- 1776 (musical)
caption=Original Production Logo
Tony Award for Best Musical
"1776" is a Broadway musical with music and lyrics by
Sherman Edwardsand a book by Peter Stone. It dramatizes the events leading to the writing and signing of the United States Declaration of Independencein Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1776.
The musical was produced on Broadway in 1969, running for 1,217 performances, and was made into a film of the same name in 1972. The show was nominated for five
Tony Awards and won three, including Best Musical.
Sherman Edwards, a pop-song composer with several top ten hits in the late fifties and early sixties, developed lyrics and libretto for a musical based on the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Edwards recounted that, "I wanted to show [the founding fathers] at their outermost limits. These men were the cream of their colonies... They disagreed and fought with each other. But they understood commitment, and though they fought, they fought affirmatively."Kantor and Maslon, pp. 348-49] Producer
Stuart Ostrowrecommended that librettist Peter Stone collaborate with Edwards on the book of the musical. Stone recalled, "The minute you heard ["Sit Down, John"] , you knew what the whole show was.... You knew immediately that John Adamsand the others were not going to be treated as gods, or cardboard characters, chopping down cherry trees and flying kites with strings and keys on them. It had this very affectionate familiarity; it wasn't reverential."Adams, the outspoken delegate from Massachusetts, was chosen as the central character, and his quest to persuade all thirteen colonies to vote for independence became the central conflict. Stone confined nearly all of the action to Independence Hall and the debate among the delegates, featuring only two female characters, Abigail Adamsand Martha Jefferson, in the entire musical.Kantor and Maslon, pp. 329] Bloom and Vlastnik, pp. 285] After tryouts in New Haven and Washington, the show opened on Broadway at the 46th Street Theatreon March 16, 1969. Peter Hunt, previously known as a lighting designer, directed. [ [http://1776themusical.us/documentary.htm 2008 interview of Hunt]
On May 8, 1776, in
Philadelphia, as the Second Continental Congressproceeds with its business, the despised delegate from Massachusetts, John Adams, is frustrated. None of his proposals on independence has been given even "the courtesy of open debate." The other delegates, sick of Adams's constant agitation, implore him to "Sit Down, John." Adams complains that Congress has done nothing for the last year but "Piddle, Twiddle and Resolve."
Adams flees the chamber and reads the latest missive from his loving wife Abigail, who, far away at their home in
Braintree, Massachusetts, appears in his imagination. He asks if she and the other women are making saltpeter for the war effort, but she replies that the women have a more urgent problem: no straight pins. They each promise to do something about the other's problem. In "Till Then," they pledge their love to each other, and Abigail disappears.
The next day, Adams finds delegate Benjamin Franklin outside. Adams bemoans the failure of his arguments for independence, and Franklin suggests that, because Adams is "obnoxious and disliked", the resolution would have more success if proposed by someone else.
Richard Henry Leeof Virginiaenters, having been summoned by Franklin. The cocky Lee crows that he is the best man to obtain the resolution. Adams has reservations, but Lee is convinced he cannot fail: he is a member of the oldest and most glorious family in America: "The Lees of Old Virginia." Adams and Franklin get him off to Williamsburg, Virginia.
June 7, 1776. A new delegate from Georgia, Dr. Lyman Hall, enters the congressional chamber and meets the others. Stephen Hopkins of
Rhode Islandroars into the room shouting for rum, while Colonel Thomas McKean and George Read of Delawarebicker, with the sickly Caesar Rodneystuck in the middle. The charismatic Edward Rutledgeof South Carolinainforms Hall that the colonies of the Deep South traditionally vote as one. John Dickinson of Pennsylvania, followed by the meek James Wilson, states that he is firmly against what he calls treason. Franklin and Adams enter, and the delegates, John Hancock(President of the Congress) and Charles Thomson(Secretary of the Congress), take their places. Hancock gavels the 380th meeting of the Congress to order.
