (A)
*Falcated Duck, "Anas falcata" (A)
*Eurasian Wigeon, "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon, "Anas americana"
*Mallard, "Anas platyrhynchos" (I)
*Hawaiian Duck, "Anas wyvilliana" (*)
*Laysan Duck, "Anas laysanensis" (*)
*Baikal Teal, "Anas formosa" (A)
*Blue-winged Teal, "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera" (A)
*Northern Shoveler, "Anas clypeata"
*Northern Pintail, "Anas acuta"
*Garganey, "Anas querquedula"
*Green-winged Teal, "Anas crecca"
*Canvasback, "Aythya valisineria" (A)
*Redhead, "Aythya americana" (A)
*Common Pochard, "Aythya ferina" (A)
*Ring-necked Duck, "Aythya collaris"
*Tufted Duck, "Aythya fuligula" (A)
*Greater Scaup, "Aythya marila"
*Lesser Scaup, "Aythya affinis"
*Harlequin Duck, "Histrionicus histrionicus" (A)
*Surf Scoter, "Melanitta perspicillata" (A)
*Black Scoter, "Melanitta nigra" (A)
*Long-tailed Duck, "Clangula hyemalis" (A)
*Bufflehead, "Bucephala albeola"
*Common Goldeneye, "Bucephala clangula" (A)
*Barrow's Goldeneye, "Bucephala islandica" (A)
*Hooded Merganser, "Lophodytes cucullatus" (A)
*Common Merganser, "Mergus merganser" (A)
*Red-breasted Merganser, "Mergus serrator" (A)
*Ruddy Duck, "Oxyura jamaicensis" (A)

=Partridges, Grouse, Turkeys, and Old World Quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.

*Chukar, "Alectoris chukar" (I)
*Gray Francolin, "Francolinus pondicerianus" (I)
*Black Francolin, "Francolinus francolinus" (I)
*Erckel's Francolin, "Francolinus erckelii" (I)
*Japanese Quail, "Coturnix japonica" (I)
*Red Junglefowl, "Gallus gallus" (I)
*Kalij Pheasant, "Lophura leucomelanos" (I)
*Ring-necked Pheasant, "Phasianus colchicus" (I)
*Common Peafowl, "Pavo cristatus" (I)
*Wild Turkey, "Meleagris gallopavo" (I)

=New World Quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.

*California Quail, "Callipepla californica" (I)
*Gambel's Quail, "Callipepla gambelii" (I)


Order: GaviiformesFamily: Gaviidae

Loons are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost hopeless on land.

*Pacific Loon, "Gavia pacifica" (A)


Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land.

*Pied-billed Grebe, "Podilymbus podiceps" (A)
*Horned Grebe, "Podiceps auritus" (A)
*Red-necked Grebe, "Podiceps grisegena" (A)
*Eared Grebe, "Podiceps nigricollis" (A)


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.

*Laysan Albatross, "Phoebastria immutabilis"
*Black-footed Albatross, "Phoebastria nigripes"
*Short-tailed Albatross, "Phoebastria albatrus"

Shearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary.

*Northern Fulmar, "Fulmarus glacialis" (A)
*Tahiti Petrel, "Pterodroma rostrata" (A)
*Kermadec Petrel, "Pterodroma neglecta" (A)
*Herald Petrel, "Pterodroma arminjoniana" (A)
*Murphy's Petrel, "Pterodroma ultima" (A)
*Mottled Petrel, "Pterodroma inexpectata"
*Juan Fernandez Petrel, "Pterodroma externa"
*Hawaiian Petrel "Pterodroma sandwichensis" (*)
*White-necked Petrel, "Pterodroma cervicalis" (A)
*Bonin Petrel, "Pterodroma hypoleuca"
*Black-winged Petrel, "Pterodroma nigripennis"
*Cook's Petrel, "Pterodroma cookii" (A)
*Pycroft's Petrel, "Pterodroma pycrofti" (A)
*Stejneger's Petrel, "Pterodroma longirostris" (A)
*Bulwer's Petrel, "Bulweria bulwerii"
*Jouanin's Petrel, "Bulweria fallax" (A)
*Streaked Shearwater, "Calonectris leucomelas" (A)
*Flesh-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus carneipes" (A)
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus pacificus"
*Buller's Shearwater, "Puffinus bulleri" (A)
*Sooty Shearwater, "Puffinus griseus"
*Short-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus tenuirostris" (A)
*Christmas Shearwater, "Puffinus nativitatis"
*Newell's Shearwater, "Puffinus auricularis newelli" (*)
*Little Shearwater, "Puffinus assimilis" (A)


