- List of extinct birds
:"This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year
1500A.D./C.E. and usually were subject to scientific study while alive.
Since 1500, over 190 species of
birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. The situation is exemplified by Hawaii, where 30% of all known recently extinct bird taxaoriginally lived. Other areas, such as Guam, have also been hard hit; Guam has lost over 60% of its native bird taxa in the last 30 years, many of them due to the introduced Brown Tree Snake.
There are today about 10,000 species of birds, with roughly 1200 considered to be under threat of extinction. Except for a dozen or so species the threat is man-made.
Island species in general, and flightless island species in particular are most at risk. The disproportionate number of rails in the list reflects the tendency of that family to lose the ability to fly when geographically isolated. Even more rails became extinct before they could be described by scientists; these taxa are listed in
Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds.
The extinction dates given below are usually approximations of the actual date of extinction. In some cases, more exact dates are given as it is sometimes possible to pinpoint the date of extinction to a specific year or even day (the
San Benedicto Rock Wrenis possibly the most extreme example—its extinction could be timed with an accuracy of maybe half an hour). Extinction dates in the literature are usually the dates of the last verified record (credible observation or specimen taken); in many Pacific birds which became extinct shortly after European contact, however, this leaves an uncertainty period of over a century because the islands on which they used to occur were only rarely visited by scientists.
Dodo, based on Roelant Savery's 1626 painting of a stuffed specimenndash note the two same-side feet!]
Extinct bird species
Ostrichand related ratites.
Elephant Bird, "Aepyornis maximus" and/or "A. medius" (Madagascar, 16th century?): The taxonomy of the elephant birds is not fully resolved; it is certain that at least one taxon survived until some 1000 years ago at least. Judging from geographical data, "A. maximus" and the smaller "A. medius" are possibilities.
Upland Moa, "Megalapteryx didinus" (South Island, New Zealand, late 15th century?): Generally believed to have been extinct by 1500, this is the only Moaspecies that according to current knowledge might have survived until later times, possibly as late as the 1830s.
King Island Emu, "Dromaius ater" (King Island, Australia, 1822):Extinct in the wild c. 1805, the last captive specimen died in 1822 in the Jardin des Plantes.
Kangaroo Island Emu, "Dromaius baudinianus" (Kangaroo Island, Australia, 1827)
* West Coast Spotted Kiwi, "Apteryx occidentalis" (South Island, New Zealand, c. 1900):A doubtful form known from a single bird; may be a
Little Spotted Kiwisubspecies or a hybrid between that species and the Rowi. Anseriformes Ducks, geese and swans.
Korean Crested Shelduck, "Tadorna cristata" (Northeast Asia, late 20th century?):A relict species from Northeast Asia. Officially critically endangered due to recent unconfirmed reports.
Réunion Shelduck, "Alopochen kervazoi" (Réunion, Mascarenes, c.1690s)
Mauritian Shelduck, "Alopochen mauritianus" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c.1695)
Amsterdam Island Duck, "Anas marecula" (Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, c.1800)
Mauritian Duck, "Anas theodori" (Mauritius and Réunion, Mascarenes, late 1690s)
Mariana Mallard, "Anas oustaleti" (Marianas, West Pacific, 1981)
Finsch's Duck, "Chenonetta finschi" from New Zealand possibly survived to 1870
Pink-headed Duck, "Rhodonessa caryophyllacea" (East India, Bangladesh, North Myanmar, 1945?)ndash a reclassification into the genus Netta is recommended but not generally accepted.:Officially critically endangered; recent surveys have failed to rediscover it.
* Réunion Pochard, "Aythya" cf. "innotata" (Réunion, Mascarenes, c.1690s):A bone of a pochard found on Réunion seems to resolve the reports of "canards" other than the
Mauritian Duckhaving occurred on the island. The taxonomic status of this form cannot be resolved until more material is found, however.
Labrador Duck, "Camptorhynchus labradorius" (Northeast North America, c.1880)
Auckland Islands Merganser, "Mergus australis" (Auckland Islands, Southwest Pacific, c.1902) Galliformes Quails and relatives.
Pile-builder Megapode, "Megapodius molistructor" may have survived on New Caledonia to the late 18th century as evidenced by descriptions of the bird named "Tetrao australis" and later "Megapodius andersoni".
Viti Levu Scrubfowl, "Megapodius amissus" of Viti Levu and possibly Kadavu, Fiji, may have survived to the early 19th or even the 20th century as suggested by circumstantial evidence.
* Raoul Island Scrubfowl, "Megapodius" sp. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 1876):A megapode is said to have inhabited Raoul Island until the population was wiped out in a volcanic eruption. It is not clear whether the birds represent a distinct taxon or derive from a prehistoric introduction by Polynesian seafarers.
New Zealand Quail, "Coturnix novaezelandiae" (New Zealand, 1875)
Himalayan Quail, "Ophrysia superciliosa" (North India, late 19th century?):Officially critically endangered. Not recorded with certainty since 1876, but thorough surveys are still required, and there is a recent set of possible (though unlikely) sightings around Naini Talin 2003. A little-known native name from Western Nepalprobably refers to this bird, but for various reasons, no survey for "Ophrysia" has ever been conducted in that country, nor is it generally assumed to occur there (due to the native name being overlooked).
Double-banded Argus, "Argusianus bipunctatus", was described based on a single aberrant feather piece from an unknown locality found in 1871. This is apparently a rather simple developmental aberration. Charadriiformes Shorebirds, gulls and auks.
Javanese Lapwing, "Vanellus macropterus" (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century):Officially classified as critically endangered, but as this conspicuous bird has not been recorded since 1940, it is almost certainly extinct.
Tahitian Sandpiper, "Prosobonia leucoptera" (Tahiti, Society Islands, 19th century)
White-winged Sandpiper, "Prosobonia ellisi" (Moorea, Society Islands, 19th century):Doubtfully distinct from "P. leucoptera".
Eskimo Curlew, "Numenius borealis" (Northern North America, late 20th century?):May still exist; officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
Slender-billed Curlew, "Numenius tenuirostris" (Western Siberia, early 2000s?):May still exist; officially classified as critically endangered. A few birds were recorded in 2004, following several decades of increasing rarity. There was an unconfirmed sighting in Albania in 2007.
Great Auk, "Pinguinus impennis" (North Atlantic, early 1850s)
Canarian Black Oystercatcher, "Haematopus meadewaldoi" (Eastern Canary Islands, E Atlantic, c. 1940?):Later sightings of black oystercatchers off Senegalwere not likely to be of this sedentary species, but two records from Tenerife- the last in 1981 - may be. Gruiformes
Rails and allies.
"Leguat's Giant" or "géant", a hypothetical giant rail from the Mascarenes described as "Leguatia gigantea", is based on his descriptions of flamingos, as Leguat was not familiar with their French name "flamand" or thought that it referred to other birds (it was in his time sometimes used for
spoonbills, for example).
Antillean Cave-rail, "Nesotrochis debooyi" from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands possibly survived into the Modern Era.
Hawkins' Rail, "Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, 19th century)
Red Rail, "Aphanapteryx bonasia" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
Rodrigues Rail, "Aphanapteryx leguati" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
Bar-winged Rail, "Nesoclopeus poecilopterus" (Fiji, Polynesia, c. 1980)
New Caledonian Rail, "Gallirallus lafresnayanus" (New Caledonia, Melanesia, c. 1990?):Officially classified as critically endangered, the last records were in 1984 and it seems that all available habitat is overrun by feral pigs and dogs, which prey on this bird.
Wake Island Rail, "Gallirallus wakensis" (Wake Island, Micronesia, 1945)
Tahiti Rail, "Gallirallus pacificus" (Tahiti, Society Islands, late 18thndash 19th century)
Dieffenbach's Rail, "Gallirallus dieffenbachii" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, mid-19th century)
Sharpe's Rail, "Gallirallus sharpei" (Indonesia?, 20th century?):A bird known from a single skin of unknown origin. A research project has been proposed to shed light on its relationships and possible place of origin.
* Vava'u Rail, "Gallirallus" cf. "vekamatolu" (Vava'u, Tonga, early 19th century?):This bird is known only from a drawing by the 1793 Malaspina expedition, apparently depicting a species of "Gallirallus". The 'Eua Rail, "Gallirallus vekamatolu", is known from prehistoric bones found on
'Eua, but this species is almost certainly not "G. vekamatolu", as that bird was flightless and hence is unlikely to have settled 3 distant islands. However, it probably was a close relative.
* The Norfolk Island Rail, "Gallirallus" sp. may be the bird shown on a bad watercolor illustration made around 1800.
Chatham Rail, "Cabalus modestus" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, c. 1900)
Réunion Rail, "Dryolimnas augusti" (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
Red-throated Wood-rail, "Aramides gutturalis" (Peru, 20th century?):Usually considered a badly prepared specimen of the Grey-necked Wood Rail, the single known individual of this bird may prove a distinct species though.
Ascension Flightless Crake, "Mundia elpenor" (Ascension, Island, Atlantic, late 17th century)ndash formerly "Atlantisia"
St Helena Crake, "Porzana astrictocarpus" (St Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
Laysan Rail, "Porzana palmeri" (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1944)
Hawaiian Rail, "Porzana sandwichensis" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1890)
Kosrae Island Crake, "Porzana monasa" (Kosrae, Carolines, c. mid-late 19th century)
Miller's Crake, "Porzana nigra" (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1800):Known only from paintings and descriptions; taxonomic status uncertain as the material is often believed to refer to the extant Spotless Crake.
St Helena Swamphen, "Aphanocrex podarces" (St Helena, Atlantic, 16th century)ndash formerly "Atlantisia"
Lord Howe Swamphen, "Porphyrio albus" (Lord Howe Island, SW Pacific, early 19th century)
Réunion Swamphenor "Oiseau bleu", "Porphyrio coerulescens" (Réunion, Mascarenes, 18th century):Known only from descriptions. Former existence of a "Porphyrio" on Réunion is fairly certain, but not proven to date.
Marquesas Swamphen, "Porphyrio paepae" (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas):May have survived to c. 1900. In the lower right corner of Paul Gauguin's 1902 painting "Le Sorcier d'Hiva Oa ou le Marquisien à la cape rouge" there is a bird which reminds of native descriptions of "P. paepae".
North Island Takahē, "Porphyrio mantelli" known from subfossil bones found on North Island, New Zealand, may have survived to 1894 or later.
