Fiddler on the Roof

Fiddler on the Roof

Infobox Musical
name= Fiddler on the Roof


caption= Original Broadway Windowcard evoking the artwork of Marc Chagall, source of the title.
music=Jerry Bock
lyrics=Sheldon Harnick
book=Joseph Stein
basis="Tevye and his Daughters" by Sholem Aleichem
productions= 1964 Broadway
1971 film
2003 UK Tour
2004 Broadway revival
2007 West End revival
2008 UK Tour
awards= Tony Award for Best Musical
Tony Award for Best Score
Tony Award for Best Book

"Fiddler on the Roof" is a musical with music by Jerry Bock, lyrics by Sheldon Harnick, and book by Joseph Stein, set in tzarist Russia in 1905.

"Fiddler on the Roof" was originally entitled "Tevye". It is based on "Tevye and his Daughters" (or "Tevye the Milkman") and other tales by Sholem Aleichem which he wrote in Yiddish and published in 1894. [ [http://www.mtishows.com/show_history.asp?ID=000036 Information from the MTI website] ] The story centers on Tevye, the father of five daughters, and his attempts to maintain his family and religious traditions while outside influences encroach upon their lives. He must cope with both the strong-willed actions of his three older daughters—each daughter's choice of husband moves progressively further away from established customs—and with the edict of the Tsar that evicts the Jews from their village.

The musical's title stems from a painting by Marc Chagall, [Miri Ben-Shalome, [http://www.jewish-theatre.com/visitor/article_display.aspx?articleID=650 Kaleidoscope with Stewart Lane speaking to Miri Ben-Shalom on his Fiddler on the Roof Production] , All About Jewish Theatre, undated. Accessed online 6 December 2007.] one of many surreal paintings he created of Eastern European Jewish life, often including a fiddler. The Fiddler is a metaphor for survival, through tradition and joyfulness, in a life of uncertainty and imbalance.

The original Broadway production of the show, which opened in 1964, was the first musical to surpass the 3,000 performance mark, and it held the record for longest-running Broadway musical for almost 10 years until "Grease" surpassed its run. The production earned $1,574 for every dollar invested in it. [Kantor, p. 302: "The 1960s was the decade that nurtured long-running blockbusters in unprecedented quantities: ten musicals passed the rarefied 1,000 performance mark, three of them passed the 2,000 mark ("Hello, Dolly!", a Merrick smash, grossed $27 million on Broadway), and one, "Fiddler on the Roof", passed the 3,000 mark, earning back $1,574 for every dollar put into it."]

The show was highly acclaimed and nominated for ten Tony Awards, winning nine, including Best Musical, score, book, direction and choreography. It spawned four Broadway revivals, a successful 1971 film adaptation, and has enjoyed enduring international popularity. It is also a very popular choice for school and community productions. ["TIME magazine" reported in its May 26, 2008 issue, p. 51, that this musical ranked as the seventh most frequently produced musical by U.S. high schools in 2007.]

Productions

;1964 Broadway productionThe original Broadway production opened on September 22 1964 at the Imperial Theatre, transferred in 1967 to the Majestic Theatre and in 1970 to The Broadway Theatre, and ran for a record-setting total of 3,242 performances. The production was directed and choreographed by Jerome Robbins—his last Broadway staging. Original producer Fred Coe was replaced by producer Harold Prince. The cast included Zero Mostel as Tevye the milkman, Maria Karnilova as his wife Golde (each of whom won a Tony for their performances), Beatrice Arthur and later Florence Stanley as Yente the matchmaker, Austin Pendleton as Motel, Bert Convy as Perchik the student revolutionary, Gino Conforti as the fiddler, and Julia Migenes as Hodel. Joanna Merlin originated the role of Tzeitel, which was later assumed by Bette Midler and Mimi Turque during the original run. Adrienne Barbeau took a turn as Hodel, and Pia Zadora played the youngest daughter, Bielke. Peg Murray made an extended appearance as Golde, while other stage actors who have played Tevye include Herschel Bernardi (in the original Broadway run), Theodore Bikel, and Leonard Nimoy.

