Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus
Era Renaissance
Born 29 September 1511(1511-09-29)
Villanueva de Sigena, Spain
Died 27 October 1553(1553-10-27) (aged 42)
Geneva, Switzerland
Occupation Theologian, physician, cartographer
Main interests Theology, medicine
Notable ideas Nontrinitarian Christology

Michael Servetus (also Miguel Servet or Miguel Serveto also Miguel De Villanueva or Michel De Villeneuve[1][2]; 29 September 1511 – 27 October 1553) was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and humanist. He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation. His interests included many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages. He is renowned in the history of several of these fields, particularly medicine and theology. He participated in the Protestant Reformation, and later developed a nontrinitarian Christology. Condemned by Catholics and Protestants alike, he was arrested in Geneva and burnt at the stake as a heretic by order of the Protestant Geneva governing council.



Early life and education

Façade of the birth house of Michael Servetus in Villanueva de Sigena (Spain). Nowadays it is the headquarters of the Michael Servetus Institute and a research centre of Servetus' life and works

Servetus was born as Miguel Serveto Conesa (family nickname "Revés") at Villanueva de Sijena, Huesca, Aragon, Spain, in 1511, probably on 29 September, the feast day of Saint Michael,[3] although no specific record exists. Some sources give an earlier date based on Servetus' own occasional claim of having been born in 1509.[4] His paternal ancestors came from the hamlet of Serveto, in the Aragonese Pyrenees, which gave the family their surname. The maternal line descended from Jewish conversos of the Monzón area.[5][6][7] His father Antonio Serveto (alias Revés, i.e. "Reverse") was a notary. Servetus had two brothers: one who later became a notary like their father, and another who was a Catholic priest.[3]

Servetus was gifted in languages and could have studied Latin, Greek and Hebrew under the instruction of Dominican friars.[8] There is no official document that supports the contention that Servetus learned Hebrew at the Castle of Montearagón. In fact, according to expert Hebraists from Jerusalem, Servetus' Hebrew was "a Mediterranean Hebrew",[9] one that would have been impossible to learn only from studying the Bible. It is more likely Servetus' knowledge of Hebrew results from the influence of his Jewish converso family. At the age of fifteen, Servetus entered the service of a Franciscan friar by the name of Juan de Quintana,[10] an Erasmian. He read the entire Bible in its original languages from the manuscripts available at that time. Servetus later attended the University of Toulouse in 1526 where he studied law. There he became suspected of participating in secret meetings and activities of Protestant students.


Servetus' wide readings informed his thinking. In 1528, Servetus traveled through Germany and Italy with Quintana, who was then Charles V's confessor in the imperial retinue.[8] In October 1530 he visited Johannes Oecolampadius in Basel, staying there for about ten months, and probably supporting himself as a proofreader for a local printer. By this time, he was already spreading his beliefs. In May 1531 he met Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Fabricius Capito in Strasbourg.

Then two months later, in July 1531, Servetus published De trinitatis erroribus ("On the Errors of the Trinity"). The next year he published Dialogorum de Trinitate ("Dialogues on the Trinity") and De Iustitia Regni Christi ("On the Justice of Christ's Reign"). He took on the pseudonym Michel de Villeneuve (i.e., "Michael from Villanueva"), to avoid persecution by the ecclesiastical authorities in power at the time because of these religious works. He studied at the Collège de Calvi in Paris in 1533. After an interval, Servetus returned to Paris to study medicine in 1536. In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius, Fernel, and Johannes Guinter, who hailed him with Vesalius as his most able assistant in dissections.


In these books, Servetus rejected the classical conception of the Trinity, stating that it was not based on the Bible. He argued that it arose from teachings of (Greek) philosophers, and he advocated a return to the simplicity of the Gospels and the teachings of the early Church Fathers that he believed pre-dated the development of Nicene trinitarianism. Servetus hoped that the dismissal of the trinitarian dogma would make Christianity more appealing to believers in Judaism and Islam, which had preserved the unity of God in their teachings. According to Servetus, trinitarians had turned Christianity into a form of "tritheism", or belief in three gods. Servetus affirmed that the divine Logos, the manifestation of God and not a separate divine Person, was incarnated in a human being, Jesus, when God's spirit came into the womb of the Virgin Mary. Only from the moment of conception, was the Son actually generated. Therefore the Son was not eternal, but only the Logos from which He was formed. For this reason, Servetus always rejected calling Christ the "eternal Son of God" but rather called him "the Son of the eternal God."[11] In describing Servetus' view of the Logos, Andrew Dibb explained: "In 'Genesis' God reveals himself as the creator. In 'John' he reveals that he created by means of the Word, or Logos. Finally, also in 'John', he shows that this Logos became flesh and 'dwelt among us'. Creation took place by the spoken word, for God said "Let there be ..." The spoken word of Genesis, the Logos of John, and the Christ, are all one and the same."[12]

