MBDA Meteor

MBDA Meteor
Meteor (Luft-Luft-Rakete).jpg
Type Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile
Service history
In service Not yet in service; Development to be completed in 2013.
Production history
Manufacturer MBDA
Unit cost GBP 1,000,000[1]
Weight 185 kg (407 lb)[2]
Length 3.65 m (12.00 ft)[2]
Diameter 0.178 m (7.00 in)

Warhead High Explosive Blast-Fragmentation

Engine Throttleable ducted rocket
100+ km (60+ mi)
Speed over Mach 4
Inertial Mid-course with Datalinked Updates, Active Radar
Eurofighter Typhoon
Dassault Rafale
JAS 39 Gripen

Meteor is an active radar guided beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) being developed by MBDA. It is to equip the Eurofighter Typhoons of the UK's Royal Air Force (RAF), Germany's Luftwaffe, Spain's Ejército del Aire and Italy's Aeronautica Militare Italiana, the British and Italian F-35s (both in the Air Force and Navy), the Dassault Rafales of France's Armée de l'Air and Marine Nationale, and the Saab JAS 39 Gripens of Sweden's Flygvapnet.

Scheduled to enter in service for the first time with the RAF in 2015, Meteor will offer a multi-shot capability against long range manoeuvring targets in a heavy electronic countermeasures (ECM) environment. According to MBDA, Meteor has three to six times the kinematic performance of current air-air missiles of its type. The key to Meteor's performance is throttleable ducted rocket (ramjet) manufactured by Bayern-Chemie (BC) of Germany.[3]




The active seeker is a joint development between MBDA's Seeker Division and Thales Airborne Systems and builds on their co-operation on the 4A (Active Anti-Air Seeker) family of seekers that equip the MICA and ASTER missiles. Thales contributes its experience and capabilities to MBDA-led definition studies and produces four sub-assemblies representing approximately 35% of the seeker.


Immediately aft of the seeker, the missile forebody contains the inertial measurement system (IMS), provided by Litef, a German subsidiary of Northrop Grumman. The active radar proximity fuse subsystem (PFS) is provided by Saab Bofors Dynamics (SBD). The PFS detects the target during the end-game phase and calculates the optimum time to initiate the warhead in order to achieve the maximum lethal effect.[4] The PFS has four antennae, arranged symmetrically around the forebody. The Impact Sensor is fitted inside the PFS. Behind the PFS is a section containing thermal batteries, provided by ASB, the AC Power Supply Unit, and the Power and Signal Distribution Unit.

The Forebody structure is designed and manufactured by Indra Sistemas, which is also responsible for the design and manufacture of the Interconnects cables, of the Umbilical cable, of the Control Fins, of the missile structure Joint Rings.


The blast-fragmentation warhead is produced by TDW of Germany. The warhead is a structural component of the missile. A Telemetry and Break-Up System (TBUS) replaces the warhead on trials missiles.


The propulsion sub-system (PSS) is a Throttleable Ducted Rocket (TDR) with an integrated nozzleless booster, designed and manufactured by Bayern-Chemie (BC) of Germany. TDR propulsion provides a long range, a high average speed, a wide operational envelope from sea level to high altitude, a flexible mission envelope via active thrust control, relatively simple design, and logistics similar to those of conventional solid rocket motors.

The PSS consists of four main components: a ramcombustor with integrated nozzleless booster; the air intakes; the interstage; and the sustain gas generator. The PSS forms a structural component of the missile, the gas generator and ramcombustor having steel cases. The propulsion control unit electronics are mounted in the port intake fairing, ahead of the fin actuation subsystem.

The solid propellant nozzleless booster is integrated within the ramcombustor and accelerates the missile to a velocity where the TDR can take over. The reduced smoke propellant complies with STANAG 6016.

The air intakes and the port covers which seal the intake diffusors from the ramcombustor remain closed during the boost phase. The intakes are manufactured from titanium.

The interstage is mounted between the GG and the ramcombustor and contains the Motor Safety Ignition Unit (MSIU), the booster igniter, and the gas generator control valve.

The gas generator is ignited by the hot gases from the booster combustion which flow through the open control valve. The gas generator contains an oxygen deficient composite solid propellant which produces a hot, fuel-rich gas which auto-ignites in the air which has been decelerated and compressed by the intakes. The high energy boron-loaded propellant provides a roughly threefold increase in specific impulse compared to conventional solid rocket motors.

The thrust is controlled by a valve which varies the throat area of the gas generator nozzle. Reducing the throat area increases the pressure in the gas generator which increases the propellant burn rate, increasing the fuel mass flow into the ramcombustor. The mass flow can be varied continuously over a ratio greater than 10:1.

The Meteor PSS will be able to cope with high incidence and limited sideslip angles during manoeuvres but not negative incidences or large amounts of sideslip.


The missile trajectory is controlled aerodynamically using four rear-mounted fins. Meteor's control principles are intended to allow high turn rates while maintaining intake and propulsion performance.

The fin actuation subsystem (FAS) was originally designed and manufactured by the Claverham Group (formerly Fairey Hydraulics Limited) a Somerset, UK, based division of the U.S. company Hamilton Sundstrand. Currently the design has been taken onboard by the MBDA British division, at Stevenage. The FAS is mounted at the rear of the intake fairings. The design of the FAS is complicated by the linkages required between the actuators, which are located in the intake fairings, and the body-mounted fins.


Meteor will be 'network-enabled'. A two-way datalink will allow the launch aircraft to provide mid-course target updates or retargeting if required, including data from offboard third-parties. The datalink will be able to transmit missile information such as functional and kinematic status, information on multiple targets, and notification of target acquisition by the seeker.[5] The two-way datalink is compatible with Eurofighter and Gripen but not with Rafale which is fitted with a one-way link originally designed for use with MICA. French missiles will be fitted with a different unit. The datalink electronics are mounted in the starboard intake fairing, ahead of the FAS. The antenna is mounted in the rear of the fairing.

