A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
A Funny Thing Happened
on the Way to the Forum
Revival Cast Recording
Music Stephen Sondheim
Lyrics Stephen Sondheim
Book Burt Shevelove
Larry Gelbart
Productions 1962 Broadway
1963 West End
1966 film
1972 Broadway
1986 West End
1996 Broadway
2004 West End
2009 Hong Kong
2009 Stratford Shakespeare Festival
Awards Tony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart.

Inspired by the farces of the ancient Roman playwright Plautus (251–183 BC), specifically Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus and Mostellaria, the musical tells the bawdy story of a slave named Pseudolus and his attempts to win his freedom by helping his young master woo the girl next door. The plot displays many classic elements of farce, including puns, the slamming of doors, cases of mistaken identity (frequently involving characters disguising themselves as one another), and satirical comments on social class. The title derives from the line that vaudeville comedians often used to begin a story: "A funny thing happened on the way to the theater".

The musical's original 1962 Broadway run won several Tony Awards, including Best Musical and Best Book. A Funny Thing has enjoyed several Broadway and West End revivals and was made into a successful film starring the original lead of the musical, Zero Mostel.



Original Broadway production

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum opened on Broadway on May 8, 1962 at the Alvin Theatre, and then transferred to the Mark Hellinger Theatre and the Majestic Theatre, where the show closed on August 29, 1964, after 964 performances and 8 previews.

The show's creators originally wanted Phil Silvers in the lead role of Pseudolus, but he turned them down, allegedly because he would have to perform onstage without his glasses, and his vision was so poor that he feared tripping into the orchestra pit. (Silvers went on to play the role—wearing his glasses—in a 1972 revival.) Milton Berle also passed on the role. Eventually, Zero Mostel was cast.[1]

During the out of town pre-Broadway tryouts the show was attracting little business and not playing well. Jerome Robbins was called in by director George Abbott and producer Hal Prince to give advice and make changes. The biggest change Robbins made was a new opening number to replace "Love Is in the Air" and introduce the show as a bawdy, wild comedy. Stephen Sondheim wrote the song "Comedy Tonight" for this new opening.[1] From that point on, the show was a success.

It was directed by George Abbott and produced by Hal Prince, with choreography by Jack Cole and uncredited staging and choreography by Jerome Robbins. The scenic and costume design was by Tony Walton. This wardrobe is on display at the Costume World Broadway Collection in Pompano Beach, Florida. The lighting design was by Jean Rosenthal. Along with Mostel, the musical featured a cast of seasoned performers, including Jack Gilford (Mostel's friend and fellow blacklist member), David Burns, John Carradine, Ruth Kobart and Raymond Walburn. The young lovers were played by Brian Davies and Preshy Marker. Karen Black, originally cast as the ingenue, was replaced out of town.

The show won several Tony Awards: best musical, best actor, best supporting actor (Burns), best book, and best director. The score, Sondheim's first time on Broadway writing both words and music, was coolly received, however, not even garnering a nomination.

West End productions

The show was presented three times in London's West End. The 1963 production and its 1986 revival were staged at the Strand Theatre and the Piccadilly Theatre respectively,[2][3] and featured Frankie Howerd starring as Pseudolus, Kenneth Connor as Hysterium, 'Monsewer' Eddie Gray as Senex, Jon Pertwee as Marcus Lycus and Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus. (Howerd went on to star in Up Pompeii!, a 1969 British television comedy series set in ancient Pompeii, as the slave Lurcio, whose character was based on Pseudolus.)

In 2004 there was a limited-run revival at the Royal National Theatre starring Desmond Barrit as Pseudolus, Philip Quast as Miles Gloriosus, Hamish McColl as Hysterium and Isla Blair as Domina (who had previously played Philia in the 1963 production).[4]

Motion picture adaptation

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum was made into a musical film in 1966, directed by Richard Lester, with Zero Mostel and Jack Gilford re-creating their Broadway stage roles, Leon Greene reprising his West End stage role and Phil Silvers starred in an expanded role as "Marcus Lycus". David Burns did not return for the film role of Senex, which was played in the film by Michael Hordern. Buster Keaton made his final film appearance in the role of Erronius.