New Jerseydelegation is absent. Thomas Jefferson, a young delegate from Virginia, announces that he is leaving for Virginia that night to visit his wife. As Hancock opens the floor to new resolutions, Richard Henry Leecanters into the chamber, having finally returned from Virginia. Lee reads his resolution and Dickinson moves to indefinitely postpone the question of independence. A vote is taken. Josiah Bartlett, Adams, Lee, Roger Shermanof Connecticutand two-thirds of the Delaware delegation vote for debate, while Lewis Morrisof New York abstains "courteously." Dickinson, Samuel Chaseof Maryland, Rutledge, and Joseph Hewesof North Carolinavotes against debating independence. Dr. Hall explains that though he is for independence, Georgia is against it. He prefers to err on the side of his constituency and votes nay, leaving the deciding vote to Hopkins, who votes in favor of debate, proclaiming that he'd "never seen, heard, nor smelled an issue that was so dangerous it couldn't be talked about."
The most vocal of the delegates debate independence, which grows so heated that Adams and Dickinson begin to fight. Caesar Rodney separates them, berating them for not focusing on the real enemy: England. He collapses from the overexertion; he has cancer. Colonel McKean takes him back home. This leaves the Delaware delegation with only one man present, George Read, who is not in favor of independence.
Rutledge, seeing the majority swinging in his favor, moves for a vote on the question of independence. The new New Jersey delegation arrives, led by Rev. John Witherspoon. They have been instructed to vote in favor of independence. The vote now stands at six for independence and six against (with New York abstaining), and Adams reminds Hancock of his duty as president to break all ties. Dickinson moves that any vote for independence must pass unanimously on the grounds that "no colony [may] be torn from its mother country without its own consent." The vote produces the same tie, which Hancock breaks by unexpectedly voting "for" unanimity. He reasons that without unanimity, any colony voting against independence would be forced to fight on England's side, setting brother against brother.
Adams, thinking fast, calls for a postponement of the vote on independence, expressing the need for a declaration defining the reasons for independence. Franklin seconds Adams, but when asked why such a declaration should be written, both are lost for words. Suddenly, Thomas Jefferson proclaims the reason: "to place before mankind the common sense of the subject, in terms so plain and firm as to command their assent." The vote on postponement is called, producing yet another tie, with New York abstaining yet again. Hancock breaks the tie by voting in favor of postponement, choosing a committee of Adams, Franklin,
Roger Shermanof Connecticut, Robert Livingston of New York, and Jefferson to draft the declaration. Hancock adjourns the session over Jefferson's complaints that he must go home to his wife.
Committee of Fiveargues about who should write the declaration ("But, Mr. Adams"). Adams declines, reminding Franklin that he is "obnoxious and disliked." Franklin argues that he is not a political writer, only a satirist. Sherman claims that he is not a writer at all, but "a simple cobbler from Connecticut." Livingston must return to New York to celebrate the birth of his son. All eyes turn to Jefferson; Adams quotes a passage of Jefferson's " Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms", bluntly telling Jefferson that he is the best writer in Congress. Jefferson tries to wriggle out of the responsibility, pleading that he has not seen his wife in six months. Adams, unmoved by Jefferson's arguments, thrusts a quill pen into Jefferson's hand. Defeated, Jefferson accepts the duty of drafting the document.
A week later, Adams and Franklin visit Jefferson to see how the work is coming along. Jefferson has spent the week moping but is brightened when his beloved wife Martha enters (Adams has sent for her), and the two older gentlemen leave the young lovers in peace. Adams, alone, again exchanges letters with his wife Abigail. They pledge each other to be eternally "Yours, Yours, Yours." Martha finally appears when Franklin and Adams return the next morning, and the two gentlemen ask her how a man as silent as Jefferson won a woman as lovely as she. She tells them that she loves him because "He Plays the Violin."
On June 22, 1776, Congress has reconvened. A letter is received from General Washington. He reports that the troops are suffering from venereal disease and
drunkenness. He implores the Congress to send the War Committee to New Brunswick, New Jerseyto boost morale. Chase challenges Adams: how could an army composed of "drunken militiamen" hope to defeat the British Army? Adams rejoins, if it is proven to Chase that the redcoats could be beaten by the Continental Army, would Maryland vote in favor of independence? Chase assents, and Adams, Franklin, and Chase leave for New Jersey, soon followed by the delegates in favor of independence. Alone with his fellow conservative delegates for the first time, Dickinson leads them in a minuet, singing of their desire to hold onto their wealth and remain "Cool, Cool Considerate Men."
The remaining delegates depart, leaving Andrew McNair (the custodian), the courier and a workman in the chamber. The workman asks the courier if he has seen any fighting, and the courier replies that his two closest friends were killed on the same day at
Lexington, Massachusetts. He describes the final thoughts of a dying young man as his mother searches for his body ("Momma, Look Sharp").