On 19 November 1996 BC completed the latest in a series of tests designed to assess the attenuation of signals by the boron rich exhaust plume of the TDR, a concern highlighted by opponents of this form of ramjet propulsion. Tests were conducted with signals transmitted through the plume at various angles. The initial results suggested that the attenuation was much less than expected.[6]


The Integrated Logistics Support concept proposed for Meteor does away with line maintenance. The missiles will be stored in dedicated containers when not in use. If the Built-In Test equipment detects a fault the missile will be returned to MBDA for repair. Meteor is intended to have an airborne carriage life of 1,000 hours before any maintenance is required.[2]


From the outset, the Meteor programme has been the main catalyst for the consolidation of the European complex weapons industry. Of the seven European companies who responded to the initial Request for Information (RFI) from the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD), either individually or as part of a team, five are now part of MBDA and the other two are major risk-sharing partners on the programme. The selection of Meteor ended a long-running and hard-fought competition between Europe and the United States (U.S.) and gained Europe a significant foothold in a market sector hitherto dominated by the U.S.


Meteor was selected in competition to meet the UK's Staff Requirement (Air) 1239 (SR(A)1239), for a Future Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (FMRAAM or FRAAM) to replace the RAF's BAe Dynamics Skyflash semi-active radar guided missiles. As the primary air-to-air armament of Eurofighter, the missile would be required to provide air superiority against a range of fixed and rotary wing targets including UAVs and cruise missiles.

Although no detailed performance requirements have been publicly released, they were understood to demand launch success and no-escape zones three times those of the then-state-of-the-art medium-range missile, the Hughes (now Raytheon) AMRAAM. The missile external geometry would be constrained by the need for compatibility with Eurofighter's semi-recessed underfuselage eject launchers which had been sized for AMRAAM.[7] Key features of the requirement included "stealthy launch, enhanced kinematics, which will provide the missile with sufficient energy to chase and destroy a highly agile manoeuvring target, robust performance in countermeasures and the ability for the launch aircraft to fire and disengage at the earliest opportunity thus enhancing aircraft survivability".[8] These requirements were largely shaped by the perceived threat posed by advanced versions of the Russian Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker armed with extended range ramjet powered versions of the R-77 missile.

In February 1994 the UK MoD issued an RFI on the possibility of the development of an advanced medium range air-to-air missile. Four concepts were produced in response, all using integrated rocket/ramjet propulsion: a group led by BAe, comprising Italy's Alenia Difesa, GEC-Marconi of the UK, and Sweden's Saab Dynamics, proposed the S225XR; Matra of France proposed a derivative of MICA, although the long-planned merger of BAe Dynamics and Matra's missile division was expected to lead to the removal of this proposal; Germany's Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA) and Bayern-Chemie proposed the Advanced Air-to-Air Missile (A3M); and Hughes, supported by the U.S. Government, proposed an AMRAAM derivative, based on ongoing upgrade work. Kentron and Somchem of South Africa also considered offering a self-regulating solid fuel ramjet powered missile.[9]

The competition commenced in June 1995 with the endorsement of SR(A)1239 by the Equipment Approvals Committee (EAC). This took place against a backdrop of government and industrial contacts between the UK, France, and Germany aimed at establishing a common requirement and an industrial consortium.[10] Even at this early stage the competition was developing into a straight fight between a European and a U.S. solution.

The U.S. Government agreed to transfer development of the advanced propulsion system to the UK in support of Hughes bid, although it was not clear how much of the actual work would be allowed across the Atlantic.[11] Hughes' initial offering for SR(A)1239 was powered by a variable-flow ducted rocket ((VFDR)). This had been under development by an Atlantic Research (ARC)/Alliant Techsystems (ATK) team for ten years but the USAF had no plans, at that time, to develop an extended range AMRAAM since this could endanger support for the stealthy F-22 Raptor. The ARC/ATK team had also provided information to BAe who were considering the VFDR as a powerplant for the S225XR, along with systems from BC and Sweden's Volvo. ARC had discussions with Royal Ordnance, the only UK company with the necessary capability following Rolls-Royce's decision to stop ramjet work.

On 2 October 1995 the Minister for Defence Procurement gave approval for an Invitation to Tender (ITT), which was issued by the MoD on 5 December. Responses were due in June 1996 for a UK contract valued at GBP800m. By February 1996 the U.S. team was in place whereas the European effort remained fragmented. Matra and LFK, DASA's missile division, were on the brink of a joint bid, which BAe and Alenia were also considering.[12] The Matra/LFK proposal was based on Matra's MICA-Rustique project using a Matra/ONERA designed self-regulating solid fuel ramjet. The merger between BAe and Matra's missile businesses had stalled due to the French Government's reluctance to approve the deal without UK assurances that it would adopt a more European approach to procurement. A joint winning bid for SR(A)1239 was expected to provide renewed impetus to the merger, both companies having had to restart the valuation process due to changing fortunes since the deal was first agreed, over two years previously. This was not the only merger in prospect as DASA and Aérospatiale were conducting due diligence, although Matra had also expressed an interest in Aérospatiale's missile operations. The German government was trying to use the UK and German requirements to forge the consolidation of the European industry into a critical mass capable of engaging the U.S. on more equal terms.[13]

Hughes had assembled a team including Aérospatiale (propulsion), Shorts (integration and final assembly), Thomson-Thorn Missile Electronics (TTME), Fokker Special Projects (fin actuation), and Diehl BGT Defence (warhead). Incidentally, the adoption of FMRAAM as the name of Hughes' proposal forced the UK MoD to change the title of SR(A)1239 to BVRAAM.[14] Hughes would provide the seeker, with electronics from its Scottish subsidiary, based in Glenrothes. The upgraded guidance electronics would be compressed compared to the existing AMRAAM. Other changes included: a new electronic, as opposed to the usual mechanical, safe and arm device, based on Diehl BGT Defence's IRIS-T system; a TTME digital target detection device (a two-way conformal microwave proximity fuze unit); and a shortened control and actuation system. The seeker and warhead were basically unchanged from AMRAAM's.