Broadway revivals

In 1972 there was a critically well-received Broadway revival, directed by co-author Burt Shevelove and starring Phil Silvers as Pseudolus (followed later by Tom Poston in the role), Lew Parker as Senex and Reginald Owen as Erronius. Larry Blyden, who played Hysterium, the role created by Jack Gilford, also co-produced. Two songs were dropped from the show, and two new Sondheim songs were added. The new songs included in this production had been added during a 1971 Los Angeles production: "Echo Song" (sung by Hero and Philia), and "Farewell" (added for Nancy Walker playing the role of Domina as she and Senex depart for the country). The production ran 156 performances, but had to close soon after Phil Silvers suffered a stroke. The show won Tonys for Silvers and Blyden.

The musical was also revived with great success in 1996, starring Nathan Lane as Pseudolus (replaced later in the run by Whoopi Goldberg and also by David Alan Grier), Mark Linn-Baker as Hysterium, Ernie Sabella as Lycus, Jim Stanek as Hero, Lewis J. Stadlen as Senex, and Cris Groenendaal as Miles Gloriosus. The production, directed by Jerry Zaks, ran for 715 performances. Lane won the Best Actor Tony.

Every actor who has opened in the role of Pseudolus on Broadway (Zero Mostel, Phil Silvers and Nathan Lane) won a Best Actor Tony Award for their performance. In addition, Jason Alexander, who performed as Pseudolus in one scene in Jerome Robbins' Broadway, also won a Tony for Best Actor in a Musical.

Other productions

The Stephen Sondheim Center for the Performing Arts produced a limited-run revival of the musical from January 11 to 27, 2008. The production was directed by Randal K. West, with Justin Hill as musical director and Adam Cates as choreographer. The cast featured Richard Kind as Pseudolus, Joel Blum as Senex, Stephen DeRosa as Marcus Lycus, Sean McCall as Hysterium, and Steve Wilson as Miles Gloriosus. It also featured Diana Upton-Hill, Ryan Gaffney, Stephen Mark Crisp, Jack Kloppenborg and Margret Clair.[5][6][7]

The Chung Ying Theatre Company in Hong Kong staged a Cantonese version of the musical at Kwai Tsing Theatre, to celebrate the company's 30th anniversary. It was directed by Chung King Fai and Ko Tin Lung and ran from 14 to 21 March 2009.[8]

The Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, Canada production ran from June 11 to November 7, 2009, with Des McAnuff directing and Wayne Cilento as choreographer.[9] Bruce Dow originally performed the role of Pseudolus, but was forced to withdraw from the entire 2009 season due to an injury, and the role was then performed by Sean Cullen as of September 5, 2009.[10] Stephen Ouimette played Hysterium. Mirvish Productions presented the earlier Stratford production at the Canon Theatre, Toronto, in December 2010 through January 2011. Bruce Dow and Sean Cullen were alternates in the lead role.[11]


Graphic from the original Broadway cast album

In ancient Rome, some neighbors live in three adjacent houses. In the center is the house of Senex, who lives there with wife Domina, son Hero, and several slaves, including head slave Hysterium and the musical's main character Pseudolus. A slave belonging to Hero, Pseudolus wishes to buy, win, or steal his freedom. One of the neighboring houses is owned by Marcus Lycus, who is a buyer and seller of beautiful women; the other belongs to the ancient Erronius, who is abroad searching for his long-lost children (stolen in infancy by pirates).

One day, Senex and Domina go on a trip and leave Pseudolus in charge of Hero. Hero confides in Pseudolus that he is in love with the lovely Philia, one of the courtesans in the House of Lycus. Pseudolus promises to help him win Philia's love in exchange for his freedom. Unfortunately (as the two find out when they pay a visit on Lycus), Philia has been promised to the renowned warrior Captain Miles Gloriosus, who is on his way to claim her. Pseudolus, an excellent liar, uses Philia's cheery disposition to convince Lycus that she has picked up a plague from Crete, which causes its victims to smile endlessly in its terminal stages. By offering to isolate her in Senex's house, he is able to give Philia and Hero some time alone together, and the two fall in love. But Philia insists that, even though she is in love with Hero, she must honor her contract with the Captain, for "that is the way of a courtesan." To appease her, he tells her to wait ("that's what virgins do best, isn't it?") inside, and that he will have the captain knock three times when he arrives. Pseudolus comes up with a plan to slip Philia a sleeping potion that will render her unconscious. He will then tell Lycus that she has died of the Cretan plague, and will offer to remove the body. Hero will come along, and they will stow away on a ship headed for Greece. Satisfied with his plan, Pseudolus steals Hysterium's book of potions and has Hero read him the recipe for the sleeping potion; the only ingredient he lacks is "mare's sweat," and Pseudolus goes off in search of some.