Jefferson is outside the chamber as Thomson reads the declaration to Congress. Adams and Franklin meet him delightedly: an exhibition of shooting by the Continental Army has convinced Samuel Chase, and Maryland will vote in favor of independence. They congratulate Jefferson on the excellence of the document, and Franklin compares the creation of this new country to "The Egg." This leads the trio to debate which bird is breaking out of its metaphorical shell and would best represent America. The three settle on the eagle, as insisted upon by Adams.
On June 28, 1776, Hancock asks if there are any alterations to be offered to the Declaration of Independence, leading each delegate to voice his suggestions. Jefferson acquiesces to each recommendation, much to Adams's consternation, until Dickinson suggests the removal of a phrase calling the King a
tyrant. Jefferson refuses, stating that "the King is a tyrant whether we say so or not. We might as well say so." When Thomson comments that he has already scratched the word out, Jefferson orders him to "scratch it back in." An exasperated Adams exclaims "It's a revolution, damn it! We're going to have to offend "somebody!"
As Hancock is about to call for a vote on the Declaration, Rutledge rises to object to Jefferson's denunciation of
slaveryin his list of redresses. He reminds them that the process of "Molasses to Rum" to slaves (the triangular trade) ensures prosperity for the North. The delegations of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia angrily leave the chamber. The resolve of the remaining delegates is broken, and they also leave.
Adams, growing desperate, sends McKean to Delaware to bring back Caesar Rodney. Franklin sagely insists that Adams agree to the removal of the slavery clause from the Declaration. Alone with his thoughts, Adams conjures Abigail in his mind and pours out his fears and feelings of hopelessness to her. She reassures him, quoting from his own letters: "Commitment, Abby, commitment! There are only two creatures of value on the face of this earth: those with a commitment, and those who require the commitment of others." During their exchange, McNair delivers two kegs to the chamber: saltpeter from Abigail and the women of Massachusetts.
With Adams's faith in the cause renewed, he tells Franklin and Jefferson to talk to Wilson and Rutledge: they need each and every vote. Thomson reads the latest dispatch from General Washington, who wonders if he is ever to receive a response to his last fifteen missives. Re-reading the dispatch, Adams echoes Washington's words, "Is Anybody There?" Discouraged but determined, Adams declares his vision of his new country: "Yet, through all the gloom, I can see the rays of ravishing light and glory!"
Dr. Hall returns to the Chamber. He has been thinking: "In trying to resolve my dilemma I remembered something I'd once read, 'that a representative owes the People not only his industry, but his judgment, and he betrays them if he sacrifices it to their opinion.' It was written by
Edmund Burke, a member of the British Parliament." He walks over to the tally board and changes Georgia's vote from "nay" to "yea".
It is now July 2, 1776. The delegates slowly return to the chamber, including Caesar Rodney. Hancock calls for the vote on the Lee Resolution. Thomson calls on each delegation for their vote. Pennsylvania passes on the first call, but the rest of the northern and middle colonies (save
New York, who with some self-disgust abstains) vote "yea". When the vote passes to South Carolina, Rutledge demands the removal of the slavery clause as the condition of the "yea" votes from the Carolinas. Franklin pleads with Adams to remove the clause ("First things first, John ... Independence. America. If we don't have that, what is the rest worth?") and Adams turns to Jefferson. Jefferson reluctantly crosses the chamber and scratches out the clause himself. Rutledge and the Carolinas vote "yea", as does Georgia.
When Pennsylvania's vote is called again, Dickinson declares that "Pennsylvania votes...", only to be stopped by Franklin who asks Hancock to poll the delegation: Franklin votes "yea", Dickinson "nay", leaving the swing vote to the voiceless Wilson, who normally adheres to Dickinson. Seeing his hesitancy, Dickinson tries to entice him: "James, you're keeping everybody waiting ... the issue is clear." Franklin remarks that "most issues are clear when someone else has to decide them", and Adams mercilessly adds that "it would be a pity for a man [Wilson] who has handed down hundreds of wise decisions from the bench to be remembered for the one unwise decision he made in Congress." Wilson doesn't want to be remembered as "the man who prevented American independence") and votes "yea". The motion is passed.