The European content of Hughes' bid had been bolstered by the replacement of the ARC/ATK VFDR by an Aérospatiale-Celerg liquid-fuel ramjet with an ARC integrated nozzleless booster. This was based on studies conducted during the Simple Regulation Ramjet programme, which began in 1994.[15] The direct-injection design used an inflatable elastomer bladder within the fuel tank to control the fuel flow and was believed to offer a lower cost approach compared to a regulated liquid ramjet requiring a turbopump and associated fuel supply hardware.[16] Eighty percent of FMRAAM production and development would be carried out in Europe, 72% in the UK.[17]

The European team, consisting of BAe Dynamics, Matra Defense, Alenia Difesa, GEC-Marconi, Saab Dynamics, LFK, and BC was finally assembled just six weeks ahead of 11 June 1996 deadline for bids.[18] BAe brokered an agreement whereby it would lead the team.[19] This tie-up avoided a dangerous division in the European attempts to provide a credible alternative to the U.S. Matra and LFK had already teamed and would have bid independently, had BAe's "shuttle diplomacy" failed, seriously denting European credibility and giving Hughes the advantage.

BAe Dynamics' original S225XR proposal was a wingless design. However, during the international discussions the evolving UK and German proposals were found to be near identical in concept apart from the latter's wings. The trade-off between winged and wingless configurations was very closely balanced but the wings offered increased roll damping which was believed to be useful given the asymmetric intake configuration so the German A3M configuration was adopted for the European proposal, called Meteor.

When the bids went in contract award was anticipated by the end of 1997 with first deliveries by 2005.

Risk reduction

Following several rounds of bid clarification it was concluded in early 1997 that the risks were too high to proceed directly to development. The UK's Defence Procurement Agency (DPA) and Sweden's Defence Materiel Administration (FMV) therefore launched a Project Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) programme. This gave the two teams twelve months in which to refine their designs, and identify and understand the risks and how they would be mitigated. PDRR contracts were placed in August 1997 with a second ITT following in October. The results of the PDRR programme were expected in March 1998 but the procurement became ensnared in the run-up to and aftermath of the UK General Election in May 1997, as the new Labour government conducted its Strategic Defence Review. By 1998 the in-service date (ISD), defined as the first unit equipped with 72 missiles, had slipped to 2007.[20]

The UK MoD hosted a government-to-government level briefing on 14/15 July 1997 with Italy, Germany, and Sweden to discuss the BVRAAM programme and how it might meet their requirements, with the aim of pursuing a collaborative procurement.[21] There were issues at this time over the funding of the risk reduction contracts and some nations were discussing possible financial contributions to the studies in return for access to the data.

The European team hoped that, if chosen by the UK, Meteor would also be adopted by Germany, Italy, Sweden, and France. However, Germany had now formulated an even more demanding requirement.[22] In response, DASA/LFK proposed a modified A3M, called Euraam, using a DASA Ulm K-band active seeker, with a passive receiver for stealthy engagements, and a redesigned BC propulsion system. The high energy of the high frequency radar (compared to the I-band used on AMRAAM) was claimed to provide an ability to "burn-through" most ECM and the shorter wavelength would allow the target's position to be determined more precisely allowing the use of directional warheads. At one stage DASA was pushing their government for a two year demonstration programme which would culminate in four unguided flight tests.[23] This was presented as a fallback position in case the UK chose Raytheon's proposal. More cynical observers regarded this as a tactic to push the UK towards Meteor.

Revised BVRAAM bids were submitted on 28 May 1998, with final reports in August. The U.S. Secretary of Defense, William Cohen, wrote to his UK counterpart, George Robertson, with assurances that procurement of the Raytheon missile would not leave the UK vulnerable to U.S. export restrictions, which could potentially handicap Eurofighter exports, a major concern highlighted by Meteor supporters.[24] The letter assured "open and complete technology transfer", adding that FMRAAM would be cleared for countries already cleared for AMRAAM and that a joint commission could be set up to consider release to other "sensitive countries".

In July 1998 a formal statement of intent was signed between the governments of the UK, Germany, Italy, Sweden, and Spain which, subject to the UK's selection of Meteor, agreed to work towards joint procurement of the same missile.

In September 1998, Raytheon supplied the UK with estimated costs for AIM-120B AMRAAMs to be fielded on Tornado and as an interim weapon on Eurofighter on initial entry into service while BVRAAM was still in development.[25] The U.S. declined to sell the improved AIM-120C version. This was the first stage in Raytheon's incremental approach to fielding the full capability FMRAAM. The MoD had offered both teams the opportunity to propose alternative acquisition strategies which would have involved reaching the full capability on an incremental basis by initially providing an interim capability which could later be upgraded.[26]

Raytheon's staged approach to meeting the full SR(A)1239 requirement offered an interim weapon with a capability between the AIM-120B AMRAAM and the FMRAAM. The Extended Range Air-to-Air Missile (ERAAM) had the FMRAAM seeker and guidance section mated to a dual-pulse solid propellant rocket motor. Raytheon estimated that ERAAM could be ready by the then Eurofighter ISD of 2004 and provided 80% of the FMRAAM capability but at only half the price. This approach played to perceived MoD budget limitations and a realisation that the main threat on which the SR(A)1239 requirement had been predicated, the advanced R-77 derivatives, did not look like entering development any time soon. An incremental approach would allow any technological advances to be incorporated into future upgrades. These could have included multi-pulse rocket motors, thrust vectoring, hybrid rockets, gel propellants, and ductless external combustion ramjets.

The Meteor team had considered an interim design, also powered by a dual-pulse solid rocket motor,[21] but decided to offer a fully compliant solution, believing that the staged approach was not cost-effective due to concerns that upgrading from one version to the next would be more complicated than Raytheon claimed.