Unexpectedly, Senex returns home early from his trip, and knocks three times on his own door. Philia comes out of the house, and, thinking that Senex is the Captain, offers herself up to him. Surprised but game, Senex instructs Philia to wait in the house for him, and she does. Hysterium arrives to this confusion, and tells Senex that Philia is the new maid that he has hired. Pseudolus returns, having procured the necessary mare's sweat; seeing that Senex has returned unexpectedly and grasping the need to keep him out of the way, Pseudolus discreetly sprinkles some of the horse-sweat onto him, then suggests that the road trip has left Senex in dire need of a bath. Taking the bait, Senex instructs Hysterium to draw him a bath in the long-abandoned house of Erronius. But while this is happening, Erronius returns home, finally having given up the search for his long-lost children. Hysterium, desperate to keep him out of the house where his master is bathing, tells the old man that his house has become haunted—a story seemingly confirmed by the sound of Senex singing in his bath. Erronius immediately determines to have a soothsayer come and banish the spirit from his house, and Pseudolus obligingly poses as one, telling Erronius that in order to banish the spirit, he must travel seven times around the seven hills of Rome (thus keeping the old man occupied and out of the way for quite a while).

When Miles Gloriosus arrives to claim his courtesan-bride, Pseudolus hides Philia on the roof of Senex's house; told that she has "escaped," Lycus is terrified to face the Captain's wrath. Pseudolus offers to impersonate Lycus and talk his way out of the mess but, his ingenuity flagging, he ends up merely telling the Captain that Philia has disappeared, and that he, "Lycus," will set out in search of her. Displeased and suspicious, Miles insists that his soldiers accompany Pseudolus, but the wily slave is able to lose them in Rome's winding streets.

Complicating matters further, Domina returns from her trip early, suspicious that her husband Senex is "up to something low." She disguises herself in virginal white robes and a veil (much like Philia's) in order to try and catch Senex being unfaithful. Pseudolus convinces Hysterium to help him by dressing in drag and pretending to be Philia, "dead" from the plague. Unfortunately, it turns out that Miles Gloriosus has just returned from Crete, where there is of course no actual plague. With the ruse thus revealed, the main characters run for their lives, resulting in a madcap chase across the stage with both Miles and Senex pursuing all three "Philia"s (Domina, Hysterium, and the actual Philia — all wearing identical white robes and veils). Meanwhile, the courtesans from the house of Marcus Lycus – who had been recruited as mourners at "Philia"'s ersatz funeral – have escaped, and Lycus sends his eunuchs out to bring them all back, adding to the general pandemonium.

Finally, the Captain's troops are able to round everyone up. His plot thoroughly unraveled, Pseudolus appears to be in deep trouble — but Erronius, completing his third circuit of the Roman hills, shows up fortuitously to discover that Miles Gloriosus and Philia are wearing matching rings which mark them as his long-lost children. Her betrothal to the Captain obviously nullified by the unexpected revelation that he's actually her brother, Philia weds Hero; Pseudolus gets his freedom, Gloriosus receives twin courtesans to replace Philia, Erronius gets his children, and a happy ending prevails for all — except for poor Senex, stuck with his shrewish wife Domina.


  • Pseudolus: A Roman slave, owned by Hero, who seeks to win his/her freedom by helping his/her young master win the heart of Philia. While originally written as a male role, it has been performed by female cast as well.
  • Hero: Young son of Senex who falls in love with the virgin, Philia.
  • Philia: (Greek for "love") A virgin in the house of Marcus Lycus, and Hero's love interest.
  • Senex: (Latin for "old man") A henpecked, sardonic Roman senator living in a less fashionable suburb of Rome.
  • Marcus Lycus: A purveyor of courtesans, who operates from the house to the left of Senex. (Name based on Lycus, the pimp in Plautus's Poenulus.)
  • Domina: (Latin for "mistress") The wife of Senex. A manipulative, shrewish woman who is loathed by even her husband.
  • Erronius: (Latin for "wandering") Senex's elderly neighbor in the house to the right. He has spent the past twenty years searching for his two children, kidnapped in infancy by pirates.
  • Gymnasia: (Greek for "Nude", though could be a play on words for "Gymnasium") A courtesan from the house of Lycus with whom Pseudolus falls in love.
  • Miles Gloriosus: (Latin for "boastful soldier," the archetype of the braggart soldier in Roman comedies) A captain in the Roman army to whom Marcus Lycus has promised Philia.
  • Hysterium: (Latin for "Hysterical", or "Anxious", the suffix "-um" makes the name neuter, and the character's gender is often mistaken throughout the piece) The chief slave in the house of Senex.
  • Tintinabula: (Latin for "Bells") A jingling, bell-wearing courtesan in the house of Lycus.
  • Vibrata: (Latin for "Vibrant") A wild, vibrant courtesan in the house of Lycus.
  • Geminae: (Latin for "Twins") Twin courtesans in the house of Lycus.
  • Panacea: (Greek for "Cure All") A courtesan in the house of Lycus.
  • Proteans: Choristers who play multiple roles (slaves, citizens, soldiers, and eunuchs). They accompany Pseudolus in "Comedy Tonight". On Broadway, three people played all of these roles.