Hancock asks that no man be allowed to sit in Congress without affixing his signature to the Declaration. Dickinson announces that he cannot in good conscience sign such a document, and still hopes for reconciliation with England. However, he resolves to join the army to fight for and defend the new nation. Adams leads the Congress in a salute to Dickinson as he leaves the chamber.
Hancock leads the delegates in signing the Declaration, but is interrupted by the courier with another dispatch from Washington, "Commander of the Army of the United Colonies ... of the United STATES of America." He reports that preparations for the Battle of New York are under way, but expresses concern about America's badly outnumbered and under-trained troops. Washington's note to Lewis Morris that his estates have been destroyed but that his family has been taken to safety emboldens Morris to state that he will sign the Declaration, regardless of the lack of instructions from the state legislature. The New York delegates vote "yea" and make the Declaration unanimous.
On the evening of
July 4, 1776, McNair rings the Liberty Bellin the background as Thomson calls each of the delegates to sign their name to the Declaration of Independence. The delegates freeze in position as the Liberty Bell rings to a fevered pitch.
*"Sit Down, John" – Adams and Congress
*"Piddle, Twiddle and Resolve"/"Till Then" – Adams
*"Till Then" – John and Abigail Adams
*"The Lees Of Old Virginia" – Lee, Franklin and Adams
*"But, Mr. Adams" – Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Sherman and Livingston
*"Yours, Yours, Yours" – John and Abigail Adams
*"He Plays the Violin" – Martha Jefferson, Franklin and Adams
*"Cool, Cool, Considerate Men" – Dickinson and The Conservatives
*"Momma Look Sharp" – Courier, McNair and Leather Apron
*"The Egg" – Franklin, Adams and Jefferson
*"Molasses To Rum" – Rutledge
*"Compliments" – Abigail Adams
*"Is Anybody There?" – Adams
Scene Three of "1776" holds the record for the longest time in a musical without a single note of music played or sung – over twenty minutes pass between "The Lees of Old Virginia" and "But Mr. Adams," the next number.Fact|date=September 2007 On the DVD commentary, Peter Stone says that he experimented with adding various songs in this section, but nothing ever worked. During this scene, dubbed "Big Three" by cast members, musicians were allowed to leave the pit, reportedly the first time in Broadway history that they were permitted to do so in the middle of a show.Fact|date=June 2008 Stone also notes that people often told him that, because of the subject matter and the large amount of dialogue, "1776" should have been conventional play rather than a musical. Stone believes that the songs create a playful, irreverent tone that helps bring the historical characters to life.
According to "The Columbia Companion to American History on Film", historical "Inaccuracies pervade "1776", though few are very troubling." [Peter C. Rollins, ed., "The Columbia Companion to American History on Film" (Columbia University Press, 2004, ISBN 023111222X), p. 154.] Because Congress did not keep detailed records on the debate over the Declaration of Independence, the authors of the play created the narrative based on later accounts and educated guesses, inventing scenes and dialogue as needed for storytelling purposes. Some of the dialogue was taken from words written by the actual people involved—often written years or even decades later—and rearranged for dramatic effect. [Stone and Edwards, pp. 153–65, describing the play's historical basis and dramatic license.]
The central departure from history is that the separation from Great Britain was accomplished in two steps: the actual vote for independence came on July 2 with the approval of Lee's
resolution of independence. The wording of the Declaration of Independence—the statement to the world as to the reasons necessitating the split—was then debated for three days before being approved on July 4. The vote for independence did not hinge on some passages being removed from the Declaration, as implied in the play, since Congress had already voted in favor of independence before debating the Declaration. For the sake of drama, the play's authors combined the two events.Stone and Edwards, p. 158.] In addition, the Declaration was not signed on July 4, as shown in "1776". In reality, after the wording was approved, the Declaration was rushed off to be printed, and carried only the names of John Hancock (president) and Charles Thomson (secretary). The famous signed version of the Declaration was created later and signed by most delegates on August 2, 1776. The authors of "1776" had the delegates sign the Declaration on July 4 for dramatic reasons.