In February 1999 Raytheon added another interim level to their staged approach. The AIM-120B+ would feature the ERAAM/FMRAAM seeker and guidance section but attached to the AIM-120B solid rocket motor.[27] This would be ready for Eurofighter's 2004 ISD and could be updated to the ERAAM or FMRAAM configurations in 2005 and 2007 by swapping the propulsion system and updating the software.

At the 1999 Paris Air Show the French Defence Minister expressed his country's interest in joining the Meteor project, putting further pressure on the UK to use BVRAAM as a focus for the consolidation of the European guided weapons industry.[28] The French offered to fund up to 20% of the development if Meteor won the UK contest. Inter-governmental letters of intent were exchanged between the UK and French defence ministers in advance of signing the official MoU prepared by Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the UK.[29] The French officially joined the programme in September 1999.

In July 1999 the Swedish air force announced that it would not be funding development of Meteor due to a shortfall in the defence budget.[30] However, this decision was not expected to affect Sweden's participation in the programme, with funding being found from other sources.

The political stakes were high. On 4 August 1999 U.S. President Bill Clinton wrote to the UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair.[31] Clinton said that "I believe transatlantic defence industry cooperation is essential to ensuring the continued interoperability of Allied armed forces".[32] Blair also faced lobbying from the French President and Prime Minister, the German Chancellor, and the Spanish Prime Minister. In response, Clinton later wrote a second time to Blair, on 7 February 2000, timed to arrive before the 21 February EAC meeting to discuss the decision. He put the case for Raytheon's bid, underlining the phrase "I feel strongly" about the decision. The direct intervention of the U.S. President emphasised the political and diplomatic significance that the BVRAAM procurement had acquired.

In autumn 1999 Raytheon offered yet another twist to its staged approach with the ERAAM+.[33] If chosen, the U.S. Government, in an unprecedented move, offered to merge the U.S. AMRAAM and UK BVRAAM programmes, under joint control. ERAAM+ would be adopted by both countries, equipping Eurofighter, JSF, and the F-22, allowing economies of scale from large U.S. procurement. ERAAM+ would retain the ERAAM dual-pulse motor but fitted to a front end incorporating all the features of Phase 3 of the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD) AMRAAM Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) programme, which was planned out to 2015. These included upgraded seeker hardware and software to provide improved performance against advanced threats and replacement of the longitudinally mounted electronics boards with a circular design which reduced the volume occupied by the electronics allowing space for a longer rocket motor. As equal partners the U.S. and UK would jointly specify and develop the new missile. It was estimated that ERAAM+ could be delivered for less than half the budget allocated for BVRAAM with a 2007 ISD. According to Raytheon, the programme would have initially provided the UK with 62% of development, production, and jobs for the MoD BVRAAM procurement and would give the UK 50% of the significantly larger US air-to-air market. The UK would have participated in the production of every AMRAAM-derivative sold around the world, projected at that time to be about 15000 over the following 15 years.[34]

The ARC dual-pulse motor would not enable full compliance with the SR(A)1239 requirement, however it was believed to be adequate to counter the threats expected until 2012-15 when improvements to the warhead, datalink, and propulsion would be available. The slow pace of Russia's ramjet powered R-77 derivative, a mock-up of which had been displayed at the Paris Air Show but which had not progressed past component ground tests and for which the Russian air force had no requirement due to lack of funding,[35] was offered as evidence that the full capability required by SR(A)1239 would not be necessary for some time. At a press conference to launch ERAAM+ Raytheon said that a ramjet powerplant "is not needed today".

Countering Raytheon's proposed transatlantic tie-up, Boeing was added to the European team,[36] to provide expertise on aircraft integration, risk management, lean manufacturing technology and marketing activities in selected markets. Boeing also brought vast experience of dealing with the U.S. DoD, essential in any future attempts to get Meteor on U.S. aircraft. Raytheon were delighted that "MBD has validated our transatlantic approach." Although initially interested in developing a suppression of enemy air defence variant of Meteor as a successor to HARM,[37] Boeing has become less and less an active partner as development has progressed, possibly having served their political purpose.

In late 1999, in advance of December's EAC meeting to discuss the BVRAAM competition Sweden rejoined the programme.[38]

By early 2000 both teams had submitted best and final offers. The Government was expected to announce a decision in March, following a meeting of the EAC on 21 February.[39] The decision was so politically delicate that some believed that the EAC would leave it to the Prime Minister when he chaired the defence and overseas policy committee.[40] MBD announced a proposal to work with Boeing to offer Meteor derived technology to the U.S. MBD and Boeing urged the U.S. to agree to a governmental-level transatlantic cooperation on the Meteor programme. In a last-minute bid to sway the decision Raytheon proposed increased European involvement in its programme.

Last minute intervention by the UK Treasury delayed the decision, after concerns about the cost of Meteor, believed to be the preferred solution, compared to the cheaper incremental approach offered by Raytheon.[41]


In May 2000 the UK Secretary of State for Defence, Geoff Hoon, announced that Meteor had been selected to meet SR(A)1239. Fabrice Bregier, then Chief Executive Officer of MBD, said "This decision marks a historic milestone in the establishment of a European defence capability. For the first time, Europe will equip its fighter aircraft with a European air-to-air missile, creating interoperability and independence to export".[42] By this stage the ISD was 2008.

After cross-examination of the Chief of Defence Procurement, the UK House of Commons Defence Select Committee summarised the reasons behind the decision in its Tenth Report: "Eurofighter needs the BVRAAM capability to give it the air superiority for which it is designed. We therefore welcome the fact that the MoD has now selected a missile and contractor to provide that capability. The Meteor missile has some clear advantages over its Raytheon competitor—it appears to offer the more militarily effective solution; it should help rationalise and consolidate the European missile industry, and provide future competitions with a counterweight to U.S. dominance in this field; and it entails a lower risk of constraints on Eurofighter exports. Although the programme is in its early days, it also offers the prospect of avoiding some of the problems that have plagued other European procurement collaborations, without arbitrary workshare divisions and with a clear project leadership role to be provided by the UK. The MoD needs to take advantage of that leadership role to keep momentum behind the project, including an early contract which will lock-in not just the contractor but also the commitments of our international partners. The cautious definition of the missile's target in-service date may be realistic, particularly in view of the technological challenges that will have to be overcome, but in BVRAAM's case it is a date that must be met if Eurofighter is to fulfil its potential."[26]

The selection of Meteor was not a total loss for Raytheon. As a consolation prize the UK ordered a number of AIM-120s to arm Eurofighter on entry into service which was expected before Meteor development was complete.