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.

*Wilson's Storm-petrel, "Oceanites oceanicus" (A)
*Fork-tailed Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma furcata" (A)
*Leach's Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"
*Band-rumped Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma castro"
*Tristram's Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma tristrami"

=Boobies and Gannets=

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

*Masked Booby, "Sula dactylatra"
*Brown Booby, "Sula leucogaster"
*Red-footed Booby, "Sula sula"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order.

*Pelagic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax pelagicus" (A)


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

*Great Frigatebird, "Fregata minor"
*Lesser Frigatebird, "Fregata ariel"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.

*White-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon lepturus"
*Red-billed Tropicbird, "Phaethon aethereus" (A)
*Red-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon rubricauda"

Bitterns, Herons, and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secrative. Unlike other long necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted.

*Great Blue Heron, "Ardea herodias"
*Great Egret, "Ardea alba" (A)
*Snowy Egret, "Egretta thula" (A)
*Little Blue Heron, "Egretta caerulea"
*Cattle Egret, "Bubulcus ibis" (I)
*Green Heron, "Butorides virescens" (A)
*Black-crowned Night Heron, "Nycticorax nycticorax"

=Ibises and Spoonbills=

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

*White-faced Ibis, "Plegadis chihi" (A)

=Hawks, Kites, and Eagles=

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

*Osprey, "Pandion haliaetus"
*Black Kite, "Milvus migrans" (A)
*White-tailed Eagle, "Haliaeetus albicilla" (A)
*Steller Sea-eagle, "Haliaeetus pelagicus" (A)
*Northern Harrier, "Circus cyaneus" (A)
*Chinese Goshawk, "Accipiter soloensis" (A)
*Hawaiian Hawk, "Buteo solitarius" (*)
*Rough-legged Hawk, "Buteo lagopus" (A)
*Golden Eagle, "Aquila chrysaetos" (A)

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.

*Merlin, "Falco columbarius" (A)
*Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".

*Sandhill Crane, "Grus canadensis" (A)

Rails, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers.

*Laysan Rail, "Porzana palmeri" (*E)
*Sora, "Porzana Carolina" (A)
*Hawaiian Rail, "Porzana sandwichensis" (*E)
*Hawaiian Moorhen, "Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis"
*Hawaiian Coot, "Fulica alai" (*)
*American Coot, "Fulica americana" (A)

Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Snipes, and Phalaropes

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Shanks, Tattlers, Woodcocks, Snipes, Dowitchers and Phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