;1967 London productionThe original West End production opened on February 16, 1967 at Her Majesty's Theatre and played for 2,030 performances. It starred Chaim Topol, who would also play Tevye in the 1971 film adaptation and the 1990 Broadway revival, and Miriam Karlin as Golde. Alfie Bass and Lex Goudsmit eventually took over as Tevye. The show was revived in London in for short seasons in 1983 at The Apollo Victoria Theatre and in 1994 at The London Palladium.

;1976, 1981 and 1990 Broadway revivalsThe first Broadway revival opened on December 28 1976 and ran for 176 performances at the Winter Garden Theatre. Zero Mostel starred as Tevye. Robbins directed and choreographed. A second Broadway revival opened on July 9 1981 and ran for 53 performances at Lincoln Center's New York State Theater. It starred Herschel Bernardi as Tevye and Karnilova as Golde. Robbins directed and choreographed. The third Broadway revival opened on November 18 1990 and ran for 241 performances at the George Gershwin Theatre. Topol starred as Tevye, and Marcia Lewis was Golde. Robbins' production was reproduced by Ruth Mitchell and choreographer Sammy Dallas Bayes. The production won the Tony Award for Best Revival.

;2004 Broadway revivalA fourth Broadway revival opened on February 26 2004 and ran for 36 previews and 781 performances at the Minskoff Theatre. Alfred Molina, and later Harvey Fierstein, starred as Tevye; and Randy Graff, and later Andrea Martin and Rosie O'Donnell, was Golde. It was directed by David Leveaux. The production was nominated for six Tonys but did not win any.

;1983, 1994 and 2007 London revivals"Fiddler" was first revived in London in 1983 at the Apollo Victoria Theatre (a four-month season starring Topol) and again in 1994 at the London Palladium for two months and then on tour, again starring Topol, and directed and choreographed by Sammy Dallas Bayes, recreating the Robbins production. [ [http://homepage.mac.com/kierancreggan/Productions-Theatre/fiddlerontherooa.html Information on the 1994 production] ]

After a two-month tryout at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England, a London revival opened on May 19 2007 at the Savoy Theatre starring Henry Goodman as Tevye, Beverley Klein as Golde, Alexandra Silber as Hodel, Damian Humbley as Perchik and Victor McGuire as Lazar Wolf. The production was directed by Lindsay Posner. Robbins' choreography was recreated by Sammy Dallas Bayes (who did the same for the 1990 Broadway revival), with additional choreography by Kate Flatt. [ [http://www.thisistheatre.com/londonshows/fiddlerontheroof.html Information about the 2007 London production of "Fiddler on the Roof"] ]

;2003 and 2008 British national toursA 2003 national tour played for seven months, with a radical design, directed by Julian Woolford and choreographed by Chris Hocking. The production featured a minimalist setting, and the costumes and set were monochramatic. Fruma Sarah was represented by a 12 foot puppet. This production was revived in 2008 starring Joe McGann and is due to tour until September 2008. [ [http://www.thisistheatre.com/regional/fiddler-on-the-roof.html thisistheatre listing for 2008 tour] ]

ynopsis

Act I

Tevye, a philosophical village milkman, explains the customs of the Jewish people and their lives in the Russian "shtetl" of Anatevka in 1905, where life is as precarious as the perch of a fiddler on a roof ("Tradition"). At Tevye's home, everyone is busy preparing for the Sabbath meal. His sharp-tongued wife, Golde, orders their five daughters, Tzeitel, Hodel, Chava, Shprintze, and Bielke, about their tasks.

Yente, the village matchmaker, arrives to tell Golde that Lazar Wolf, the wealthy butcher, a widower of Tevye's age, wants to wed Tzeitel, their eldest daughter. The two middle daughters, Hodel and Chava, speculate excitedly about what their mother and the matchmaker were talking about, but the eldest daughter Tzeitel warns them not be so hasty. They are poor, so their parents will have no choice but to take whatever husband Yente brings ("Matchmaker"). Tzeitel is not eager to have a match found for her, as she is already in love with the tailor, Motel Kamzoil, her friend since childhood.