* New Caledonia Swamphen, "Porphyrio kukwiedei" from New Caledonia, Melanesia, may have survived into historic times. The native name "n'dino" is thought to refer to this bird.
Samoan Wood Rail, "Gallinula pacifica" (Savai'i, Samoa, 1907?):Probably better placed in the genus "Pareudiastes", unconfirmed reports from the late 20th century suggest it still survives in small numbers, and therefore it is officially classified as critically endangered.
Makira Wood Rail, "Gallinula silvestris" (Makira, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?):Only known from a single specimen, this rail is probably better placed in its own genus, "Edithornis". There are some unconfirmed recent records that suggest it still survives, and thus it is officially classified as critically endangered.
Tristan Moorhen, "Gallinula nesiotis" (Tristan da Cunha, Atlantic, late 19th century)
Mascarene Coot, "Fulica newtoni" (Mauritius and Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
* Rallidae gen. et sp. indet.:Unknown rail from
Amsterdam Island, one specimen found but not recovered. Extinct by 1800 or may have been straggler of extant species.
* Fernando de Noronha Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, W. Atlantic, 16th century?):A distinct species of rail inhabited Fernando de Noronha island, but it has not been formally described yet. Probably was extant at Western contact.
* Tahitian "Goose", Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Tahiti, late 18th century?):Early travellers to Tahiti reported a "goose" that was found in the mountains. Altogether, a species of the rail genus "Porphyrio" seems the most likely choice.
Colombian Grebe, "Podiceps andinus" (Bogotá area, Colombia, 1977)
Alaotra Grebe, "Tachybaptus rufolavatus" (Lake Alaotra, Madagascar, late 1980s?):Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct, declined through habitat destruction and hybridization with the Little Grebe. Disappeared from only known location in the 1980s.
Atitlán Grebe, "Podilymbus gigas" (Lake Atitlán, Guatemala, 1989) Ciconiiformes Herons and related birds.
The "Painted Vulture" ("Sarcorhamphus sacra"), a
Floridan bird supposedly similar to the King Vulture, seems based on a misidentification of the Crested Caracara. See King Vulturearticle for discussion.
Bermuda Night Heron, "Nyctanassa carcinocatactes" (Bermuda, West Atlantic, 17th century):Sometimes assigned to the genus "Nycticorax"
Réunion Night Heron, "Nycticorax duboisi" (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
Mauritius Night Heron, "Nycticorax mauritianus" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
Rodrigues Night Heron, "Nycticorax megacephalus" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
Ascension Night Heron, "Nycticorax olsoni" (Ascension Island, Atlantic, late 16th century?):Known only from subfossil bones, but the description of a flightless Ascension bird by F. André Thevetcannot be identified with anything other than this species.
New Zealand Little Bittern, "Ixobrychus novaezelandiae" (New Zealand, late 19th century):Long considered to be vagrant individuals of the Australian Little Bittern, bones recovered from Holocene deposits indicate that this was indeed a distinct taxon, but it might not be a separate species.
Réunion Sacred Ibis, "Threskiornis solitarius" (Réunion, Mascarenes, early 18th century):This species was the basis of the "Réunion Solitaire", a supposed relative of the Dodoand the Rodrigues Solitaire. Given the fact that ibis (but no dodo-like) bones were found on Réunionand that old descriptions match a flightless Sacred Ibisquite well, the "Réunion Solitaire" hypothesis has been refuted. Pelecaniformes Cormorants and related birds.
Spectacled Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax perspicillatus" (Komandorski Islands, North Pacific, c. 1850) Procellariiformes Petrels, shearwaters, albatrosses and storm-petrels.
Small St Helena Petrel, "Bulweria bifax" (St Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
Bermuda Shearwater, "Puffinus parvus" (Bermuda, West Atlantic, 16th century)
Large St Helena Petrel, "Pseudobulweria rupinarum" (St Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
Jamaica Petrel, "Pterodroma caribbaea" (Jamaica, West Indies):Possibly a subspecies of the Black-capped Petrel; unconfirmed reports suggest it might survive. Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
* "Pterodroma" cf. "leucoptera" (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, 20th century?):A wing of a carcass similar to
Gould's Petrelwas recovered on Mangareva in 1922, where it possibly bred. No such birds are known to exist there today.
Guadalupe Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma macrodacyla" (Guadalupe, East Pacific, 1910s):Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct, but a thorough survey in 2000 concluded the species was certainly extinct. Sphenisciformes Penguins
Chatham Islands Penguin, "Eudyptes" sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific), is only known from subfossil bones, but a bird kept captive at some time between 1867 and 1872 might refer to this taxon. Columbiformes Pigeons, doves and dodos.
St Helena Dove, "Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos", possibly survived into the Modern Era.
Passenger Pigeon, "Ectopistes migratorius" (Eastern North America, 1914):The passenger pigeon was once probably the most common bird in the world, a single flock numbering up to several billion birds. It was hunted close to extinction for food and sport in the late 19th century. The last individual died in the Cincinnati Zooin 1914.
Silvery Pigeon, "Columba argentina", has not been reliably observed since 1931 and may be extinct. It is difficult to distinguish from the common Pied Imperial Pigeon, however.
Bonin Woodpigeon, " Columba versicolor" (Nakodo-jima and Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1890)
Ryukyu Woodpigeon, "Columba jouyi" (Okinawa and Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, late 1930s)
Réunion Pink Pigeon, "Streptopelia duboisi" (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700): Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. There seems to have been at least another species of pigeon on Réunion (probably an "Alectroenas"), but bones have not yet been found. It disappeared at the same time.
Rodrigues Turtle Dove, "Streptopelia rodericana" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, before 1690?):Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. A possible subspecies of the Madagascar Turtle Dove, this seems not to be the bird observed by Leguat. Introduced rats might have killed it off in the late 17th century.
Liverpool Pigeon, "Caloenas" maculata":Also known as the Spotted Green Pigeon, the only known specimen has been in LiverpoolMuseum since 1851 and was probably collected on a Pacificisland for Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. It has been suggested that this bird came from Tahitibased on native lore about a somewhat similar extinct bird called "titi", but this has not been verified.
Sulu Bleeding-heart, "Gallicolumba menagei" (Tawitawi, Philippines, late 1990s?):Officially listed as critically endangered. Only known from 2 specimens taken in 1891, there have been a number of unconfirmed reports from all over the Sulu Archipelagoin 1995. However, these reports stated that the bird had suddenly undergone a massive decline, and by now, habitat destruction is almost complete. If not extinct, this species is very rare, but the ongoing civil war prevents comprehensive surveys.
Norfolk Island Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba norfolciensis" (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1800)
Tanna Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba ferruginea" (Tanna, Vanuatu, late 18th-19th century):Only known from descriptions of 2 now-lost specimens.
Thick-billed Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba salamonis" (Makira and Ramos, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?):Last recorded in 1927, only 2 specimens exist. Declared extinct in 2005.
Choiseul Crested Pigeon, "Microgoura meeki" (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, early 20th century)
Red-moustached Fruit-dove, "Ptilinopus mercierii" (Nuku Hiva and Hiva Oa, Marquesas, mid-20th century):Two subspecies, the little-known "P. m. mercierii" of Nuku Hiva (extinct mid-late 19th century) and "P. m. tristrami" of Hiva Oa.
Negros Fruit-dove, "Ptilinopus arcanus" (Negros, Philippines, late 20th century?) :Known only from one specimen taken at the only documented sighting in 1953, the validity of this species has been questioned, but no good alternative to distinct species status has been proposed. Officially critically endangered, it might occur on Panay, but no survey has located it. One possible record in 2002 seems not to have been followed up.
Mauritius Blue Pigeon, "Alectroenas nitidissima" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1830s)
* Farquhar Blue Pigeon, "Alectroenas" sp. (Farquhar Group, Seychelles, 19th century):Only known from early reports; possibly a subspecies of the Comoro or
Seychelles Blue Pigeon.
Rodrigues Grey Pigeon, "Alectroenas" rodericana" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century):A mysterious bird of unknown affinities, known from a few bones and, as it seems, two historical reports.
Dodo, "Raphus cucullatus" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, late 17th century):Called "Didus ineptus" by Linnaeus. A meter-high flightless bird found on Mauritius. Its forest habitat was lost when Dutch settlers moved to the island and the dodo's nests were destroyed by the monkeys, pigs, and cats the Dutch brought with them. The last specimen was killed in 1681, only 80 years after the arrival of the new predators.
Rodrigues Solitaire, "Pezophaps solitaria" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1730)
* For the "Réunion Solitaire", see
Réunion Sacred Ibis. Psittaciformes Parrots.
New Caledonian Lorikeet, "Charmosyna diadema" (New Caledonia, Melanesia, mid-20th century?):Officially critically endangered, there have been no reliable reports of this bird since the early 20th century. It is, however, small and inconspicuous.
Norfolk Island Kākā, " Nestor productus" (Norfolk and Philip Islands, SW Pacific, 1851?)
Society Parakeet, "Cyanoramphus ulietanus" (Raiatea, Society Islands, late 18th century)
Black-fronted Parakeet, "Cyanoramphus zealandicus" (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1850)
Paradise Parrot, "Psephotus pulcherrimus" (Rockhampton area, Australia, late 1920s)
Night Parrot, "Pezoporus occidentalis", officially critically endangered, is a mysterious species which is possibly close to extinction. It was only reliably recorded twice in the late 20th century, the last time in 1991. More probably, it still persists in small numbers as an immature bird was found dead in Diamantina National Park in late 2006.
Oceanic Eclectus Parrot, "Eclectus infectus", known from subfossil bones found on Tonga, Vanuatu, and possibly Fiji, may have survived until the 18th century: a bird which seems to be a male "Eclectus" parrot was drawn in a report on the Tongan island of Vavaʻu by the Malaspina expedition. Also a 19th century Tongan name "ʻāʻā" ("parrot") for "a beautiful bird found only at ʻEua" is attested (see [http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-TreMaor-c1-5.html here] under "Kaka"). This seems to refer either "E. infectus" which in Tonga is only known from Vavaʻu and ʻEua, or the extirpated population of the Collared Lorywhich also occurred there. It is possible but unlikely that the species survived on ʻEua until the 19th century.
Seychelles Parakeet, "Psittacula wardi" (Seychelles, W Indian Ocean, 1883)
Newton's Parakeet, "Psittacula exsul" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1875)
Mascarene Parrot, "Mascarinus mascarinus" (Réunion and possibly Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1834?):Last known individual was a captive bird which was alive before 1834.