The final deal was a long way off, however, and negotiations to conclude a smart procurement contract continued. In a ceremony at the Paris Air Show on 19 June 2001 defence ministers from France, Sweden, and the UK signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) committing their nations to the Meteor programme.[43] The nations of the other industrial partners, Germany, Italy, and Spain, only signalled an intention to sign within a few weeks, claiming procedural delays within their national procurement systems. Following parliamentary approval in August, Italy signed the MoU on 26 September 2001, for an anticipated procurement of about 400 missiles.[44] Spain followed on 11 December 2001 but Germany remained a stumbling block.

Germany's financial contribution to the programme was considered essential but for more than two years development was hamstrung by the repeated failure of the German defence budget committee to approve funding. The UK CDP told the Defence Select Committee that without the Germans it could not go ahead.[45] Without the German propulsion system, MBDA deemed that Meteor could not realistically proceed. During this gap in the programme MBDA was funding Meteor from its own resources and, by June 2002, had spent around GBP70m - most of which had gone, ironically, to BC to reduce technical risk in the propulsion system, the performance of which was critical to meeting the requirements.

Germany had set two conditions for participation in the project: that the UK should place a contract for the weapon; and that MBDA give a guaranteed level of performance, both of which were achieved by 30 April 2002.[46] It was hoped to sign an agreement at that summer's Farnborough Air Show.

However, Meteor was not on the agenda of the German defence budget committee meeting on the 3 July which meant that a decision could not be made until 12 September, after the German Parliament's summer recess. This was claimed to have been due to a delay in paperwork being transferred between the defence and finance ministries.[47] However, there were concerns that this meeting might not even happen until after the German elections on 22 September which would push a decision to the last quarter of the year. An article in the German press claimed that the Rechnungshof (independent federal audit division) urgently recommended "to work up an alternative solution in US-European co-operation and to negotiate a solution with the foreseeable partners" because of the "recognisably high risks in all areas".[48] These delays led to high-level diplomatic contacts over the summer with both the UK and Italian Defence ministers writing to their German counterpart stressing the importance of the Meteor programme.[49]

On 18 December 2002 Germany finally approved the funding that would allow development to commence. However, this decision came hand-in-hand with a cut in Germany's planned acquisition, from 1,488 to 600 missiles.[50]


Finally, on 23 December 2002, over two and half years after the original decision was announced, full-scale development and production of Meteor was launched with contract signature by the UK DPA on behalf of the six partner nation governments.[51] The GBP1200m fixed-price contract was signed at the DPA headquarters at MoD Abbey Wood, Bristol. This only covered production for the RAF. At this point none of the other nations had signed up for production.[2]

The percentage share of the programme allocated to each partner nation has changed several times over the years. Germany's decision to reduce its intended acquisition resulted in the UK taking 5% of the programme from Germany, giving the UK 39.6% and Germany 16%. France is funding 12.4%, Italy 12%, and Sweden and Spain 10% each.

A thirty strong Integrated Project Team (IPT) was established in the International Joint Project Office (IJPO) at Abbey Wood with representatives from all six partner nations seconded to the team. The programme will be managed by the UK MoD through the IPT on behalf of the partner nations. The IJPO report to the UK Chief of Defence Procurement, the Executive Board of the DPA, and to an International Steering Committee comprising a one or two star representative from each partner nation's air force.

As prime-contractor MBDA will manage and execute the programme through its operating companies in France, Italy, and the UK, working in close partnership with Bayern-Chemie/Protac in Germany, Inmize Sistemas S.L. in Spain, and Saab Bofors Dynamics in Sweden. It is estimated that over 250 companies across Europe will be involved. Work will be allocated by MBDA to its risk-sharing partners on an "earned value basis" under which work is placed according to best commercial value, taking into account technical excellence, but with a view to aligning "broadly" with the share of development funding provided by each nation. The programme will initially create and sustain 2500 jobs across Europe, 1200 in the UK, but successful exports could double these figures.

The development programme will make large-scale use of computer simulation, so should require a relatively small number of firings, some of which will cover activities more traditionally associated with aircraft-integration trials. The first firing, from Gripen, was expected in 2005 with an ISD of August 2012.

On December 23, 2009 the Spanish government has authorized the contract for the procurement of 100 Meteor missile and their corresponding support equipments. This is the first production contract after the initial UK's one.[52]

On 17 September 2010 FMV, the Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, signed a production order contract with United Kingdom MOD regarding the Meteor missile. With the Meteor missile the JAS39 Gripen system gets a significantly increased capability to operate against air targets at long distances with very high performance. The Meteor missile system is expected to be operational within the Swedish Air Force 2015. Sweden is number three to sign production orders after UK and Spain. http://www.fmv.se/WmTemplates/page.aspx?id=5295

Key milestones

The UK MoD stipulated four "tightly defined" contractual milestones that had to be met otherwise the programme would be cancelled with MBDA expected to repay the development funding:[53]

  1. To demonstrate successful transition from boost to sustain propulsion.
  2. To demonstrate control of the asymmetric airframe. There was concern that the intake air flow would be disrupted during manoeuvres resulting in a loss of propulsion performance or even control. The asymmetric configuration also poses unique control problems. Achievement of this milestone was to be demonstrated using computer models validated from the Air Launched Demonstrator (ALD) trials results.
  3. To demonstrate transfer alignment of the missile's inertial measurement system. This process ensures that the missile knows where it is at launch. Good knowledge of initial position is essential to accurate navigation, particularly for long range engagements.
  4. This milestone relates to Meteor's electronic counter-countermeasures(ECCM) capability. This is highly classified work to be conducted in MBDA's hardware-in-the-loop laboratory at Rome.[54]

Achievement of these milestones will be evaluated by QinetiQ acting as an independent auditor.