Tevye's horse is lame, and he must pull the cart himself. He asks God who it would hurt "If I Were a Rich Man"? The men of the village confront Tevye, as he is late delivering their milk and cheese. Avram, the bookseller, has news from the outside world about pogroms and expulsions. A student from Kiev, Perchik, newly arrived in town, hears their conversation and scolds them for doing nothing more than talk. The men dismiss Perchik as a radical, but Tevye takes a liking to him and invites him home for the Sabbath meal, offering him room and board in exchange for tutoring his two youngest daughters. Golde tells Tevye to meet Lazar after the Sabbath but does not tell him why, knowing that Tevye does not like Lazar. Tzeitel is afraid that Yente will find her a husband before Motel asks Tevye for her hand. But Motel resists: he is shy and afraid of Tevye's temper, and tradition says that a matchmaker arranges marriages. Motel is also very poor and is saving up to buy a sewing machine before he approaches Tevye, to show that he can support a wife. The family gathers around for the "Sabbath Prayer."

After the Sabbath, Tevye goes to meet Lazar at Mordcha's inn, and assumes mistakenly that Lazar wants to buy his milk cow. After the misunderstanding is cleared up, Tevye agrees to let Lazar marry Tzeitel – with a rich butcher, he knows that his daughter will never starve. All join in the celebration of Lazar's good fortune; even the Russian youths at the inn join in the celebration and show off their dancing skills ("To Life"). Outside the inn, Tevye bumps into the Russian Constable, who has jurisdiction over the Jews in the town. The Constable warns him that there is going to be a "demonstration" in the coming weeks (a euphemism for a minor pogrom). The Constable has sympathy for the Jewish community but is powerless to prevent the violence.

The next morning, a hungover Tevye delivers the news to the family that he has agreed that Tzeitel will marry Lazar Wolf. Golde is overjoyed, but Tzeitel is horrified and pleads with Tevye to reconsider. Motel arrives and gathers the courage to tell Tevye that he and Tzeitel gave each other a pledge to marry. Tevye is outraged at this breach of tradition, but Motel argues that even a poor tailor is entitled to some happiness. Tevye is impressed when the once-timid young tailor stands up for himself and, moved by his daughter's earnestness, gives his assent ("Tevye's Monologue"); but he worries about how to break the news to Golde. An overjoyed Motel celebrates with Tzeitel ("Miracle of Miracles").

That night in bed with Golde, Tevye has an inspiration: he tells Golde that he has had a nightmare . She offers to interpret his dream, and Tevye "describes" it ("Tevye's Dream"). Golde's grandmother Tzeitel (for whom their daughter is named) returned from the grave to bless the marriage of her namesake, but to Motel, not to Lazar Wolf. Lazar's formidable late wife, Fruma [The word "Fruma" is an adjective in Hebrew, meaning pious.] Sarah, also rises from her grave to warn, in graphic terms, of severe retribution if Tzeitel marries Lazar. Tevye's superstitious wife is terrified, and she quickly counsels that Tzeitel must marry Motel, much to Tevye's secret relief. While returning from town, Tevye's middle daughter, the bookish Chava, is teased and intimidated by some Russian youths, but one of them, Fyedka, protects her, dismissing the others. He offers Chava the loan of a book, and a secret relationship begins.

The wedding day of Tzeitel and Motel arrives, and all the Jews join the ceremony ("Sunrise, Sunset") and the celebration ("The Wedding Dance"). Lazar gives a fine gift, but an argument arises with Tevye over the broken agreement. Perchik ends the tiff by breaking another tradition: he crosses the barrier between the men and women to dance with Tevye's daughter Hodel. The celebration ends abruptly when a group of Russians rides into the village to perform the "demonstration". They disrupt the party, damaging the wedding gifts and wounding Perchik, who attempts to fight back, and wreaking more destruction in the village. Ever practical, Tevye advises everyone to clean up the mess.

Act II

Months later, Perchik tells Hodel he must return to Kiev to work for the revolution. He proposes marriage, admitting that he loves her, and says that he will send for her. She agrees ("Now I Have Everything"). They tell Tevye that they are engaged, and he is appalled that they are flouting tradition by making their own match, especially as Perchik is leaving. When he forbids the marriage, Perchik and Hodel inform him that they do not seek his permission, only his blessing. After some soul searching, Tevye finally relents – the world is changing, and he must change with it ("Tevye's Rebuttal").