Broad-billed Parrot, "Lophopsittacus mauritianus" (Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1680?):May have survived to the late 18th century. A smaller related form described as Mauritius Grey Parrot ("Lophopsittacus bensoni") may be the female of "L. mauritianus".
Rodrigues Parrot, "Necropsittacus rodericanus" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century):The species "N. francicus" is fictional, "N. borbonicus" most likely so.
Glaucous Macaw, "Anodorhynchus glaucus" (N Argentina, early 20th century):Officially critically endangered due to persistent rumours of wild birds, but probably extinct.
Cuban Red Macaw, "Ara tricolor" (Cuba, West Indies, late 19th century):A number of related species have been described from the West Indies, but are not based on good evidence. Several prehistoric forms are now known to have existed in the region, however.
Carolina Parakeet, "Conuropsis carolinensis" (SE North America, c. 1930?):Although the date of the last captive bird's death in the Cincinnati Zoo, 1918, is generally given as extinction date, there are convincing reports of some wild populations persisting until later. Two subspecies, "C. c. carolinensis" (east and south of the Appalachian rangendash extinct 1918 or c. 1930) and "C. c. ludovicianus" (Louisiana Parakeet, west of the Appalachian rangendash extinct early 1910s).
Guadeloupe Parakeet, "Aratinga labati" (Guadeloupe, West Indies, late 18th century):Only known from descriptions, the former existence of this bird is likely for biogeographic reasons and because details as described cannot be referred to known species.
Sinú Parakeet, "Pyrrhura subandina" (Colombia, mid-20th century?):Recently recognized as a distinct species, this bird has a very restricted distribution and was last reliably recorded in 1940. It was not found during searches in 2004 and 2006 and seems to be extinct; relocation efforts continue but are hampered by the threat of armed conflict.
Martinique Amazon, "Amazona martinica" (Martinique, West Indies, mid-18th century)
Guadeloupe Amazon, "Amazona violacea" (Guadeloupe, West Indies, mid-18th century):The extinct amazon parrots were originally described after travelers' descriptions. Both are now considered valid extinct species closely related to the Imperial Amazon. Cuculiformes Cuckoos.
Delalande's Coua, "Coua delalandei" (Madagascar, late 19th century?)
St Helena Cuckoo, "Nannococcyx psix" (St Helena, Atlantic, 18th century) Falconiformes
Birds of prey.
Cuban Kite, "Chondrohierax wilsonii" (Cuba, West Indies, early 2000s?):Often considered a subspecies of the Hook-billed Kite, it is at least critically endangered. While a small remnant probably survives in eastern Cuba, it has not been seen for some years; recent efforts to find the birds have hitherto drawn a blank but continue.
* The Bermuda Hawk, "Bermuteo avivorus", known from Late Quaternary bones from Bermuda (W Atlantic), might have survived to the early 17th century Fact|date=May 2008
Guadalupe Caracara, "Polyborus lutosus" (Guadelupe, E Pacific, 1900 or 1903)
Réunion Kestrel, "Falco duboisi" (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700) Strigiformes Typical owls and barn-owls.
Réunion Owl, "Mascarenotus grucheti" (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century?)
Mauritius Owl, "Mascarenotus sauzieri" (Mauritus, Mascarenes, c. 1850)
Rodrigues Owl, "Mascarenotus murivorus" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century):The preceding two species were variously placed in "Bubo", "Athene", "Scops" (="Otus"), "Strix", and "Tyto" before their true affinity was realized.
New Caledonian Boobook, "Ninox" cf. "novaeseelandiae" (New Caledonia, Melanesia):Known only from prehistoric bones, but might still survive.
Laughing Owl, "Sceloglaux albifacies" (New Zealand, 1914?):Two subspecies, "S. a. albifacies" (South Island and Stewart Island, extinct 1914?) and "S. a. rufifacies" (North Island, extinct c. 1870s?)ndash circumstantial evidence suggests small remnants survived until the early/mid-20th century.
Puerto Rican Barn-owl, "Tyto cavatica", known from prehistoric remains found in caves of Puerto Rico, West Indies, may still have existed in 1912 given reports of the presence of cave-roosting owls.
Bahaman Barn-owl, "Tyto pollens", known from prehistoric remains found on Andros (Bahamas), may have survived to the 16th century as indicated by the "Chickcharnie" legend.
Siau Scops-owl"Otus siaoensis" (20th century?): Only known from the holotype collected in 1866. Endemic to the small volcanic island of Siaunorth of Sulawesiin Indonesia. Might still survive as there are ongoing rumours of scops-owls at Siau. Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae- Nightjars and nighthawks.
Reclusive ground-nesting birds that sally out at night to hunt for large
insectsand similar prey. They are easily located by the males' song, but this is not given all year. Habitat destruction represents currently the biggest threat, while island populations are threatened by introduced mammalian predators, notably dogs, cats, pigs and mongoose.
Jamaican Pauraque, "Siphonorhis americana" (Jamaica, West Indies, late 19th century?):Reports of unidentifiable nightjars from the 1980s in habitat appropriate for "S. americana" suggest that this cryptic species may still exist. Research into this possibility is currently underway; pending further information, it is classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
Cuban Pauraque, "Siphonorhis daiquiri" (Cuba, West Indies, prehistoric?):Described from subfossilbones in 1985. There are persistent rumors that this bird, which was never seen alive by scientists, may still survive. Compare Puerto Rican Nightjarand preceding. Vaurie's Nightjar("Caprimulgus centralasicus") is only known from a single 1929 specimen from Xinjiang, China. It has never been found again, but the validity of this supposed species is seriously disputed. It was never refuted to be an immature female desert European Nightjar. The Nechisar Nightjar("Caprimulgus solala") is known only from a single preserved wing of a bird roadkilled on the Nechisar plains in Ethiopiain 1990. Unlikely to be extinct, no dedicated effort has been made to relocate it. Apodiformes Swifts and hummingbirds.
Coppery Thorntail, "Discosura letitiae" (Bolivia?):Known only from 3 trade specimens of unknown origin. Might still exist.
Brace's Emerald, "Chlorostilbon bracei" (New Providence, Bahamas, late 19th century)
Gould's Emerald, "Chlorostilbon elegans" (Jamaica or northern Bahamas, West Indies, late 19th century)
Alfaro's Hummingbird, "Amazilia alfaroana" (Costa Rica, c.1900):Sometimes separated in "Saucerottia" and/or considered a subspecies of the Indigo-capped Hummingbird(as "A./S. cyanifrons alfaroana"), this bird is known only from a late 19th century specimen and has never been seen since.
Bogota Sunangel, "Heliangelus zusii" (Colombia?):A mysterious bird known only from a single specimen of unknown origin. Might be a hybrid (although the specimen is very distinct) or might still exist.
Turquoise-throated Puffleg, "Eriocnemis godini" (Ecuador, 20th century?):Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Known only from 6 pre-1900 specimens, the habitat at the only known site where it occurred has been destroyed. However, the bird's distribution remains unresolved. Coraciiformes Kingfishers and related birds.
Ryūkyū Kingfisher, "Todiramphus (cinnamominus) miyakoensis" (Miyako-jima, Ryukyu Islands, late 19th century):This was probably a subspecies of the Micronesian Kingfisher"Todiramphus cinnamominus". Only seen once by scientists, in 1887; the specimen taken is somewhat damaged, making identification by other than molecular analysis difficult.
Giant Hoopoe, "Upupa antaois" (St Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century) Piciformes Woodpeckers and related birds.
Imperial Woodpecker, "Campephilus imperialis" (Mexico, late 20th century):This 60-centimeter-long woodpecker is officially listed as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Occasional unconfirmed reports come up, the most recent in late 2005.
* There is much uncertainty on whether the North American
Ivory-billed Woodpecker("Campephilus principalis principalis") was indeed rediscovered in the White River National Wildlife Refugeof Arkansasin 2004. The Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker ("Campephilus principalis bairdii") was last seen in 1987 and is generally considered extinct, but there are a few patches of habitat not yet surveyed. Passeriformes Perching birds. Acanthisittidaendash New Zealand "wrens"
Stephens Island Wren, "Xenicus lyalli" (New Zealand, 1895?):The species famously (but erroneously) claimed to have been made extinct by a single cat named "Tibbles".
Bush Wren, "Xenicus longipes" (New Zealand, 1972):3 subspecies: "X. l. stokesi" (North Island, extinct 1955); "X. l. longipes" (South Island, extinct 1968(; "X. l. variabilis" (Stewart Island, extinct 1972). Formicariidaendash antpittas and antthrushes
Táchira Antpitta, "Grallaria chthonia" (Venezuela, late 20th century?):Officially Critically Endangered, this species has not been recorded since 1956 and although some habitat still exists, it was not found in dedicated searches in the 1990s. Meliphagidaendash honeyeaters and Australian chats
Kioea, "Chaetoptila angustipluma" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1860s)
Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho nobilis" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1930s)
Oʻahu ʻŌʻō, "Moho apicalis" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
Molokaʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho bishopi" (Molokaʻi and probably Maui, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1910 or 1980s)
Kauaʻi ʻŌʻō, "Moho braccatus" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1987)
Chatham Island Bellbird, "Anthornis melanocephala" (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific, c. 1910):Unconfirmed records exist from the early-mid 1950s Acanthizidaendash scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones
Lord Howe Gerygone, "Gerygone insularis" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1930) Pachycephalidaendash whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies
Mangarevan Whistler, ?"Pachycephala gambierana" (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century?): A mysterious bird of which no specimen exists today. It was initially described as a shrike, then classified as an "Eopsalteria" "robin", and may actually be an "Acrocephalus" warbler. Dicruridaendash monarch flycatchers and allies
Maupiti Monarch, "Pomarea pomarea" (Maupiti, Society Islands, mid-19th century)
Eiao Monarch, "Pomarea fluxa" (Eiao, Marquesas, late 1970s):Previously considered a subspecies of the Iphis Monarch, this is an early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Nuku Hiva Monarch, "Pomarea nukuhivae" (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas, mid-late 20th century):Previously considered a subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this is another early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Ua Pou Monarch, "Pomarea mira" (Ua Pou, Marquesas, c. 1986):Previously considered another subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this was a distinct species most closely related to that bird and the Fatuhiva Monarch.