At the Paris Air Show on 17 June 2003 MBDA signed a contract with Bayern-Chemie/Protac worth in excess of EUR250m, for development, first lot production, and integrated logistics for the Meteor PSS.[55] Also at the show, MBDA and Thales formalised their June 2002 agreement by signing a contract worth EUR46m covering development and initial production of seekers for the RAF's missiles.[56]

Over the eight months following contract signature, MBDA had determined the definitive external shape of Meteor. By the summer of 2003 the Preliminary Design Review had been completed and manufacture had commenced of a full-scale model for aircraft fit checks as well as sub-scale models for wind tunnel tests scheduled for the autumn.[57] This review led to the removal of the mid-mounted wings which had featured in the originally proposed configuration. Following extensive pre-contract wind tunnel testing and MBDA's growing experience with guidance and control technologies for wingless configurations, such as ASRAAM, a wingless design was believed to offer the best solution to meeting the performance requirements. The control fins were also redesigned. All four fins were now identical. Previously, the intake-fairing mounted fins had a shorter span than the body-mounted fins.

In August 2003 Saab Bofors Dynamics received a contract worth SEK450m to develop the PFS.[4]

In October 2003 the first trial fit of a geometrically representative model was carried out on Eurofighter.[58] Checks were successfully carried out on the underfuselage semi-recessed, long-stroke Missile Eject Launchers, designed and manufactured by Flight Refuelling, and the underwing pylon-mounted rail-launchers. In November 2003 Saab Aerosystems received an order worth SEK435m from the FMV for the integration of Meteor onto Gripen.[4] As prime contractor for the integration task Saab Aerosystems will be supported by Ericsson Microwave Systems, Saab Bofors Dynamics, and MBDA(UK).

In December 2003 MBDA and Saab Bofors Dynamics signed an enabling contract worth SEK485m covering programme management, system level participation, participation in the development of seeker, guidance, and autopilot algorithms, development of missile software, development of test equipment, system proving activities, and the TBUS.

In April 2004 MBDA carried out fit checks on a Gripen at Saab's Linköping facility.[59] This demonstrated the mechanical interfaces between the missile, the Flight Refuelling designed and manufactured Multi-Missile Launcher (MML) and the aircraft.

Wind tunnel tests had recently been completed at BAE Systems' facility at Warton, UK, and at ONERA in Modane, France. These tests successfully demonstrated the air intake operation and validated the modelled aerodynamic characteristics, confirming the configuration for the first flight trials.

In August 2004 BC delivered the first inert PSS, to be used for structural testing, amongst other things.[60]

By the summer of 2005 two inert missiles had been delivered to Modane to recommission the facility following major modifications intended to prepare it for the free-jet trials. These were planned to begin with a 'part-firing' before the French summer holidays to be followed by two full-scale firings later in the year. These would comprise a full end-to-end demonstration of the complete propulsion system at representative supersonic free flight conditions as a risk reduction exercise for the ALD firings, scheduled for the last quarter of 2005. During these tests a full-scale missile model fitted with a live PSS would be mounted on a moveable strut in the wind tunnel, allowing a series of incidence and sideslip manoeuvres to be conducted over the full duration of the PSS operation. The tests would demonstrate operation of the air intakes, the transition from boost to sustain propulsion, control of the sustain motor thrust, and provide data on the aerodynamic characteristics.

On 9 September 2005 the first flight of Meteor onboard a French Navy F2 standard Rafale M was successfully carried out from the Centre d'Essais en Vol at Istres in southeast France.[61] This was in preparation for a week-long series of trials from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle which commenced on 11 December 2005 in the Mediterranean.[61] The Meteor trials were conducted at the end of a series of tests of other Rafale weapons including SCALP-EG, ASMP-A and MICA.[62] Tests were carried out with two Ground Handling Training Missiles (GHTM) and an Environmental Data Gathering (EDG) missile fitted alternatively on an underwing rail-launcher or underfuselage eject launchers. The EDG is an instrumented missile representing all the dynamic properties of an operational missile in terms of size, weight, and aerodynamic shape. The trials were designed to measure the shock and vibration levels associated with the severe carrier operational environment. Around twenty catapult launches and full deck arrests were undertaken, along with a number of touch and go landings on the fightdeck to provide a fully comprehensive handling test of the aircraft while fitted with Meteor. The trials went so well that they were concluded a day earlier than planned.[62]

On 13 December a separate campaign commenced in Sweden with flights of the Meteor avionics missile (GMA5) carried on the port wing outboard station of Gripen aircraft 39.101, which had been modified with Meteor-unique software.[4] As with the EDG missile GMA5 represents all the dynamic properties of an operational missile but also interfaces electrically with the launch aircraft.[61] These trials successfully verified mechanical, electrical, and functional interfaces between the missile and aircraft. This was the first in-flight trial of two-way communication between the missile and aircraft and was an important step in clearing the aircraft and missile for the ALD firings which had slipped into Spring 2006, due to the lack of winter daylight hours at the Vidsel Test Range in northern Sweden.

In a separate air-carry trial a Eurofighter of No. 17 (R) squadron RAF flew with two GHTMs on the forward underfuselage stations to assess how the aircraft handled during a series of manoeuvres.

On 21 January 2006 a range work-up was conducted at Vidsel, again with GMA5 mounted on 39.101.[4] This successfully verified system communications and set-up between the aircraft and the test range in advance of the first firing.