Many characters in "1776" differ from their historical counterparts. Central to the drama is the depiction of John Adams as "obnoxious and disliked". According to biographer
David McCullough, however, Adams was one of the most respected members of Congress in 1776. Adams's oft-quoted description of himself in Congress as "obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular" is from a letter written forty-six years later in 1822, [ [http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/pickering.html Letter from Adams to Timothy Pickering, 1822] . Adams also described himself as "obnoxious" in his [http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/aea/cfm/doc.cfm?id=A1_24 "Autobiography",] written in 1805.] after his unpopular presidency had likely colored his view of the past. According to McCullough, no delegate described Adams as obnoxious in 1776. [McCullough, David. "John Adams" (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), pp. 119–20.] Historian Garry Willsearlier made a similar argument, writing that "historians relay John Adams's memories without sufficient skepticism", and that it was Dickinson, not Adams, who was advocating an unpopular position in 1776. [Wills, Garry. "Inventing America: Jefferson's Declaration of Independence" (New York: Doubleday, 1978), pp. 349–50.]
For practical and dramatic purposes, the play does not depict all of the more than 50 members of Congress who were present at the time. The John Adams of the play is, in part, a
composite character, combining the real Adams with his cousin Samuel Adams, who was in Congress at the time but is not depicted in the play.Stone and Edwards, p. 162.] James Wilson was not the indecisive milquetoast depicted in the play. The real Wilson, who was not yet a judge in 1776, had been cautious about supporting independence at an earlier date, but he supported the resolution of independence when it came up for a vote. Pennsylvania's deciding swing vote was actually cast by John Morton, who is not depicted in the musical. The play depicts Caesar Rodney as an elderly man near death. Although in 1776 Rodney did have skin cancer, which would eventually kill him, he was just 47 years old at the time and continued to be very active in the Revolution after signing the Declaration. In the play, Richard Henry Lee announces that he is returning to Virginia to serve as governor. He was never governor; his cousin Henry Lee (who is anachronistically called "General 'Lighthorse' Harry Lee", a rank and nickname earned later) did eventually become governor. Martha Jefferson never traveled to Philadelphia to be with her husband. In fact, she was extremely ill during the summer of 1776, having just endured a miscarriage. The play's authors invented the scene "to show something of the young Jefferson's life without destroying the unity of setting."Stone and Edwards, p. 161.]
The musical also deviates from history in its portrayal of attitudes about slavery. In "1776", after a dramatic debate over slavery, the southern delegates walk out in protest of the Declaration's denunciation of the slave trade, and only support independence when that language was removed from the Declaration. The walkout is fictional, and apparently most delegates—northern and southern—supported the deletion of the clause. Thomas Jefferson is depicted as saying that he has resolved to free his slaves, something he did not do, except for a few slaves freed after his death 50 years later. Franklin says in "1776" that he is the founder of an abolitionist organization, but the real Franklin did not become an abolitionist until after the American Revolution, when he became president of the
Pennsylvania Abolition Society. [Isaacson, Walter. "Benjamin Franklin: An American Life" (2003).]
The original Broadway production of "1776" opened on March 16, 1969 at the 46th Street Theatre (now the
Richard Rodgers Theatre) and closed on February 13, 1972after 1,217 performances. In its three year run, it played in three different theatres: the 46th Street, the St. James Theatre( 1970) and, finally, the Majestic Theatre( 1971). Rex Everhart, who was Da Silva's standby, replaced him on the original Broadway cast albumafter Da Silva suffered a mild heart attack, which required him to leave the show temporarily. Betty Buckleymade her Broadway debut as Martha Jefferson in the original stage production.
"1776" was revived by the
Roundabout Theatre Company, opening on August 4, 1997, in a limited engagement at the Roundabout's home theatre, the Criterion Center, before transferring to the George Gershwin Theatreon December 3, 1997for a commercial run. It closed on June 14, 1998after 333 performances and 34 previews. The production was directed by Scott Elliswith choreography by Kathleen Marshall, and featured Brent Spineras Adams, Michael Cumpstyas Dickinson, Pat Hingleas Franklin, and Paul Michael Valleyas Jefferson.
The 1972 film version of "1776" was created by the same team responsible for the musical. Ostrow produced, Hunt directed and Stone wrote the screenplay. The production featured
William Danielsas John Adams, Ken Howardas Thomas Jefferson, Howard Da Silvaas Benjamin Franklin, John Cullumas Edward Rutledge, Ron Holgateas Richard Henry Lee, and Virginia Vestoffas Abigail Adams.