Guam Flycatcher, "Myiagra freycineti" (Guam, Marianas, 1983) Corvidaendash crows, ravens, magpies and jays
Banggai Crow, "Corvus unicolor" (Banggai or Peleng Island, Indonesia, 20th century?):Officially critically endangered, it is known only from two specimens taken on an unspecified island at some date in the late 19th century, probably in 1884 or 1885. Possible sightings in 1981 and 1991, but no unequivocal recent records and amount of habitat destruction suggest this species is extinct. Vangidaendash vangas
Short-toed Nuthatch Vanga, "Hypositta perdita" (Madagascar, mid-20th century?):An enigmatic bird known only from 2 recently fledged juveniles collected in 1931, it was not found during a thorough search in 1996.
North Island Piopio, "Turnagra tanagra" (North Island, New Zealand, c. 1970?):Not reliably recorded since about 1900.
South Island Piopio, "Turnagra capensis" (South Island, New Zealand, 1960s?):Two subspecies, "T. c. minor" from Stephens Island (extinct c. 1897) and the nominate "T. c. capensis" from the South Island mainland (last specimen taken in 1902, last unconfirmed record in 1963) Callaeidaendash New Zealand wattlebirds
Huia, "Heteralocha acutirostris" (North Island, New Zealand, early 20th century) Hirundinidaendash swallows and martins
White-eyed River Martin, "Pseudochelidon sirintarae" (Thailand, late 1980s?):Officially critically endangered, this enigmatic species is only known from migrating birds and it was last seen in 1986 at its former roost site. Recent unconfirmed repors suggest it may occur in Cambodia.
Red Sea Swallow, "Petrochelidon perdita" (Red Sea area, late 20th century?):Known from a single specimen, this enigmatic swallow probably still exists, but the lack of recent records is puzzling. It is alternatively placed in the genus "Hirundo". Megaluridaendash megalurid warblers or grass warblers
Chatham Islands Fernbird, "Bowdleria rufescens" (Chatham Islands, New Zealand, c. 1900):Often placed in genus "Megalurus", but this is based on an incomplete review of the evidence. Cisticolidaendash cisticolas and allies
Tana River Cisticola, "Cisticola restrictus" (Kenya, 1970s?):A mysterious bird, found in the Tana River basin in small numbers at various dates, but not since 1972. Probably invalid, based on aberrant or hybrid specimens. An unconfirmed sighting was apparently made in 2007 in the Tana River Delta.
Zosteropidaendash white-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae.
Lord Howe White-eye, "Zosterops strenuus" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1918) Timaliidaendash Old World babblers
Black-browed Babbler, "Malacocincla perspicillata" (Borneo?, Indonesia, 20th century?):Known from a single mid-19th century specimen, this bird may be extinct or could still exist. If the specimen label, usually considered erroneous in claiming "Java" as the bird's origin, is correct, it may have gone extinct earlier. Sylvioidea" incertae sedis"
Aldabra Brush-warbler, "Nesillas aldabrana" (Aldabra, Indian Ocean, c. 1984) Acrocephalidaendash Marsh- and tree-warblers
Moorea Reed-warbler," Acrocephalus longirostris" - (Moorea, 1980s?) (split from Acrocephalus cafferin 2008) [Cibois, Thiboult & Pasquet: "Systematics of the extinct reed warblers Acrocephalus of the Society Islands of eastern Polynesia". Ibis (2008), 150, 365–376] :Last reliable sighting was in 1981. Survey in 1986/1987 remained unsuccessful. A photograph of a warbler from Moorea in 1998 or 1999 taken by Philippe Bacchet remains uncertain. Muscicapidaendash Old World flycatchers and chats
Rueck's Blue Flycatcher, "Cyornis ruckii" (Malaysia or Indochina, 20th century?):An enigmatic bird known from 2 or 4 possibly migrant specimens, last recorded in 1918. Might exist in NE Indochina and might be a subspecies of the Hainan Blue Flycatcher. Turdidaendash thrushes and allies
Grand Cayman Thrush, "Turdus ravidus" (Grand Cayman, West Indies, late 1940s)
Bonin Thrush, "Zoothera terrestris" (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1830s)
ʻĀmaui, "Myadestes woahensis" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
Kāmaʻo, "Myadestes myadestinus" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)
Olomaʻo, "Myadestes lanaiensis" (Hawaiian Islands, 1980s?):Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct because a possible location on Molokaʻi remains unsurveyed. Two subspecies are known from Lanaʻi ("M. l. lanaiensis", extinct early 1930s), Molokaʻi ("M. l. rutha", extinct 1980s?) and a possible third subspecies from Maui (extinct before late 19th century). Sturnidaendash starlings
Kosrae Island Starling, "Aplonis corvina" (Kosrae, Carolines, mid-19th century)
Mysterious Starling, "Aplonis mavornata" (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid-19th century)
Tasman Starling, "Aplonis fusca" (Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1923):Two subspecies, "A. f. fusca"ndash Norfolk Island Starling(extinct c. 1923); "A. fusca hulliana"ndash Lord Howe Starling(extinct c. 1919).
Pohnpei Starling, "Aplonis pelzelni" (Pohnpei, Micronesia, c. 2000):Only one reliable record since 1956, in 1995, leaves the species' survival seriously in doubt.
Bay Starling, "Aplonis? ulietensis" (Raiatea, Society Islands, between 1774 and 1850):Usually called "Bay Thrush" ("Turdus ulietensis"); a mysterious bird from Raiatea, now only known from a painting and some descriptions of a (now lost) specimen. Its taxonomic position is thus unresolvable at present, although for biogeographic reasons and because of the surviving description, it has been suggested to have been a honeyeater. However, with the discovery of fossils of the prehistorically extinct starling" Aplonis diluvialis" on neighboring Huahine, it seems likely that this bird also belonged to this genus.
Bourbon Crested Starling, "Fregilupus varius" (Réunion, Mascarenes, 1850s)
Rodrigues Starling, "Necropsar rodericanus" (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century?):The bird variously described as "Testudophaga bicolor", "Necropsar leguati" or "Orphanopsar leguati" which was considered to be identical with "N. rodericanus" (which is only known from fossils) was finally resolved to be based on a misidentified partially albinistic specimen of the Martinique Trembler("Cinclocerthia gutturalis") Mimidaendash mockingbirds and thrashers
Cozumel Thrasher, "Toxostoma guttatum" (Cozumel, Caribbean, early 2000s?):The most recent possible extinction on this list. It is still unknown whether the tiny population rediscovered in 2004 survived Hurricanes Emily and Wilma in 2005. Unconfirmed records in April 2006 and October and December 2007. Estrildidaendash estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc)
Black-lored Waxbill, "Estrilda nigriloris" (D.R. Congo, Africa, late 20th century?):An enigmatic waxbill not seen since 1950; because part of its habitat is in Upemba National Parkit may survive. Icteridaendash grackles
Slender-billed Grackle, "Quiscalus palustris" (Mexico, 1910) Parulidaendash New World warblers
Bachman's Warbler, "Vermivora bachmanii" (Southern USA, c. 1990?):Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct
Semper's Warbler, "Leucopeza semperi" (Saint Lucia, Caribbean, 1970s) Ploceidaendash Weavers
* "Foudia delloni", new name for the
Réunion Fody(Cheke & Hume 2008), known from travel reports by Gabriel Dellon in 1668 and Dubois (1674), "Foudia bruante" (S. Müller 1776) might be a colour morph of the Madagascar Weaver (Cheke & Hume 2008) [Anthony Cheke & Julian Hume: Lost Land of the Dodo. T. & A.D. Poyser. 2008] Fringillidaendash true finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers
Tawny-headed Mountain Finch, "Leucosticte sillemi" (Xinjiang, mid- or late 20th century?):An enigmatic bird known from just 2 specimens collected in 1929. As no threats are known, probably still extant, but the lack of recent records is puzzling.
Bonin Grosbeak, "Chaunoproctus ferreorostris" (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, 1830s)
ʻŌʻū, "Psittirostra psittacea" (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?):Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct, this was once the most widespread species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It has not been reliably recorded since 1987 or 1989.
Lanaʻi Hookbill, "Dysmorodrepanis munroi" (Lanaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1918)
Pila's Palila, "Loxioides kikuichi" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands), possibly survived to the early 18th century.
Lesser Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthus flaviceps" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1891)
Greater Koa Finch, "Rhodacanthus palmeri" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1896)
Kona Grosbeak, "Psittirostra kona" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1894)
Greater ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus sagittirostris" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1901)
Nukupuʻu, "Hemignathus lucidus" (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?):The subspecies from Oʻahu ("H. l. lucidus") has been extinct since the late 19th century, that of Kauaʻi ("H. l. hanapepe") most probably since the late 1990s and that of Maui ("H. l. affinis") has not been reliably seen since 1995. It is currently classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoaor Lesser ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus obscurus" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1940):Sometimes placed in genus "Akialoa" (as "A. obscura").
Greater ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus ellisianus" (Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1969):Sometimes placed in genus "Akialoa" (as "A. ellisiana"). Often split into Maui Nui ʻAkialoa, "H. lanaiensis" or "A. lanaiensis" (Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1892), Oʻahu ʻAkialoa, "H. ellisianus" or "A. ellisiana" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1940) and Kauaʻi ʻAkialoa, "H. stejnegeri" or "A. stejnegeri" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1969).
Kakawahie, "Paroreomyza flammea" (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1963)
Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza maculata" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, early 1990s?):Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Last reliable record was in 1985, with an unconfirmed sighting in 1990.
ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, "Ciridops anna" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1892 or 1937)
Black Mamo, "Drepanis funerea" (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1907)
Hawaiʻi Mamo, "Drepanis pacifica" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1898)
Poʻo-uli, "Melamprosops phaeosoma" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2004?):The most recent unequivocal extinction on this list. What was most likely the last known bird died in captivity on 28 November 2004. Emberizidaendash buntings and American sparrow
Hooded Seedeater, "Sporophila melanops" (Brazil, 20th century?):Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. It is known only from a single male collected in 1823, and has variously been considered an aberrant Yellow-bellied Seedeateror a hybrid.
Antioquia Brush-finch"Atlapetes blancae" (Antioquia, Colombia?):mysterious bird formerly misidentified as Slaty Brush-finchdescribed in 2007 on basis of three 20th century museum specimens.