*Greater Yellowlegs, "Tringa melanoleuca" (A)
*Lesser Yellowlegs, "Tringa flavipes"
*Marsh Sandpiper, "Tringa stagnatilis" (A)
*Wood Sandpiper, "Tringa glareola" (A)
*Solitary Sandpiper, "Tringa solitaria" (A)
*Willet, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus" (A)
*Wandering Tattler, "Heteroscelus incanus"
*Gray-tailed Tattler, "Heteroscelus brevipes" * (A)
*Spotted Sandpiper, "Actitis macularia" (A)
*Whimbrel, "Numenius phaeopus" (A)
*Bristle-thighed Curlew, "Numenius tahitiensis"
*Far Eastern Curlew, "Numenius madagascariensis" (A)
*Black-tailed Godwit, "Limosa limosa" (A)
*Hudsonian Godwit, "Limosa haemastica" (A)
*Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica"
*Marbled Godwit, "Limosa fedoa" (A)
*Ruddy Turnstone, "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot, "Calidris canutus" (A)
*Sanderling, "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper, "Calidris pusilla" (A)
*Western Sandpiper, "Calidris mauri"
*Red-necked Stint, "Calidris ruficollis" (A)
*Little Stint, "Calidris minuta" (A)
*Long-toed Stint, "Calidris subminuta" (A)
*Least Sandpiper, "Calidris minutilla"
*Baird's Sandpiper, "Calidris bairdii" (A)
*Pectoral Sandpiper, "Calidris melanotos"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, "Calidris acuminata"
*Dunlin, "Calidris alpina"
*Curlew Sandpiper, "Calidris ferruginea" (A)
*Stilt Sandpiper, "Calidris himantopus" (A)
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper, "Tryngites subruficollis" (A)
*Ruff, "Philomachus pugnax"
*Short-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus griseus"
*Long-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Wilson's Snipe, "Gallinago delicata"
*Common Snipe, "Gallinago gallingo" (A)
*Pin-tailed Snipe, "Gallinago stenura" (A)
*Wilson's Phalarope, "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red-necked Phalarope, "Phalaropus lobatus" (A)
*Red Phalarope, "Phalaropus fulicarius"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes jaegers, skuas, gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.

*Black-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa tridactyla" (A)
*Bonaparte's Gull, "Chroicocephalus philadelphia" (A)
*Black-headed Gull, "Chroicocephalus ridibundus" (A)
*Laughing Gull, "Leucophaeus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull, "Leucophaeus pipixcan"
*Mew Gull, "Larus canus" (A)
*Ring-billed Gull, "Larus delawarensis"
*Western Gull, "Larus occidentalis" (A)
*California Gull, "Larus californicus" (A)
*Herring Gull, "Larus argentatus"
*Slaty-backed Gull, "Larus schistisagus" (A)
*Glaucous-winged Gull, "Larus glaucescens"
*Glaucous Gull, "Larus hyperboreus" (A)


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. They have longish bills and webbed feet. They are lighter bodied and more streamlined than gulls, and look elegant in flight with long tails and long narrow wings.

*Gull-billed Tern, "Geochelidon nilotica" (A)
*Caspian Tern, "Hydroprogne caspia" (A)
*Great Crested Tern, "Sterna bergii" (A)
*Sandwich Tern, "Sterna sandvicensis" (A)
*Common Tern, "Sterna hirundo" (A)
*Arctic Tern, "Sterna paradisaea"
*Little Tern, "Sterna albifrons"
*Least Tern, "Sterna antillarum"
*Gray-backed Tern, "Sterna lunata"
*Sooty Tern, "Sterna fuscata"
*Whiskered Tern, "Chlidonias hybrida" (A)
*Black Tern, "Chlidonias niger" (A)
*Brown Noddy, "Anous stolidus"
*Hawaiian Noddy (Black Noddy), "Anous minitus melanogenys"
*Blue Noddy, "Procelsterna cerulea"
*White Tern, "Gygis alba"

Auks, Murres, and Puffins

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.

*Ancient Murrelet "Synthliboramphus antiquus" (A)
*Cassin's Auklet, "Ptychoramphus aleuticus" (A)
*Parakeet Auklet, "Aethia psittacula" (A)
*Horned Puffin, "Fratercula corniculata" (A)
*Tufted Puffin, "Fratercula cirrhata" (A)


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

Skuas are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.