In his review of the original 1969 production, Clive Barnes of the
New York Timeswrote, "On the face of it, few historical incidents seem more unlikely to spawn a Broadway musical than that solemn moment in the history of mankind, the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Yet "1776"... most handsomely demonstrated that people who merely go 'on the face of it' are occasionally outrageously wrong.... "  " is a most striking, most gripping musical. I recommend it without reservation. It makes even an Englishman's heart beat faster... the characters are most unusually full... for Mr. Stone's book is literate, urbane and, on occasion, very amusing.... William Daniels has given many persuasive performances in the past, but nothing, I think, can have been so effective as his John Adams here. This is a beautiful mixture of pride, ambition, an almost priggish sense of justice and yet – the saving grace of the character – an ironic self-awareness." [ [http://www.1776themusical.us/reviews/review11.htm 1969 "New York Times" review of the original production] ]
John Chapman of the New York Daily News penned, "This is by no means a historical tract or a sermon on the birth of this nation. It is warm with a life of its own; it is funny, it is moving... Often, as I sat enchanted in my seat, it reminded me of
Gilbert and Sullivanin its amused regard of human frailities.... The songs and lyrics are, as I have indicated, remarkably original." [http://www.1776themusical.us/reviews/review4.htm "New York Daily News" review of the original production]
New York Post" noted, "In this cynical age, it requires courage as well as enterprise to do a musical play that simply deals with the events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. And "1776"... makes no attempt to be satirical or wander off into modern bypaths. But the rewards of this confidence reposed in the bold conception were abundant. The result is a brilliant and remarkably moving work of theatrical art... it is Mr. Daniels' John Adams who dominates the evening, as he did the Congress. Peter Hunt's direction, the choreography of Onna White, and the setting by Jo Mielzelner are just right." [http://www.1776themusical.us/reviews/review14.htm Original "New York Post" review]
Notable recordings of the musical have included:
* Original Broadway cast (1969), available on LP and CD with
Rex Everhartas Ben Franklin due to Howard da Silva's ill health at the time of recording.
* Original London cast (1970), available on LP
* Original motion picture soundtrack (1972), available on LP
* British studio cast (1970), available on LP (Marble Arch MALS-1327, conducted by Stan Reynolds)
* Studio cast (The Ray Bloch Singers) (date unknown), available on LP
* Broadway revival cast (1997), available on CD
Awards and nominations
Original Broadway (1969)
*Best Musical (winner)
*Best Featured Actor in a Musical (Ron Holgate) (winner)
*Best Direction of a Musical (winner)
*Best Featured Actress in a Musical (Virginia Vestoff)(nominee)
*Best Scenic Design (nominee)"(Note:William Daniels, who starred as John Adams, was ruled ineligible for the Best Actor nomination because his name was not billed above the title of the show; he refused a nomination for Best Featured Actor. [http://www.broadway.com/gen/Buzz_Story.aspx?ci=513006 The Insider, Ken Mandelbaum, broadway.com] )" ;
Theatre World AwardKen Howard (winner) ; Drama Desk Award
*Outstanding Book (Peter Stone) (winner)
*Outstanding Costume Design (Patricia Zipprodt) (winner)
*Best Revival of a Musical (nominee)
*Best Direction of a Musical (Ellis) (nominee)
*Best Featured Actor in a Musical(Gregg Edelman) (nominee);
Drama Desk Award
*Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical (Edelman) (winner)
*Outstanding Revival (nominee)
*Outstanding Direction (Ellis) (nominee)
*Outstanding Actor (Spiner) (nominee)
*Stone, Peter, and Sherman Edwards. "1776: A Musical Play". New York: Viking Press, 1970. ISBN 0670636576.
*Bloom, Ken and Vlastnik, Frank. Broadway Musicals: The 101 Greatest Shows of all Time. New York:Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-57912-390-2
*Kantor, Michael and Maslon, Laurence. Broadway: The American Musical. New York:Bullfinch Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8212-2905-2
* [http://www.1776themusical.us Official Homepage of 1776 the musical]
* [http://www.rationalmagic.com/Bursting/1776.html "Rational Magic" review of stage version and CD]
* Fan-run site: http://johnadams1776.tripod.com/ Contains all matters of content concerning the musical/movie.
* [http://www.chatham.edu/PTI/2003%20Units/Integrating%20Musical%20Theater/Freed%20Curriculum%20Unit.pdf Classroom Study] Integrating Musical Theatre in the classroom, JoAnne Freed
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