Act I

  • "Comedy Tonight" — Pseudolus and Company
  • "Love, I Hear" — Hero
  • "Free" — Pseudolus and Hero
  • "The House of Marcus Lycus" — Lycus and Pseudolus
  • "Lovely" — Philia and Hero
  • "Pretty Little Picture" — Pseudolus, Hero, and Philia
  • "Everybody Ought to Have a Maid" — Senex with Pseudolus, Lycus, and Hysterium
  • "I'm Calm" — Hysterium
  • "Impossible" — Senex and Hero
  • "Bring Me My Bride" — Miles Gloriosus and Company

Act II

  • "That Dirty Old Man" — Domina
  • "That'll Show Him" — Philia
  • "Lovely" (reprise) — Pseudolus and Hysterium
  • "Funeral Sequence" — Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus and Company
  • "Finale" — Company

Notes: The song "Love Is in the Air" was originally intended as the opening number. The song was cut from the show and replaced with "Comedy Tonight".[12] The song was later featured in the film The Birdcage (1996) and performed by Robin Williams and Christine Baranski. Another draft of the opening number, "Invocation and Instructions to the Audience," has been used in subsequent revues of Sondheim songs and was sung by Nathan Lane in the book musical The Frogs. "Pretty Little Picture" is frequently dropped from productions of the show, and one verse of "I'm Calm" is also frequently trimmed.

Cultural references

  • In the second season of the AMC Series Mad Men, which takes place in 1962, several characters refer to the musical. For example, Don Draper runs into his former mistress, Rachel Menken, at Sardi's. Rachel and her new husband are on their way to see the show on Broadway.
  • The title is referenced in Marvel One Shots A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To Thor's Hammer and is included on the Captain America: The First Avenger Blu-ray Disc and DVD releases. The title has also been referenced many times as episode titles of various shows over the years.
  • The Musical was also reference in an episode of Glee, in which production Coach Beist claimed to be the 'Forum', which is never so much as referenced in the musical.


  1. ^ a b Green, Stanley and Green, Kay."A Funny Thing Happened on the Way To the Forum" Broadway Musicals, Show By Show (1996), (books.google) Hal Leonard Corporation, ISBN 0-7935-7750-0, p. 198
  2. ^ "Listing, 1963 production" Guidetomusicaltheatre.com, retrieved December 9, 2009
  3. ^ "Listing, 1986 production" Thisistheatre.com, retrieved December 9, 2009
  4. ^ Inverne, James."Thoroughly Modern Millie Closes in London as New Musicals Prepare to Open" Playbill.com, June 7, 2004
  5. ^ "News" gazettonline, January 14, 2008][dead link]
  6. ^ Lipton, Brian Scott."Richard Kind to Star in Fairfield Center's 'Forum'" Theatermania.com, January 4, 2008
  7. ^ Gans, Andrew."Tragedy Tomorrow, Comedy Tonight: 'Forum' Begins Run at Sondheim Center" Playbill.com, January 11, 2008
  8. ^ "Funny Thing" chungying.com[dead link]
  9. ^ (no author)."Stratford Production History" Stratfordfestival.ca, accessed August 16, 2011
  10. ^ Bacalzo, Dan."Sean Cullen to Replace Injured Bruce Dow in Stratford 'Forum' " Theatermania.com, August 17, 2009
  11. ^ Nestruck, J. Kelly."Theatre Review. 'A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum' still brings the funny, but not as much" The Globe and Mail, December 20, 2010
  12. ^ (no author)."Cut songs, 'A Funny Thing Happened'" Sondheim.com, accessed August 16, 2011


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