*South Polar Skua, "Stercorarius maccormicki" (A)
*Pomarine Jaeger, "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger, "Stercorarius parasiticus" (A)
*Long-tailed Jaeger, "Stercorarius longicaudus" (A)

Stilts and Avocets

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

*Hawaiian Stilt, "Himantopus mexicanus knudseni"
*Black-winged Stilt, "Himantopus himantopus" (A)

Lapwings and Plovers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.

*Black-bellied Plover, "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Pacific Golden Plover, "Pluvialis fulva"
*Lesser Sand-Plover, "Charadrius mongolus" (A)
*Common Ringed Plover, "Charadrius hiaticula" (A)
*Semipalmated Plover, "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Killdeer, "Charadrius vociferus" (A)
*Eurasian Dotterel, "Charadrius morinellus" (A)


Order: PterocliformesFamily: Pteroclidae

Sandgrouse have small, pigeon like heads and necks, but sturdy compact bodies. They have long pointed wings and sometimes tails and a fast direct flight. Their legs are feathered down to the toes. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse, "Pterocles exustus" (I)

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. All of the species listed have been introduced.

*Rock Pigeon, "Columba livia" (I)
*Spotted Dove, "Streptopelia chinensis" (I)
*Zebra Dove, "Geopelia striata" (I)
*Mourning Dove, "Zenaida macroura" (I)

Lories, Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. Although many different species of parrots have been released in Hawaii, particularly in larger cities, these 4 species below have been accepted by Hawaii Audubon as currently having or having had established populations. Hawaii has no native parrot species, all have been introduced.

*Pale-headed Rosella, "Platycercus adscitus" (I-ex)
*Rose-ringed Parakeet, "Psittacula krameri" (I
*Mitred Parakeet, "Aratinga mitrata" (I
*Red-crowned Parrot, "Amazona viridigenalis" (I)

=Cuckoos, Roadrunners, and Anis=

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs.

*Common Cuckoo/Oriental Cuckoo, "Cuculus canorus"/"Cuculus saturatus" (A)
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus americanus" (A)

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. It has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Barn Owl, "Tyto alba" (I)

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. Hawaii as 1 native species of Owl, and is a distinct subspecies.

*Pueo, "Asio flammeus sandwichensis"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.

*Common Nighthawk, " Chordeiles minor" (A)


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.

*Guam Swiftlet, "Aerodramus bartschi " (I)
*Pacific Swift, "Apus pacificus" (A)


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

*Belted Kingfisher, "Megaceryle alcyon" (A)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

*Sky Lark, "Alauda arvensis" (I)

Swallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

*Barn Swallow, "Hirundo rustica" (A)

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country.

*Olive-backed Pipit, "Anthus hodgsoni" (A)
*Red-throated Pipit, "Anthus cervinus" (A)
*American Pipit, "Anthus rubescens" (A)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds resident in Africa and tropical Asia. These are mostly frugivorous birds. 2 species have been intrroduced to Hawaii.

*Red-vented Bulbul, "Pycnonotus cafer" (I)
*Red-whiskered Bulbul, "Pycnonotus jocosus" (I)

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Northern Mockingbird, "Mimus polyglottos" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. 5 species are endemic to Hawaii, and 1 species is accidental.

*Kama'O, "Myadestes myadestinus" (*E)
*Oloma'O, "Myadestes lanaiensis" (*E?)
*Oma'o, "Myadestes obscurus" (*)
*ʻĀmaui, "Myadestes woahensis" (*E)
*Puaiohi, "Myadestes palmeri" (*)
*Eyebrowed Thrush, "Turdus obscurus" (A)

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

*Japanese Bush-warbler, "Cettia diphone" (I)
*Laysan Millerbird, "Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris" (*)
*Nihoa Millerbird, "Acrocephalus familiaris kingi" (*)

Old World flycatchers

*Order: Passeriformes

The Old World flycatchers are a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. The nest of most is a well-constructed cup in a tree or hedge. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*White-rumped Shama, "Copsychus malabaricus" (I)

Old World babblers

*Order: Passeriformes
*Family: Timaliidae

The Old World babblers are a large family of mostly Old World passerine birds. They are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. These are birds of tropical areas, with the greatest variety in southeast Asia. These birds have strong legs, and many are quite terrestrial. This group is not strongly migratory, and most species have short rounded wings, and a weak flight. Morphological diversity is rather high; most species resemble "warblers", jays or thrushes. All of the following species have been introduced to Hawaii.