The first ALD firing took place on 9 May 2006 from a JAS 39 Gripen flying at an altitude of 7,000 m. The missile was launched from the port underwing MML, separating safely from the launch aircraft as the integrated booster accelerated the missile to over Mach 2.0 in around two seconds.[63] However, after a successful boost the missile failed to transition to the sustain phase of flight. The missile continued under boost impulse, gradually decelerating until broken up, on command from the ground. Despite this problem telemetry was gathered throughout the full duration of the flight. The missile debris was recovered and the air intakes were found to be still closed.[63]

The problem was traced to a timing issue in the gas generator valve control unit software, which was developed by a BC subcontractor. Following modification a repeat of the first trial took place on 20 May 2006 and was a complete success. During the sustain phase the missile carried out a series of pre-programmed manoeuvres, under autopilot control, representative of the mid-course and endgame phases of an engagement. The flight lasted just under a minute and ended again with the successful operation of the break-up system which destroyed the missile within the range boundary.

The first trial of a flight standard functional seeker was carried out on 30 June 2006.[64] The Seeker Data Gathering (SDG) missile was carried under the wing of Gripen. The SDG missile has no propulsion system or warhead but contains operational missile subsystems and telemetry systems. The flight lasted approximately 1.5 hours, allowing data to be gathered over a variety of different flight conditions. These data will be used in support of the third Key Milestone. This marked the start of a two year seeker development programme which will conclude with the first guided firing, currently scheduled for 2008 from Gripen.[65] This programme will gather clutter data and demonstrate capabilities such as transfer alignment and target tracking in clear air and in the presence of ECM.

On 5 September 2006 the third and final ALD firing was successfully conducted.[66] The launch conditions were the same as the first two firings but the missile flew a different flight profile.

Flight trials will continue in mid-2008 with control and dispersion firings to be conducted in the Hebrides off northwest Scotland.[54] A series of 10 guided firings will follow in 2008.[63]

The Eurofighter Typhoon was originally scheduled to join the Meteor trials effort in 2006 but no integration contract or funding has yet been agreed.[67] Eurofighter claims that the Block 8 aircraft, scheduled for delivery from 2007, will be fully compatible with Meteor but the CAPTOR radar will not be integrated with Meteor's datalink, requiring an additional processor card. Meteor will be delayed until the final Tranche 3 deliveries, which are scheduled to run from 2012/13 to 2017.[68] Most of the trials effort is already being conducted on Gripen and Saab is keen to take on as much of the work as possible. Consideration is also being given to using Rafale or a modified Tornado F3.[69] MBDA have said that the development plan is completely independent of the launch platform and decisions on allocation of aircraft types are made by the customer.

The UK NAO Major Projects Report 2006[70] reported a 12 month delay in the Meteor programme, pushing the ISD back to August 2013. At a MoD press conference the Chief of Defence Procurement, Sir Peter Spencer, was reported as saying that this was nothing to do with the missile itself, "Meteor is actually going very well."[71] The lack of Eurofighter aircraft for the integration work was the main reason for the slip. The Minister of Defence Procurement, Lord Drayson, was quoted as saying, "I regard this as a Eurofighter Gmbh problem." It was reported by Jane's Information Group that this delay could lead to the RAF operating AMRAAM to a point where stocks of airworthy missiles become low.[72]


MBDA is exploring integration of Meteor on the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).[2]

Fit checks of Meteor have already been conducted in the internal weapons bays of the JSF. Meteor is compatible with the aircraft's internal air-to-ground stations, but not the internal air-to-air stations. MBDA is looking at the feasibility of reducing the fin span by a few millimetres and modifying the air intakes for compatibility with the air-to-air stations. Integration on JSF was not expected until after 2015 at the earliest, but in late 2005 the UK revised its JSF weapons plan to reduce costs, and the future status of Meteor on JSF is now unclear.

The U.S. Navy may require a Meteor-class missile to replace the capability lost with the retirement of the AIM-54 Phoenix in 2004. A possible solution may be a ram-powered AMRAAM (ERAAM) carried by the F-18E/F Super Hornet.

MBDA is also looking to exploit its ongoing investment in the high-speed Meteor airframe and platform integration with derivatives for other roles, including air-to-surface strikes against time-critical targets such as self-propelled SAM systems, self-propelled air-defence radars, mobile command posts, and ballistic-missile transporter/erector/launchers. Studies have shown that the time from detection to engagement of this class of target needs to be less than 10 minutes. With suitable funding, an air-to-surface version could be available for service around 2012, see AGM Armiger.