(Probably) Extinct subspecies of birds
subspeciesis a subject very dependent on guesswork. National and international conservation projects and research publications such as redlists usually focus on species as a whole. Reliable information on the status of threatened subspecies usually has to be assembled piecemeal from published observations such as regional checklists. Therefore, the following listing contains a high proportion of taxa that may just as well still exist, but are listed here due to any combination of absence of recent records, a known threat such as habitat destruction, and an observed decline. Struthioniformes
Ostrichand related ratites.
Arabian Ostrich, "Struthio camelus syriacus" (Arabia, 1966)ndash Ostrichsubspecies
Tasmanian Emu, "Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis" (Tasmania, mid-19th century)ndash Emusubspecies
* North Island Little Spotted Kiwi, "Apteryx owenii iredalei" (North Island, New Zealand, late 19th century)ndash
Little Spotted Kiwisubspecies Tinamiformes
* Huila Black Tinamou, "Tinamus osgoodi hershkovitzi" (Colombia, 1980s?):A
Black Tinamousubspecies or possibly a distinct species; not seen since 1976 but might persist in Cueva de los Guácharos National Park.
Magdalena Tinamou, "Crypturellus (erythropus) saltuarius" (Colombia, late 20th century?):Variously considered a Red-legged Tinamousubspecies or a distinct species, this bird is only known from the 1943 type specimen. Recent research suggest it is still extant. Anseriformes Ducks, geese and swans.
Bering Cackling Goose, "Branta hutchinsii asiatica" (Komandorski and Kuril Islands, N Pacific, c. 1914 or 1929):A subspecies of the Cackling Goose(formerly "Lesser Canada Goose") which is doubtfully distinct from the Aleutian one.
Coues' Gadwallor Washington Island Gadwall, "Anas strepera couesi" (Teraina, Kiribati, late 19th century):A doubtfully distinct Gadwallsubspecies.
* Rennell Island Teal, "Anas gibberifrons remissa" (Rennell, Solomon Islands, c. 1959):A subspecies of the
Sunda Tealwhich disappeared due to predation on young birds by the introduced tilapia" Oreochromis mossambicus".
* Niceforo's Pintail, "Anas georgica niceforoi" (Colombia, 1950s)ndash
* Borrero's Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera borreroi" (Colombia, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Cinnamon Tealknown only from a restricted area in the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, with a couple of records from Ecuador. It is either very rare or already extinct. Galliformes Quails and relatives.
* Italian Grey Partridge, "Perdix perdix italica" (Italy, c. 1990):A subspecies of the
Grey Partridgewhose validity has been questioned; the last purebred individuals disappeared during the late 1980s due to hybridization with introduced birds.
* Amik Gölü Black Francolin, "Francolinus francolinus billypayni" (S Turkey, possibly Lebanon, 1960s):A doubtfully distinct subspecies of the
* Sicilian Black Francolin, "Francolinus francolinus" ssp. (Sicily, Mediterranean, c. 1869):Another doubtfully distinct
Heath Hen, "Tympanuchus cupido cupido", (New England, North America, 1932):A subspecies of the Greater Prairie-Chickenor possibly a distinct species.
* New Mexico Sharp-tailed Grouse, "Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi" (New Mexico, North America, 1954)ndash
* Moroccan Guineafowl, "Numida meleagris sabyi" (Morocco, mid-20th century or early 1980s):A subspecies of the
Helmeted Guineafowl. Reportedly still kept in captivity in Morocco in late 1990s. Possibly extinct by 1950, the 3 1970s records may refer to feral domestic hybrids. Charadriiformes Shorebirds, gulls and auks.
* North Island Snipe, "Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis" (North Island, New Zealand, 1870s)ndash
New Zealand Snipesubspecies
* South Island Snipe, "Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei" (South and Stewart Islands, New Zealand, 1964)ndash
New Zealand Snipesubspecies
* Tawitawi Small Buttonquail, "Turnix sylvatica suluensis" (Tawitawi, Philippines, mid-20th century)ndash
* New Caledonia Painted Buttonquail, "Turnix varia novaecaledoniae" (New Caledonia, Melanesia, early 20th century):A subspecies of the
Painted Buttonquailof somewhat unclear status, it is variously considered anything between a hybrid between introduced species to a full species. Plentiful subfossil bones indicate that it was indeed a good endemic form.
* Kiritimati Sandpiper, "Prosobonia cancellata cancellata" (Kiritimati, Kiribati, 19th century?):The doubtfully distinct nominate subspecies of the
Tuamotu Sandpiper, sometimes considered a distinct species, but only known from a painting. Gruiformes
Rails and allies.
* Goldman's Yellow Rail, "Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani" (Mexico, late 1960s)ndash
* Macquarie Island Buff-banded Rail, "Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis" (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, 1880s)ndash
* Raoul Island Banded Rail, "Gallirallus philippensis" ssp. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, SW Pacific, late 19th century?):Reports of the former occurrence of the species on Raoul seem plausible enough, but they may relate to vagrant individuals of another
* Peruvian Rail, "Rallus semiplumbeus peruvianus" (Peru, 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Bogota Railwhich is known from a single specimen collected in the 1880s. It may still be extant.
* Western Australian Lewin's Rail, "Lewinia pectoralis cleleandi" (SW Australia, late 1930s)ndash
* Flores Lewin's Rail, "Lewinia pectoralis exsul" (Flores, Indonesia, late 20th century?):A
Lewin's Railsubspecies known from vey few specimens. Only seen once since 1959 (in 1974) despite attempts to find it, it may well be extinct.
* Assumption White-throated Rail, "Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti" (Assumption, Astove and Cosmoledo, Aldabra Islands, early 20th century)ndash
* Jamaican Uniform Crake, "Amaurolimnas concolor concolor" (Jamaica, West Indies, 1890)ndash
Uniform Crakenominate subspecies
* Intact Rail, "Gymnocrex plumbeiventris intactus" (Melanesia, 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Bare-eyed Railwhich is known from a single specimen, c. mid-19th century, from the Solomon Islands or New Ireland. The taxon may be extant.
* Bornean Baillon's Crake, "Porzana pusilla mira" (Borneo, 20th century?):A subspecies of
Baillon's Crakeknown from a single 1912 specimen and not found since; may be extinct, but species is hard to find.
* Iwo Jima White-browed Crake, "Porzana cinerea brevipes" (Iwo Jima and Minami Iōjima, Ogasawara Islands, early 20th century).:A subspecies of the
White-browed Crakethat is often considered synonymous with the nominate.
* Moroccan Bustard, "Ardeotis arabs lynesi" (Morocco, 1990s):A subspecies of the
Arabian Bustard. Last observed in 1993 at Lac Merzouga/Lac Tamezguidat.
* Luzon Sarus Crane, "Grus antigone luzonica" (Luzon, Philippines, late 1960s):A subspecies of the
Sarus Cranewhich is not always accepted as valid, probably mainly because the specimens have never been thoroughly studied since the subspecies' description. Ciconiiformes Herons and related birds.
Bonin Nankeen Night Heron, "Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris" (Nakoudo-jima and Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1890)ndash Nankeen Night Heronsubspecies
* Principe Olive Ibis, "Bostrychia olivacea rothschildi" (Principe, Gulf of Guinea, 1990s?):An
Olive Ibissubspecies, or (as "B. bocagei rothschildi") one of the São Tomé Ibis if this is considered a distinct species. A probable sighting in 1994 was the first (and only) of these birds since the early 20th century; a population may yet survive. Pelecaniformes Cormorants and related birds.
Tasman Booby, "Sula dactylatra tasmani" fide van Tets "et al.", 1988 (Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, SW Pacific, c. 1790?):This is often regarded as a distinct species, but at best it is a subspecies of the Masked Booby. Probably identical to the extant Lord Howe Island population described as "S. d. fullagari", which would in this case be named "S. d. tasmani" fide Holdaway & Anderson, 2001. Pteroclidiformes Sandgrouse.
* Fayyum Sandgrouse, "Pterocles exustus floweri" (Egypt, c. 1940):
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrousesubspecies, may have survived until early 1980s. Columbiformes Pigeons, doves and dodos.
Madeiran Wood Pigeon, "Columba palumbus maderensis" (Madeira, East Atlantic, early 20th century)ndash Wood Pigeonsubspecies
* Ogasawara Japanese Woodpigeon, "Columba janthina nitens" (Ogasawara Islands, Northwest Pacific, 1980s)ndash
* Lord Howe Metallic Pigeon, "Columba vitiensis godmanae" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1853)ndash
* Tongan Metallic Pigeon, "Columba vitiensis" ssp. (Vava'u, Tonga, late 18th century?):This subspecies of the
Metallic Pigeonis only known from a footnote in John Latham's "General History of Birds", and seems to have died out some time before 1800; possibly, the location is erroneous and the note really refers to the extant population of Fiji.
* Catanduanes Bleeding-heart, "Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris" (Catanduanes, Philippines, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Luzon Bleeding-heartknown from a single specimen collected in 1971. It is either near extinction or already extinct.
* Basilan Bleeding-heart, "Gallicolumba crinigera bartletti" (Basilan, Philippines, mid-20th century?):A subspecies of the
Mindanao Bleeding-heart, it was last reported in 1925 and given the massive habitat destruction is likely extinct.
* Vella Lavella Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba jobiensis chalconota" (Vella Lavella, Makira and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
White-breasted Ground-doveor possibly a distinct species. Known from only 4 specimens, there are no recent records and the local population report it has disappeared.
* White-headed Polynesian Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba erythroptera albicollis" (Central Tuamotu Islands, 20th century):The Central Tuamotu subspecies of the
Polynesian Ground-dove, often referred to as "G. e. pectoralis", disappeared at an undetermined date, but might still exist on some unsurveyed atolls. The identity of Northern Tuamotu populations, possibly still extant, is undetermined.
* Ebon Purple-capped Fruit-dove, "Ptilinopus porphyraceus marshallianus" (Ebon, Marshall Islands?, late 19th century?)ndash
Purple-capped Fruit-dovesubspecies:Known from a single specimen collected in 1859, it is not certain whether this bird actually occurred on Ebon. All that can be said is that this subspecies is no longer found anywhere.
* Mauke Fruit-dove, "Ptilinopus rarotongensis "byronensis" (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid- or late 19th century):A subspecies of the
Rarotonga Fruit-dove, known only from the description of a now-lost specimen. the prehistorically extinct population on Mangaiais likely to belong to another distinct subspecies too.