*Greater Necklaced Laughingthrush, "Garulax pectoralis" (I)
*Grey-sided Laughingthrush, "Garulax caerulatus" (I)
*Hwamei, "Garrulax canorus" (I)
*Red-billed Leiothrix, "Leiothrix lutea" (I)

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. 1 spoecies has been introduced, but is no longer estalished.

*Varied Tit, "Poecile varia" (I-ex)


*Order: Passeriformes
*Family: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small passerine birds native to tropical and sub-tropical Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. The birds of this group are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. But as indicated by their scientific name, derived from the Ancient Greek for girdle-eye, around the eyes of many species is a conspicuous white ring. They have rounded wings and strong legs. The size ranges up to 15cm (6 inches) in length.All the species of white-eyes are sociable, forming large flocks which only separate on the approach of the breeding season. Though mainly insectivorous, they eat nectar and fruits of various kinds. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Japanese White-eye, "Zosterops japonicus" (I)


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Meliphagidae

Honeyeaters prefer to flit quickly from perch to perch in the outer foliage, stretching up or sideways or hanging upside down at need. They have a highly developed brush-tipped tongue, longer in some species than others, frayed and fringed with bristles which soak up liquids readily. The tongue is flicked rapidly and repeatedly into a flower, the upper mandible then compressing any liquid out when the bill is closed. All species of honeyeaters below were endemic to Hawaii, but are now extinct. The Kauai Oo was the last species to survive, last seen in 1987.

*Kaua‘i ‘Ō‘ō, "Moho braccatus" (*E)
*O‘ahu ‘Ō‘ō, "Moho apicalus" (*E)
*Bishop's ‘Ō‘ō, "Moho bishopi" (*E)
*Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho nobilis" (*E)
*Kioea, "Chaetoptila angustipluma (*E)

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The Monarchinae are a relatively recent grouping of a number of seemingly very different birds, mostly from the southern hemisphere, which are more closely related than they at first appear. Many of the approximately 140 species making up the family were previously assigned to other groups, largely on the basis of general morphology or behaviour. With the new insights generated by the DNA-DNA hybridisation studies of Sibley and his co-workers toward the end of the 20th century, however, it became clear that these apparently unrelated birds were all descended from a common ancestor. The Monarchinae are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, many of which hunt by flycatching. 1 species endemic to Hawaii represents the group.

*‘Elepaio, "Chasiempis sandwichensis" (*)

Jays, Crows, Magpies, and Ravens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree.

*'Alala, "Corvus hawaiiensis" (*EW)

Starlings and Mynas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. 3 species have been introduced to Hawaii.

*Common Myna, "Acridotheres tistis" (I)
*European Starling, "Sturnus vulgaris" (I)

=Old World sparrows=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*House Sparrow, "Passer domesticus" (I)

Estrildid finches

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short, thick, but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but vary widely in plumage colours and pattern. All the estrildids build large domed nests. Most are sensitive to cold and require a warm, usually tropical, habitat. All of the following species have been introduced to Hawaii.

*Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu, "Uraeginthus bengalus" (I)
*Lavender Waxbill, "Estrilda caerulescens" (I)
*Orange-cheeked Waxbill, "Estrilda melpoda" (I)
*Black-rumped Waxbill, "Estrilda troglodytes" (I)
*Common Waxbill, "Estrilda astrild" (I)
*Red Avadavat, "Amandava amandava" (I)
*African Silverbill, "Lonchura cantans" (I)
*Warbling Silverbill, "Lonchura malabarica (I)
*Nutmeg Mannikin, "Lonchura punctulata" (I)
*Chestnut Mannikin, "Lonchura malacca (I)
*Java Sparrow, "Padda oryzivora" (I)

Buntings, Grassquits and American Sparrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.