Tevye explains these events to an astonished Golde. "Love," he says, "it's the new style." Tevye asks Golde, "Do You Love Me?" She admits that after 25 years of living and struggling together and raising five daughters, she does. Other events are moving apace. Yente tells Tzeitel that she saw Chava with Fyedka. News spreads quickly in Anatevka ("The Rumor"). Perchik has been arrested and exiled to Siberia, and Hodel is determined to join him there. At the railway station, she explains to her father that her home is with her beloved wherever he may be, yet she will always love her family ("Far from the Home I Love").

Weeks pass, and Chava finally gathers the courage to ask Tevye to allow her marriage to Fyedka. Again Tevye reaches deep into his soul, but marriage outside the Jewish faith is a line that he cannot cross. He forbids Chava ever to speak to Fyedka again. When Golde brings the news that Chava has eloped with Fyedka, Tevye wonders where he went wrong ("Chaveleh"). Chava returns and tries to reason with him, but he refuses to speak to her and tells the rest of the family to consider her dead. Meanwhile, rumors are spreading of the Russians forcing Jewish villagers to leave their villages. While the villagers are gathered, the Constable arrives to tell everyone that they have three days to pack up and leave the town. In shock, they reminisce about the miserable town, and how hard it will be to leave what has for so long been their home ("Anatevka").

As the Jews leave Anatevka, Chava and Fyedka stop to tell her family that they too are leaving. Her mother and sisters are afraid to talk to her with Tevye present. Although Tevye does not speak directly to Chava, he mutters, "God be with you." As Tevye and his family leave the village for America, the fiddler begins to play. Tevye beckons with a nod, and the fiddler follows them out of the village.

Musical numbers

;Act I
* Prologue: Tradition — Tevye and the Company
* Matchmaker — Tzeitel, Hodel and Chava
* If I Were a Rich Man — Tevye
* Sabbath Prayer — Tevye, Golde and the Company
* To Life — Tevye, Lazar Wolf and the Company
* Tevye's Monologue — Tevye
* Miracle of Miracles — Motel, Tzeitel
* Tevye's Dream — Tevye, Golde, Grandma Tzeitel, Fruma Sarah and the Company
* Sunrise, Sunset — Tevye, Golde, Perchik, Hodel and the Company
* The Bottle Dance — Instrumental;Act II
* Now I Have Everything — Perchik and Hodel
* Tevye's Rebuttal — Tevye
* Do You Love Me? — Tevye and Golde
* The Rumor — Yente and villagers
* Far From the Home I Love — Hodel
* Chaveleh (Little Bird) — Tevye
* Anatevka — The Company
* The Leave Taking - Tevye, Family and Fiddler
* The 2004 revival featured a song sung by Yente and some women of the village entitled "Topsy Turvy," discussing the disappearing role of the matchmaker in society.

Awards

;Original Broadway production
Tony Awards
* Best Musical (winner)
* Composer and lyricist – Jerry Bock and Sheldon Harnick (winner)
* Leading actor in a Musical – Zero Mostel (winner)
* Featured actress – Maria Karnilova (winner)
* Author – Joseph Stein (winner)
* Producer – Harold Prince (winner)
* Director – Jerome Robbins (winner)
* Choreographer – Jerome Robbins (winner)
* Costume designer – Patricia Zipprodt (winner)
* Scenic Design – Boris Aronson (nominee)
*1972 Special Award – on becoming the longest-running musical in Broadway history

;1981 Broadway revivalTony Award for Best Actor in a Musical – Herschel Bernardi (nominee)

;1990 Broadway revival Tony Awards
*Best Revival (winner)
*Best Actor in a Musical – Topol (nominee)

;2004 Broadway revivalTony Awards
* Best Revival of a Musical (nominee)
* Best Actor in a Musical – Alfred Molina (nominee)
* Best Featured Actor in a Musical – John Cariani (nominee)
* Best Scenic Design (nominee)
* Best Lighting Design (nominee)
* Best Orchestrations (nominee)
Drama Desk Awards
* Outstanding Revival of a Musical (nominee)
* Outstanding Actor in a Musical – Alfred Molina (nominee)
*Outstanding Set Design of a Musical (nominee)

Film adaptation

The film version was released in 1971, and won three Academy Awards, including one for arranger-conductor John Williams. Chaim Topol played the role of Tevye.