* Negros Grey-necked Imperial-pigeon, "Ducula carola nigrorum" (Negros and probably Siquijor, late 20th century)ndash
Grey-necked Imperial Pigeonsubspecies
* Norfolk Island Kererū, "Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea" (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, mid-19th century) :A subspecies of the
Kererūor New Zealand Pigeon. Similar birds were reported from Lord Howe Island; these seem to represent another extinct subspecies but are undescribed to date.
* Raoul Island Kererū, "Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae" ssp. nov (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 19th century):Another undescribed subspecies (or possibly species) of the
Kererū, known from bones and a brief report. Psittaciformes Parrots.
* Sangir Red and Blue Lory, "Eos histrio histrio" (Sangir Archipelago, Indonesia, c. 1997):The nominate subspecies of the
Red and Blue Lorywas hybridized out of existence by escaped trade individuals of the subspecies "talautensis", the last purebred individuals disappearing in the 1990s or even much earlier.
* Challenger's Lory, "Eos histrio challengeri" (Nenusa Islands, Talaud Archipelago, early 20th century?):A supposed subspecies of the
Red and Blue Lory, but probably invalid.
* Macquarie Island Red-crowned Parakeet, "Cyanoramphus erythrotis erythrotis" (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, c. 1891)ndash
Subantarctic Red-crowned Parakeetnominate subspecies
* Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet, "Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens" (Lord Howe Island, SW Pacific, c. 1870)ndash
* Westerman's Eclectus Parrot, "Eclectus roratus westermani" (Indonesia, 20th century?):Known only from 16 captive birds specimens and last recorded in 1899, this enigmatic subspecies of the
Eclectus Parrotis often considered an aviary hybrid. However, it may has well have occurred on islands at the northern or eastern end of the Banda Sea, becoming extinct some time in the 20th centuryndash or might even still exist in a little-surveyed location.
* Réunion Parakeet, "Psittacula eques eques" (Réunion, Mascarenes, mid-18th century):Known only from a painting and descriptions; if it is accepted as valid, it would become the nominate subspecies of the
Echo Parakeet, extant on Mauritius, which would then have to be called "P. eques echo".
* Siquijor Colasisi, "Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis" (Siqujoor, Philippines, 1990s):A subspecies of the
Colasisior Philippine Hanging Parrot, either very rare or already extinct.
* Puerto Rican Parakeet, "Aratinga chloroptera maugei" (Mona and possibly Puerto Rico, West Indies, 1890s):A weakly differentiated subspecies of the
* Sinú Brown-throated Parakeet, "Aratinga pertinax griseipecta" (Colombia, mid- or late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Brown-throated Parakeetknown from only two specimens collected in 1949 and of unclear taxonomical and conservation status.
* Culebra Island Amazon, "Amazona vittata gracilipes" (Culebra, West Indies, 1900s):A weakly differentiated subspecies of the
Puerto Rican Amazonwhich is itself highly endangered. Cuculiformes Cuckoos.
* Greater Crested Coua, "Coua cristata maxima" (SE Madagascar, late 20th century):
Crested Couasubspecies, known only from a single specimen taken in 1950
* Timor Pheasant Coucal, "Centropus phasianinus mui" (Timor, Indonesia, late 20th century?):A very distinctive
Pheasant Coucalsubspecies or possibly a distinct species which is mysteriously only known from one specimen.
* Assumption Island Coucal, "Centropus toulou assumptionis" (Assumption Island, Seychelles, c. 1920s):A
Madagascar Coucalsubspecies often considered synonymous with the Aldabra form "insularis", which has recolonized Assumption Island at a later date.
* Cabo San Lucas Groove-billed Ani, "Crotophaga sulcirostris pallidula" (Mexico, c. 1940):A weakly differentiated and probably invalid subspecies of the
* Bahia Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo, "Neomorphus geoffroyi maximiliani" (E Brazil, mid-20th century)ndash
Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoosubspecies Falconiformes
Birds of prey.
Cape Verde Kite, "Milvus "("milvus")" fasciicauda" (Cape Verde Islands, E Atlantic, 2000):Considered either a subspecies of the Red Kite, a distinct species, or a hybrid between Red and Black Kites, the validity of this taxon has recently being questioned on the basis of molecular analysis. However, hybridization and a confusing molecular phylogeny of Red Kite populations coupled with the distinct phenotype of the Cape Verde birds suggest that the taxonomic status of this form is far from resolved.
Anjouan Island Sparrowhawk, "Accipiter francesii pusillus":This subspecies of Frances's Sparrowhawkfrom Ndzouani (Anjouan), Comoros, was last seen in 1958; given that little habitat remains, it is probably extinct.
* Car Nicobar Sparrowhawk, "Accipiter butleri butleri" (Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands, 20th century?): The nominate subspecies of the
Nicobar Sparrowhawkndash which is currently listed as vulnerablendash is possibly extinct. It was last reliably recorded in 1901 and despite searches, has not been sighted after an unconfirmed record in 1977.
* Korean Sea-eagle, "Haliaeetus pelagicus niger" (Korea, 1950s):A
Steller's Sea-eaglesubspecies of uncertain distinctness.
* Volcano Islands Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus furuitii". (Ogasawara Islands, 1940s):
Peregrine falconsubspecies from the Ogasawara Islands. No sightings since 1945. A survey in 1982 failed to find this bird. Only known from Iwo Jimaand Torishima. Strigiformes Typical owls and barn-owls.
* Sulu Reddish Scops Owl, "Otus rufescens burbidgei" (Sulu, Philippines, mid-20th century):A subspecies of the
Reddish Scops Owl. Known from a single questionable specimen and may not be valid.
* Virgin Islands Screech Owl, "Megascops nudipes newtoni" (Virgin Islands, Caribbean, 1860s):A subspecies of the
Puerto Rican Screech Owlof somewhat doubtful validity which occurred on several of the Virgin Islands, West Indies. The last reliable records are in 1860; it was not found in thorough surveys in 1995.
* Socorro Elf Owl, "Micrathene whitneyi graysoni" (Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, c. 1970):A subspecies of the
Elf Owl. Officially listed as critically endangered, the last specimen was taken in 1932, but there apparently still was a large population in 1958; it was not found by subsequent searches and appears to be extinct.
* Antiguan Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia amaura" (Antigua, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies, c. 1905)ndash
* Guadeloupe Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia guadeloupensis" (Guadeloupe and Marie-Galante, West Indies, c. 1890)ndash
* Lord Howe Island Morepork, "Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1950s)ndash
* Norfolk Island Morepork, "Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata" (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1996):Individuals of the nominate subspecies were introduced in a last-ditch effort to save the local owl population. There now exists a hybrid population of a few dozen birds; the last individual of "N. n. undulata", a female named "Miamiti" died in 1996.
* Cave-nesting Masked Owl, "Tyto novaehollandiae troughtoni" (Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1960s):Doubtfully distinct from nominate subspecies, but differed behaviorally.
* Buru Masked Owl, "Tyto sororcula cayelii" (Buru, Indonesia, mid-20th century?):Subspecies of
Lesser Masked Owl. Last recorded in 1921; the identity of a similar bird found on Seram remains to be determined. Seems to survive as an owl matching this bird's description was encountered in August, 2006.
* Peleng Masked Owl, "Tyto rosenbergii pelengensis" (Peleng, Banggai Islands, mid-20th century):Subspecies of
Sulawesi Owlor separate species. Possibly extant, but only specimen known taken in 1938 and no further records.
* Samar Bay Owl, "Phodilus badius riverae" (Samar, Philippines, mid-20th century):Subspecies of
Oriental Bay Owlor possibly distinct species. Taxonomy doubtful but only specimen lost in 1945 bombing raid so validity cannot be verified; no population exists on Samar today. Caprimulgiformes Nightjars and allies.
* New Caledonian White-throated Eared-nightjar, "Eurostopodus mystacalis exsul" (New Caledonia, Melanesia, mid-20th century):This distinct subspecies of the
White-throated Eared-nightjaris possibly a separate species. It was found only once; due to its cryptic habits, it possibly still exists, but this is now considered unlikely. Apodiformes Swifts and hummingbirds.
* Alejandro Selkirk Firecrown, "Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi" (Alejandro Selkirk Island, Juan Fernández Islands, Southeast Pacific, 1908)ndash
Juan Fernández Firecrownsubspecies
* Luzon Whitehead's Swiftlet, "Collocalia whiteheadi whiteheadi" (Luzon, Philippines, 20th century?):The nominate subspecies of
Whitehead's Swiftletis only known from four specimens collected at Mount Datain 1895 and from the lack of further records and the massive habitat destruction, it is usually considered extinct. Given the size of the island, it might still exist though. Coraciiformes Kingfishers and related birds.
* Sangihe Dwarf-kingfisher, "Ceyx fallax sangirensis" (Sangihe, Indonesia, 1998?):This subspecies of the
Sulawesi Kingfisherwas last seen in 1997 but not during a thorough survey one year later; it is either close to extinction or already extinct. Sometimes it is said to occur on Talaud Islands also, but this is erroneous.
* Rarotonga Kingfisher, "Todiramphus" cf. "tutus" (Rarotonga, Cook Islands, mid-1980s?):There exist reports of locals that kingfishersndash probably a subspecies of the
Chattering Kingfisherwhich is found on neighboring islands, but possibly vagrants from therendash were found until around 1979, and there is a last record from 1984. Presently, no kingfishers are known to exist on Rarotonga.
* Mangareva Kingfisher, "Todiramphus gambieri gambieri" (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century):Only known from a single 1844 specimen, the nominate subspecies of the
Tuamotu Kingfisherwas not found anymore when it was next searched for in 1922.
* Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher, "Alcedo euryzona euryzona" (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century):The nominate subspecies of the
Blue-banded Kingfisher; the last specimen was taken in 1937 and the last unconfirmed records are from the 1950s.
* Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher, "Alcedo pusilla aolae" (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands)ndash
* Malaita Variable Kingfisher, "Ceyx lepidus malaitae" (Malaita, Solomon Islands)ndash
* Sakarha Pygmy Kingfisher, "Ispidina madagascariensis dilutus" (Southwest Madagascar, late 20th century?):This subspecies of the
Madagascar Pygmy Kingfisheris only known from one specimen taken in 1974 in an area where most habitat had already been lost.