*Yellow-faced Grassquit, "Tiaris olivaceus" (I)
*Saffron Finch, "Sicalis flaveola" (I)
*Red-crested Cardinal, "Paroaria coronata" (I)
*Yellow-billed Cardinal, "Paroaria capitata" (I)
*Savannah Sparrow, "Passerculus sandwichensis" (A)
*Snow Bunting, "Plectrophenax nivalis" (A)

=Cardinals and Saltators=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. 1 species has been introduced to Hawaii.

*Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis" (I)

Finches and Siskins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

*House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus" (I)
*Common Redpoll, "Carduelis flammea" (A)
*Island Canary, "Serinus canaria" (I)
*Yellow-fronted Canary, "Serinus mozambicus" (I)

Hawaiian honeycreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Drepanididae

Hawaiian honeycreepers are small passerine birds endemic to Hawaiʻi. Most authorities categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but some biologists still place as a subfamily Drepanidinae of the finch family Fringillidae. The wide range of bills in this group, from thick finch-like bills to slender downcurved bills for probing flowers have arisen through adaptive radiation, where an ancestral finch has evolved to fill a large number of ecological niches.

*Laysan Finch, "Telespiza cantans" (*)
*Nihoa Finch, "Telespiza ultima" (*)
*ʻŌʻū, "Psittirostra psittacea" (*E?)
*Lanai Hookbill, "Dysmorodropanis munroi" (*E)
*Palila, "Loxiodes balleui" (*)
*Kaua'i Palila, "Loxiodes kikuichi" (*E)
*Lesser Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthis flaviceps" (*E)
*Greater Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthis palmeri" (*E)
*Kona Grosbeak, "Chloridops kona" (*E)
*Maui Parrotbill, "Pseudonestor xanthrophrys" (*)
*Common ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus virens" (*)
*Oʻahu ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus flavus" (*)
*Kaua'i 'Amakihi, "Hemignathus kauaiensis" (*)
*Greater 'Amakihi, "Hemignathus sagittirostris" (*E)
*Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus obscurus" (*E)
*Kauai 'Akialoa, "Hemignathus ellisianus" (*E)
*Nukupu'u, "Hemignathus lucidus" (*E?)
*Oval-billed Nukupu'u, "Hemignathus" (E*)
*ʻAkiapolaʻau, "Hemignathus munroi" (*)
*Anianiau, "Magumma parva" (*)
*ʻAkikiki, "Oreomystis bairdi" (*)
*Hawaiʻi Creeper, "Oreomystis mana" (*)
*Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza maculata" (*E?)
*Kakawahie, "Paroreomyza flammea" (*E)
*Maui Nui ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza montana" (*)
*'Akeke'E, "Loxops caeruleirostris" (*)
*'Akepa, "Loxops coccineus" (*)
*ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, "Ciridops anna" (*E)
*ʻIʻiwi, "Vestiara coccinea" (*)
*Hawai'i Mamo, "Drepanis pacifica" (*E)
*Black Mamo, "Drepanis funerea" (*E)
*'Akohekohe, "Palmeria dolei" (*)
*ʻApapane, "Himatione sanguinea" (*)
*Poʻo-uli, "Melamprosops phaeosoma" (*E?)

=Meadowlarks, Cowbirds, Grackles, New World Orioles and American Blackbirds=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.

*Western Meadowlark, "Sturnella neglecta" (I)
*Great-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus mexicanus" (A)

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region
*Endemic birds of Hawaii
*List of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands


* [ Checklist of the Birds of Hawaii]
* [ The Check-list of North American Birds] , 7th edition, 1998, published by the American Ornithologists' Union (the official source on the taxonomy of birds found in North America)

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