See also


  1. ^ Comptroller and Auditor General (2004-01-23). "Ministry of Defence Major Projects Report 2003" (PDF). National Audit Office. pp. 83. http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/03-04/0304195.pdf. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Janek's Air Launched Weapons, 30 July 2006
  3. ^ European METEOR BVRAAM Missile Test Fired over Sweden
  4. ^ a b c d e Meteor Press Brief, Saab, Farnborough, 17 July 2006
  5. ^ "MBDA explores Meteor integration and derivatives", Jane's Missiles and Rockets, 15/06/05
  6. ^ "Germans to test Meteor ramjet", Flight International, 27 November 1996
  7. ^ "No-Escape Zone", Flight International, 16–22 March 1994
  8. ^ "Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM)". Defence Factsheet. Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/ProjectFactsheets/BeyondVisualRangeAirToAirMissilebvraam.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  9. ^ "Seeing double", Flight International, 15 March 1995
  10. ^ "British court Germany and France on FMRAAM project", Flight International, 14–20 June 1995
  11. ^ "USA offers ramjet sweetener", Flight International, 4–10 October 1995
  12. ^ "Matra/DASA poised to make joint RAF missile bid", Flight International, 21–27 February 1996
  13. ^ "Germany presses for joint European missile approach", Flight International, 27 March - 2 April 1996
  14. ^ House of Commons Defence Select Committee Tenth Report Minutes of Evidence Examination of Witnesses 23 May 2000
  15. ^ "Terminal velocity", Flight International, 13 November 1996
  16. ^ "Hughes homes in on missile pact", Flight International, 11–17 September 1996
  17. ^ "Missile makers vie for key UK order", Flight International, 8 September 1998
  18. ^ "Ramjet, the Air-breathing Engine with no Serviceable Parts Inside", Armada International, 4/1996
  19. ^ "BAe-brokered missile deal heads off European divide", Flight International, 15 May 1996
  20. ^ "Rocket's red glare", Flight International, 11–17 March 1998
  21. ^ a b "Funding struggle hits Eurofighter missile", Flight International, 23 July 1997
  22. ^ "Air Combat Missiles - The Gloves Are Off!", Armada International, 4/1998
  23. ^ "Dasa asks Germany for approval of EURAAM demonstrator", Flight International, 27 May - 2 June 1998
  24. ^ "USA smoothes path for UK EF2000 missile selection", Flight International, 3–9 June 1998
  25. ^ "Raytheon supplies UK with AMRAAM costs", Flight International, 3–9 June 1998
  26. ^ a b UK Parliament Select Committee on Defence Tenth Report
  27. ^ "Interim AMRAAM Upgrade offered", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 February 1999
  28. ^ "Rival Teams Battle for UK BVRAAM order", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 1 July 1999
  29. ^ "France offers funding for European Meteor", Flight International, 16 June 1999
  30. ^ "Sweden's armed forces close purse strings on Meteor", Flight International, 7 July 1999
  31. ^ "Clinton offers transatlantic link with BVRAAM", Flight International, 18 August 1999
  32. ^ Truscott, Peter, "European Defence Meeting the Strategic Challenge",Institute for Public Policy Research, 2000
  33. ^ "ERAAM+ proposed as joint UK/US AMRAAM replacement", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 1 July 1999
  34. ^ "Missile market milestones", Jane's International Defense Review, Volume Number 33 July 2000
  35. ^ "BVRAAM fight sparks ramjet threat debate", Flight International, 4 August 1999
  36. ^ "Boeing joins Meteor missile group", Flight International, 27 October 1999
  37. ^ "Boeing looks at Meteor for SEAD", Flight International, 10 October 2000
  38. ^ "Matra BAe makes final Meteor push", Flight International, 1 December 1999
  39. ^ "Final BVRAAM bids submitted to UK MoD", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 1 February 2000
  40. ^ "Hard-fought battle for £1bn Eurofighter missile contract reaches key point today", The Independent, 21 February 2000
  41. ^ "Treasury delays RAF winners", Flight International, 28 March 2000
  42. ^ "UK selects Meteor for Eurofighter", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 24 May 2000
  43. ^ "Three nations sign Meteor go-ahead", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 18 July 2001
  44. ^ "Italian air force signs up to join Meteor development", Flight International, 11 September 2001
  45. ^ "Why we are angry with the Germans", The Daily Telegraph, 22 July 2002
  46. ^ "Meteor awaits German go-ahead", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 21 June 2002
  47. ^ "Germany puts back Meteor decision", Flight International, 2–8 July 2000
  48. ^ Rough translation of German Financial Times article, 18 June 2002
  49. ^ "Key European Military Projects Await German Decisions", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 September 2002
  50. ^ "Berlin Deals Blow To Military Plans", Aviation Week & Space Technology, December 9, 2002
  51. ^ "MBDA signs Meteor missile contract", MBDA Press Release, 23 December 2002
  52. ^ "Spanish Government - Cabinet meeting" (Press release). Spanish Government. 2003-06-17. http://www.la-moncloa.es/ConsejodeMinistros/Referencias/_2009/refc20091223.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-23. 
  53. ^ "Beyond visual range shoot-out hots up", Flight International, 27 June - 3 July 2000
  54. ^ a b "MBDA starts preparations for first Meteor test firings", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 12 July 2000
  55. ^ "MBDA awards Meteor contract to Bayern-Chemie/Protac" (Press release). MBDA. 2003-06-17. http://www.mbda.net/mbda/site/FO/scripts/newsFO_complet.php?lang=EN&news_id=83. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  56. ^ "Thales MBDA Meteor seeker contract", MBDA Press Release, June 17, 2003
  57. ^ "Meteor loses its wings", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 23 July 2003
  58. ^ "Meteor fit-tested on Typhoon", Jane's Missiles & Rockets, 23 July 2003
  59. ^ "Gripen trials success marks next milestone for Meteor", MBDA Press Release, 22 April 2003
  60. ^ "Bayern-Chemie Protac delivers Meteor propulsion system", Jane's Internation Defense Review 20 September 2004
  61. ^ a b c "Meteor missile takes to the sky with Europe's next generation fighters" (Press release). MBDA. 2005-12-13. http://www.mbda.net/mbda/site/FO/scripts/newsFO_complet.php?lang=EN&news_id=157. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  62. ^ a b Rafale flies Meteor trials from Charles de Gaulle", Jane's Missiles & Rockets 2005
  63. ^ a b c "Meteor fizzles, then burns", Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 June 06
  64. ^ "Meteor missile demonstrates seeker functionality", Jane's Missiles and Rockets, 28 July 2006
  65. ^ "Meteor reaches milestone", Flight International, 25 July 2006
  66. ^ "Third Firing Success for Meteor Air Dominance Missile" (Press release). MBDA. 2006-09-14. http://www.mbda.net/mbda/site/FO/scripts/newsFO_complet.php?lang=EN&news_id=169. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  67. ^ "Meteor soars but Eurofighter integration lags", Jane's Defence Weekly, 22 June 2006
  68. ^ "Typhoon Transformation", Air Forces Monthly, January 2011
  69. ^ "Kingdom Come", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 16 October 2006
  70. ^ Comptroller and Auditor General. "Ministry of Defence Major Projects Report 2006" (PDF). National Audit Office. http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/06-07/060723i.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  71. ^ "UK MinDP and Eurofighter Typhoon", Defence Analysis, Vol.9 No. 12 December 2006
  72. ^ Doug Richardson. "Royal Air Force could face BVRAAM shortage". Jane's Information Group. http://jmr.janes.com/public/jmr/index.shtml. Retrieved 2006-12-09. 

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