* Ticao Tarictic Hornbill, "Penelopides panini ticaensis" (Ticao, Philippines, 1970s):A subspecies of the
Tarictic Hornbillof somewhat uncertain statusndash possibly a distinct species, possibly a color morphndash the last confirmed report was in 1971 and it became extinct shortly thereafter. Piciformes Woodpeckers and related birds.
Guadalupe Flicker, "Colaptes cafer rufipileus" (Guadalupe, East Pacific, c. 1910):A subspecies of the Red-shafted Flicker (or the Northern Flicker, as "C. auratus rufipileus"), it was last recorded in 1906 and not found anymore in 1911 and 1922. Recently, vagrant birds of a mainland subspecies have begun recolonizing the island as the habitat improves after the removal of feral goats.
* Javan Buff-rumped Woodpecker, "Meiglyptes tristis tristis" (Java, Indonesia, c. 1920):The nominate subspecies of the
Buff-rumped Woodpeckerbecame rare during the 19th century due to destruction of habitat. The last confirmed record was in 1880, and it obviously became extinct in the early 20th century.
* Northern White-mantled Barbet, "Capito hypoleucus hypoleucus" (Colombia, mid-20th century):The nominate subspecies of the
White-mantled Barbethas not been seen since the late 1940s and its habitat has been almost completely destroyed.
* Botero White-mantled Barbet, "Capito hypoleucus carrikeri" (Colombia, mid-20th century):Another subspecies of the
White-mantled Barbet, last seen in 1950.
* Todd's Jacamar, "Brachygalba lugubris phaeonota" (Brazil, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Brown Jacamar, or possibly a hybrid, color morph or full species. Might survive as it is only known from a remote and seldom visited area. Passeriformes Perching birds. Pittidaendash Pittas
* Bougainville Black-faced Pitta, "Pitta anerythra pallida" (Bougainville, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century):A subspecies of the
Black-faced Pitta. Once common on Bougainville, but not recorded since 1938.
* Choiseul Black-faced Pitta, "Pitta anerythra nigrifrons" (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?):Another subspecies of the
Black-faced Pitta. Not found anymore during recent searches; doubtful records from nearby islands. Tyrannidaendash Tyrant flycatchers
* Bogotá Bearded Tachuri, "Polystictus pectoralis bogotensis" (C Colombia, late 20th century?):A
Bearded Tachurisubspecies or possibly a distinct species that has not been recorded for some time and is probably extinct.
* Grenadan Euler's Flycatcherndash "Lathrotriccus euleri flaviventris" (Grenada, West Indies, early 1950s):A subspecies of
Euler's Flycatcher, formerly known as "Empidonax euleri johnstonei".
San Cristóbal Vermilion Flycatcher, "Pyrocephalus rubinus dubius" (San Cristóbal, Galapagos, late 20th century?):A subspecies of Vermilion Flycatcher, described as extremely rare by David W. Steadman in the 1980s and not found despite a six-month survey in 1998. Sometimes considered as full species. Furnariidaendash Ovenbirds
* Peruvian Scale-throated Earthcreeper, "Upucerthia dumetaria peruana" (Peru, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Scale-throated Earthcreeper, it is only known from 2 specimens taken in the early 1950s at Puno, Peru, and has never been found since. It might still exist, or have become extinct due to habitat destruction in the meantime.
* Northern Stripe-crowned Spinetail, "Cranioleuca pyrrhophia rufipennis" (N Bolivia, late 20th century?):A
Stripe-crowned Spinetailsubspecies known from a few specimens and not recorded since the 1950s; may be endangered or even extinct. Formicariidaendash Antpittas and antthrushes
* Northern Giant Antpitta, "Grallaria gigantea lehmanni" (Colombia, late 20th century?):A
Giant Antpitta(or possibly Great Antpitta) subspecies apparently not recorded since the 1940s. Might still survive in Puracé National Park. Pardalotidaendash Pardalotes, scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones
* Western Rufous Bristlebird, "Dasyornis broadbenti littoralis" (Australia, 20th century)ndash
* King Island Brown Thornbill, "Acanthiza pusilla archibaldi" (King Island, Australia, early 1970s?):A
Brown Thornbillsubspecies which was last found in 1971, but there was an unconfirmed report in 2002 suggesting a small number is still extant. Cinclosomatidaendash Whipbirds and allies
* Mount Lofty Spotted Quail-thrush, "Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta" (Australia, mid-1980s):A subspecies of the
Spotted Quail-thrush, last recorded in 1984. Dicruridaendash Monarch flycatchers and allies
* Negros Celestial Monarch, "Hypothymis coelestis rabori" (Negros and possibly Sibuyan, Philippines, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Celestial Monarch, not uncommon on Negros in 1959, but never recorded afterwards. A single Sibuyan specimen from an unspecified locality taken in the 19th century is the only record for this island.
* Hiva Oa Monarch, "Pomarea mendozae mendozae" (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, late 1970s)ndash
Marquesas Monarchnominate subspecies
* Manu'a Shrikebill, "Clytorhynchus vitiensis powelli" (Manu'a Islands, Samoa, 1990s?):Usually treated as a subspecies of the
Fiji Shrikebillbut probably a distinct species, the American Samoan population declined due to habitat destruction and may have become extinct following the cyclones Ofa and Val.
* Lord Howe Fantail, "Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1925)ndash
* Guam Rufous Fantail, "Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae" (Guam, Marianas, 1984)ndash
Rufous Fantailsubspecies Campephagidaendash Cuckoo-shrikes and trillers
* Cebu Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina striata cebuensis" (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century)ndash
* Maros Cicadabird, "Coracina tenuirostris edithae" (Sulawesi, mid-20th century):A subspecies of the
Cicadabirdknown from a single specimen collected in 1931; quite possibly just a vagrant individual.
* Cebu Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina coerulescens altera" (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century?):A
Blackish Cuckoo-shrikesubspecies; possibly extant as the birds are rather unmistakable and a 1999 record therefore likely to be valid.
* Marinduque Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, "Coracina coerulescens deschauenseei" (Marinduque, Philippines, late 20th century?):Another
Blackish Cuckoo-shrikesubspecies, described from specimens collected in 1971, but apparently not seen since.
* Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller, "Lalage leucopyga leucopyga" (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1942):A subspecies of the
Long-tailed Triller, possibly a distinct species. Oriolidaendash Orioles and Figbird
* Cebu Dark-throated Oriole, "Oriolus xanthonotus assimilis" (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century)ndash
Dark-throated Oriolesubspecies Corvidaendash Crows, ravens, magpies and jays
Pied Raven, "Corvus corax varius" morpha "leucophaeus" (Faroe Islands, 1948):A distinct local variety of the Icelandic subspecies of the Common Raven. Callaeidaendash New Zealand wattlebirds
* South Island Kōkako, "Callaeas cinerea cinerea" (South Island, New Zealand, 1960s?):The nominate subspecies of the
Kōkakois usually considered extinct, as it has not been reliably recorded for decades. However, there are recent reports from Fiordland suggesting a population still exists. Regulidaendash Kinglets
* Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus calendula obscurus" (Guadalupe, East Pacific, 20th century?): A subspecies of the
Ruby-crowned Kingletthat has not been found in recent times. Hirundinidaendash Swallows and martins
* Jamaican Golden Swallow, "Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea" (Jamaica, West Indies, c. 1990?):The nominate subspecies of the
Golden Swallow, endemic to Jamaica. The last major roost-site was destroyed in 1987, and the last confirmed sighting was in 1989. May still exist in the Cockpit Country, but probably extinct. Phylloscopidaendash phylloscopid warbers or leaf-warblers
Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff, "Phylloscopus canariensis exsul" (Lanzarote and possibly Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, 1986?):A subspecies of the Canary Islands Chiffchaff, it became extinct in 1986 at latest, but probably much earlier, at some time in the first half of the 20th century. Cettiidaendash cettiid warblers or typical bush-warblers
* Babar Stubtail, "Urosphena subulata advena" (Babar, Indonesia, mid-20th century)ndash
* Western Turner's Eremomela, "Eremomela turneri kalindei" (Congo Basin, early 1980s):The West African subspecies of
Turner's Eremomelahas not been recorded since the end of the 1970s and habitat at the locations where it was once found is much reduced or destroyed. Placement in Cettiidae requires confirmation. Acrocephalidaendash acrocephalid warblers or marsh- and tree warblers
* Aguiguan Nightingale Reed-warbler, "Acrocephalus luscinia nijoi" (Aguiguan, Marianas, c. 1997):A subspecies of the
Nightingale Reed-warblerof uncertain validity.
* Astrolabe Nightingale Reed-warbler, "Acrocephalus luscinia astrolabii" (Marianas?, mid-19th century?):A valid taxon, probably a subspecies of the
Nightingale Reed-warbler, known from just 2 specimens found at an unknown location in the western Pacific.
* Pagan Nightingale Reed-warbler, "Acrocephalus luscinia yamashinae" (Pagan, Marianas, 1970s):Another doubtful subspecies of the
Laysan Millerbird, "Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris" (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, late 1910s)ndash Millerbirdsubspecies
* Huahine Polynesian Warbler, "Acrocephalus caffer garretti" (Huahine, Society Islands, 19th century?):A poorly known subspecies of the
* Raiatea Polynesian Warbler, "Acrocephalus caffer musae" (Raiatea, Society Islands, 19th century?):Another subspecies of the
Tahiti Reed-warbler, known only from a drawing. Pycnonotidaendash Bulbuls
* Sumatra Blue-wattled Bulbul, "Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii inexspectatus" (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Blue-wattled Bulbulknown from a single 1937 specimenVerify source|date=October 2007. The entire "species" may be a hybrid.
* Cebu Streak-breasted Bulbul, "Ixos siquijorensis monticola" (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century)ndash
Streak-breasted Bulbulsubspecies Cisticolidaendash Cisticolas and allies
* Northern White-winged Apalis, "Apalis chariessa chariessa" (Kenya, 1960s?):The nominate subspecies of the
White-winged Apalisremains known only from the Tana River, a center of endemism. It was last recorded in 1961. Sylviidaendash sylviid ("true") warblers and parrotbills
* Vanua Levu Long-legged Warbler, "Trichocichla rufa clunei" (Vanua Levu, Fiji, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Long-legged Warbler; it was only found once, but there was an unconfirmed sighting in 1990. Placement in Sylviidae doubtful.