A television adaptation was once in development with ABC, to star Victor Garber; however, there has been no news on this project, in recent years. [ [http://www.thefutoncritic.com/moviewatch.aspx?id=fiddler_on_the_roof Movie Watch - Fiddler on the Roof] , "thefutoncritic.tv"]

Cultural influence

The musical's popularity has led to numerous references in popular media, including television shows (for example, in the season 5 episode of "Gilmore Girls" entitled "Jews and Chinese Food"), films ("Mrs. Doubtfire" (1993)) and even other Broadway shows ("Spamalot", in the middle of the song "You Won't Succeed on Broadway", includes a "Grail dance", which sends up the "bottle dance" in "Fiddler's" wedding scene). Other cultural references include the following:

;Parodies
*In the late 1960s, "Mad Magazine" published a parody of "Fiddler" called "Antenna on the Roof", which speculated about the lives of Tevye's descendants living in an assimilated 1960s suburban America.
*"The Electric Company" had a spoof skit about a village fiddler with a fear of heights, so he is deemed "Fiddler on the Chair."Fact|date=May 2008
*The H. P. Lovecraft Historical Society published a parody of "Fiddler on the Roof" called "A Shoggoth on the Roof", which incorporates the works of H. P. Lovecraft. The parody was translated into Swedish and produced by the Swedish amateur theatrical company Teater Tentakel (sw. "En shoggoth på taket") during a Lovecraft convention called MiskatoniCon in 2005. It was finally performed in English at [http://www.leprecon.ie Leprecon] , the Trinity College, Dublin Gamers society convention, on the 23rd and 25th February 2007, but with a new musical score.
*The original Broadway cast of the hit musical "Avenue Q" and the Broadway 2004 revival cast of "Fiddler on the Roof" got together for a Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS benefit and produced an approximately 10-minute-long show called "Avenue Jew" that incorporated characters from both shows, including puppets.
* Paul Jennings'story "Piddler on the Roof" is a pun on the musical's name.

;Song covers
*In 1964, jazz saxophonist Cannonball Adderley recorded an album entitled "Fiddler on the Roof", which featured jazz arrangements of eight songs from the musical. The album featured Nat Adderley (trumpet), Charles Lloyd (tenor saxphone, flute), Joe Zawinul (piano), Samuel Jones (bass), and Louis Hayes (drums) and was released by Capitol Records.
*In 1999, Knitting Factory Records released the "Knitting on the Roof" compilation CD, featuring covers of "Fiddler" songs by alternative bands such as The Residents, Negativland, and The Magnetic Fields.
*Indie rock band Bright Eyes recorded an adaptation of "Sunrise, Sunset" on their 2000 album "Fevers and Mirrors".
*In 2005, Melbourne punk band Yidcore released a reworking of the entire show called "Fiddling on Ya Roof".
*The Santa Clara Vanguard Drum and Bugle Corps often performs music from "Fiddler on the Roof", and the "Bottle Dance" has become one of the songs connected with the corps.
*In 1993, "If I Were a Rich Man" was covered as a ragga version by the British Louchie Lou & Michie One, as "Rich Girl". Lady Saw covered it in 1999, as well as Gwen Stefani and Eve for Stefani's debut solo album "Love. Angel. Music. Baby." in 2004.

Notes

References

*cite book | title = Broadway: the American musical | author = Kantor, Michael | coauthors = Laurence Maslon | location = New York, New York | publisher = Bulfinch Press | date= 2004 | id = ISBN 0-8212-2905-2
* [http://www.playbill.com/news/article/84588.html Playbill article about the original Broadway production]

External links

*ibdb show|3513
* [http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=3036 Fiddler on the Roof - Insight on Tevye's Query]
* [http://www.broadway.tv/broadway-features-reviews/Hidden-Broadway-Treasures-Revealed www.broadway.tv article Article noting that Mostel’s script is held at The New York Library of The Performing Arts]


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