* Fayyum Warbler, "Sylvia melanocephala/momus norissae" (Egypt, c. 1940):A doubtfully distinct
Sardinian Warblersubspecies. Zosteropidaendash White-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae
* Guam Bridled White-eye, "Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus" (Guam, Marianas, 1983)ndash
Bridled White-eyenominate subspecies or possibly monotypic species.
Seychelles Chestnut-sided White-eye, "Zosterops mayottensis semiflava" (Marianne Island, Seychelles, late 19th century). Extinct subspecies of the Chestnut-sided White-eye.:Sometimes considered as full species
Mukojima White-eye, "Apalopteron familiare familiare" (Mukojima Group, Ogasawara Islands, 1930s)ndash Bonin White-eye("Bonin Honeyeater") subspecies Timaliidaendash Old World babblers
* Vanderbilt's Babbler, "Malacocincla sepiarium vanderbilti" (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?):An enigmatic subspecies of the
Horsfield's Babbler, known from a single specimen. Not seen since the 1940s at the latest.
* Javan Large Wren-babbler, "Napothera macrodactyla lepidopleura" (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century?):A
Large Wren-babblersubspecies that is either very rare or already extinct.
* Burmese Jerdon's Babbler, "Chrysomma altirostre altirostre" (Myanmar, 1940s):The nominate subspecies of
Jerdon's Babblerwas last seen in 1941, but due to the lack of recent fieldwork, it might still exist.
* Chapin's Crombec, "Sylvietta leucophrys chapini" (Congo Basin, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
White-browed Crombec, sometimes listed as a separate species. Restricted to the Lendu Plateau, it is either rare or already extinct. Sylvioidea incertae sedis
* Amik Gölü Bearded Reedling, "Panurus biarmicus kosswigi" (S Turkey, 1970s)ndash
Bearded Reedlingsubspecies Troglodytidaendash Wrens
San Benedicto Rock Wren, "Salpinctes obsoletus exsul" (San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, 1952):A subspecies of the Rock Wrenwhich became extinct around 9 AM, August 1, 1952, when its island habitat was devastated by a massive volcanic eruption.
Guadalupe Bewick's Wren, "Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda" (Guadalupe, East Pacific, late 1890s?)ndash Bewick's Wrensubspecies:An extinction date of "1903" seems to be in errorVerify source|date=October 2007; the last unquestionable record is apparently of 1897.
San Clemente Bewick's Wren, "Thyromanes bewickii leucophrys" (San Clemente, East Pacific, 1940s)ndash Bewick's Wrensubspecies
Daito Winter Wren, "Troglodytes troglodytes orii" (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c. 1940):A disputed Winter Wrensubspecies; as it is known from a single specimen that may have been a vagrant individual, it is possibly invalid.
* Guadeloupe Wren, "Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis" (Guadeloupe, Caribbean, late 20th century?):Found in 1914, 1969, 1970s; very rare or already extinct. Taxonomy unresolved. Part of the
House Wrencomplex; other scientific names include "T. musculus guadeloupensis" and "T. guadeloupensis"
* Martinique Wren, "Troglodytes aedon martinicensis" (Martinique, Caribbean, c. 1890):Last found in 1886. Another
House Wrencomplex taxon; other scientific names include "T. musculus martinicensis" and "T. martinicensis". Paridaendash Tits, chickadees and titmice
Daito Varied Tit, "Poecile varia orii" (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c. 1940):A Varied Titsubspecies, variously placed in genus"Sittiparus" and "Parus" also. Not found in subsequent surveys in 1984 and 1986.
Zagros Coal Tit, "Periparus ater phaeonotus" ( Zagros Mountains, South-western Iran):A Coal Titsubspecies, only known by the type specimen from 1870 Cinclidaendash Dippers
Cyprus Dipper, "Cinclus cinclus olympicus" (Cyprus, Northeast Mediterranean, 1950s):A subspecies of the White-throated Dipperof questionable validity. Muscicapidaendash Old World Flycatchers and chats
* Tonkean Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatcher, "Rhinomyias colonus subsolanus" (Sulawesi, Indonesia, late 20th century?):A
Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatchersubspecies that is known from a single specimen; it may not be valid.
* Chinijo Chat, "Saxicola dacotiae murielae" (Chinijo Archipelago, Canary Islands, early 20th century)ndash
Fuerteventura Chatsubspecies Turdidaendash Thrushes and allies
* Norfolk Island Thrush, "Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus" (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1975)ndash
* Maré Island Thrush, "Turdus poliocephalus mareensis" (Maré, Melanesia, early 20th century):A subspecies of the
Island Thrush, last collected in 1911 or 1912 and not found anymore in 1939.
Lord Howe Island Thrush, "Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus" (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1920s)ndash Island Thrushsubspecies
* Lifou Island Thrush, "Turdus poliocephalus pritzbueri" (Lifou, Melanesia, early 20th century):Yet another subspecies of the
Island Thrush. Similar birds still exist on Tanna, New Hebrides, but given the fact that the species readily differentiates into subspecies and that the distance between Tanna and Lifou is considerable, it is far from certain that the Tanna birds belong to this subspecies.
* Peleng Red-and-black Thrush, "Zoothera mendeni mendeni" (Peleng, Indonesia, mid-20th century)ndash
Red-and-black Thrushnominate subspecies
* Kibale Black-eared Ground Thrush, "Zoothera cameronensis kibalensis" (SW Uganda, late 20th century?):A
Black-eared Ground Thrushsubspecies known only from two 1966 specimens. Rare or possibly already extinct.
* Choiseul Russet-tailed Thrush, "Zoothera heinei choiseuli" (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?):A subspecies of the
Russet-tailed Thrushknown from a single specimen found in 1924 and probably killed off by introduced cats, most likely in the 1940s.
* St Lucia Forest Thrush, "Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae" (St Lucia, West Indies, 1980s):A subspecies of the
Forest Thrush, last seen in 1980.
* Pines Solitaire, "Myadestes elisabeth retrusus" (Isla de la Juventud, West Indies, late 1930s?):A subspecies of the
Cuban Solitaire. Unconfirmed records suggest it did still exist in the early 1970s. Mimidaendash Mockingbirds and thrashers
* Barbados Scaly-breasted Thrasher, "Allenia fusca atlantica" (Barbados, West Indies, c. 1990)ndash
Scaly-breasted Thrashersubspecies Estrildidaendash Estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc)
* Southern Star Finch, "Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda" (Australia, c. 2000):A subspecies of the
Star Finch; officially critically endangered but probably recently extinct. Not known to survive in captivity. Ploceidaendash Weavers
* Ruwet's Masked-weaver, "Ploceus reichardi ruweti" (D.R. Congo, late 20th century?):A subspecies of the
Tanzania Masked-weaver, formerly considered a distinct species. No recent information on its status, and it may be a hybrid. Fringillidaendash True finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers
* San Benito House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori" (San Benito, East Pacific, c. 1940s)ndash
* Lanaʻi ʻAlauahio, "Paroreomyza montana montana" (Lanaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1937):A subspecies of the
Maui ʻAlauahio(or properly Maui Nui ʻAlauahio).
* Maui ʻAkepa, "Loxops coccineus ochraceus" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 1988)ndash
* Oʻahu ʻAkepa, "Loxops coccineus wolstenholmei" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)ndash
* Laysan ʻApapane, "Himatione (sanguinea) freethi" (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1923):The last individuals of this subspecies of the
ʻApapane, possibly a distinct species, disappeared in a sandstorm, probably on the night of April 23/ April 24, 1923. Icteridaendash Grackles
* Grand Cayman Oriole, "Icterus leucopteryx bairdi" (Grand Cayman, West Indies, mid-20th century):A subspecies of the
Jamaican Oriole, last reliably recorded in 1938. Thraupidaendash Tanagers
* Gonâve Western Chat-tanager, "Calyptophilus tertius abbotti" (Gonâve, West Indies, c. 1980?):A
Western Chat-tanagersubspecies last recorded in 1977 and probably extinct.
* Samaná Eastern Chat-tanager, "Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus" (E Hispaniola, West Indies, 1980s?):An
Eastern Chat-tanagersubspecies; the last (unconfirmed?) record was in 1982.
* Darwin's Large Ground-finch, "Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris" (Floreana?, Galapagos Islands, 1957?):The subspecies of the
Large Ground-finchcollected by Charles Darwinin 1835; he gave no precise locality. A similar bird was found in 1957, but no others have ever been seen.
* Saint Kitts Bullfinch, "Loxigilla portoricensis grandis" (Saint Kitts and prehistorically Barbuda, West Indies, 1930)ndash
Puerto Rican Bullfinchsubspecies Emberizidaendash Buntings and American sparrows
* Todos Santos Rufous-crowned Sparrow, "Aimophila ruficeps sanctorum" (Islas Todos Santos, E Pacific, 1970s)ndash
* Santa Barbara Song Sparrow, "Melospiza melodia graminea" (Santa Barbara Island, late 1960s). Last seen in 1967, became extinct due to a severe wild fire in 1959 and subsequent feral cat predation. Officially declared extinct by the USFWS in 1983.
Dusky Seaside Sparrow, "Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens" (Florida, 1987)ndash Seaside Sparrowsubspecies
* Guadalupe Spotted Towhee, "Pipilo maculatus consobrinus" (Guadalupe Island, East Pacific, c. 1900)ndash
List of extinct animals
Late Quaternary prehistoric birds
Lazarus species, for rediscovered birds
Dinosaurs, an extinct group of animals that were the ancestors of birds
External links and references
* [http://www.redlist.org/ The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species]
* [http://www.stockpix.com/stock/animals/birds/extinctbirds/ Extinct Birds Stock Photography]
* [http://www.abirdshome.com/Audubon/extinct.html Extinct Birds from John James Audubon's Birds of America]
* [http://www.nrm.se/jourhavande_biolog/sida15.html Utrotade faaglar] (in Swedish)
* [http://www.kcc.org.nz/birds/extinct/list.asp New Zealand Extinct Birds List]
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/extinctbirds/ Extinct bird forum]
* [http://extinct.petermaas.nl The Extinction Website]
* [http://nlbif.eti.uva.nl/naturalis/index.php?lang=uk Naturalisndash Extinct Birds] : 3D images of extinct bird species in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, Netherlands).
List adapted, expanded and updated from that in "Extinct Birds", Fuller, ISBN 0-19-850837-9(Extinct Birds is an absorbing study of the world's recently extinct bird species, the first complete survey since Walter Rothschild's classic work of 1907)
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