Unitarian scholar Earl Morse Wilbur states, "Servetus' Errors of the Trinity is hardly heretical in intent, rather is suffused with passionate earnestness, warm piety, an ardent reverence for Scripture, and a love for Christ so mystical and overpowering that [he] can hardly find words to express it... Servetus asserted that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were dispositions of God, and not separate and distinct beings.[13] Wilbur promotes the idea that Servetus was a modalist.

Servetus states his view clearly in the preamble to Restoration of Christianity (1553): "There is nothing greater, reader, than to recognize that God has been manifested as substance, and that His divine nature has been truly communicated. We shall clearly apprehend the manifestation of God through the Word and his communication through the Spirit, both of them substantially in Christ alone."[14] This theology, though original in some respects, has often been compared to Adoptionism, Arianism, and Sabellianism, all of which Trinitarian scholars rejected as heresies in their attempts to defend their belief that God exists eternally in three separate persons. Nevertheless, Servetus rejected these theologies in his books: Adoptionism, because it denied Jesus's divinity;[15] Arianism, because it multiplied the hypostases and established a rank;[16] and Sabellianism, because, at first glance, it seemingly confused the Father with the Son.[17]

The incomprehensible God is known through Christ, by faith, rather than by philosophical speculations. He manifests God to us, being the expression of His very being, and through him alone, God can be known. The scriptures reveal Him to those who have faith; and thus we come to know the Holy Spirit as the Divine impulse within us.[18]

Under severe pressure from Catholics and Protestants alike, Servetus clarified this explanation in his second book, Dialogues (1532), to show the Logos coterminous with Christ. He was nevertheless accused of heresy because of his insistence on denying the dogma of the Trinity and the individuality of three divine Persons in one God.

After his studies in medicine, Servetus started a medical practice. He became personal physician to Pierre Palmier, Archbishop of Vienne, and was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of Dauphiné. While he practiced medicine near Lyon for about fifteen years, he also published two other works dealing with Ptolemy's Geography. Servetus dedicated his first edition of Ptolemy and his edition of the Bible to his patron Hugues de la Porte. He dedicated his second edition of Ptolemy's Geography to his other patron, Archbishop Palmier. While in Lyon, Symphorien Champier, a medical humanist, had been Servetus' patron. Servetus wrote pharmacological tracts in defense of Champier against Leonhart Fuchs. Working also as a proof reader, he published several more books which dealt with medicine and pharmacology. Years earlier he had sent a copy to John Calvin, initiating a correspondence between the two. Initially in the correspondence Servetus used the pseudonym "Michel de Villeneuve".

In 1553 Servetus published yet another religious work with further anti-trinitarian views. It was entitled Christianismi Restitutio, a work that sharply rejected the idea of predestination and the idea that God condemned souls to Hell regardless of worth or merit. God, insisted Servetus, condemns no one who does not condemn himself through thought, word or deed.

To Calvin, who had written his summary of Christian doctrine Institutes of the Christian Religion, Servetus' latest book was an attack on his personally held theories regarding Christian belief, theories that he was attempting to put forth as "established Christian doctrine". Calvin sent a copy of his own book as his reply. Servetus promptly returned it, thoroughly annotated with critical observations. Calvin wrote to Servetus, "I neither hate you nor despise you; nor do I wish to persecute you; but I would be as hard as iron when I behold you insulting sound doctrine with so great audacity."

In time their correspondences grew more heated until Calvin ended it.[19] Servetus sent Calvin several more letters, to which Calvin took offense.[20] Thus, Calvin's antagonism against Servetus seems to have been based not simply on his views but also on Servetus's tone, which he considered inappropriate. Calvin revealed the intentions of his offended heart when he stated of Servetus, when writing to his friend William Farel on 13 February 1546:

Servetus has just sent me a long volume of his ravings. If I consent he will come here, but I will not give my word for if he comes here, if my authority is worth anything, I will never permit him to depart alive ("Si venerit, modo valeat mea autoritas, vivum exire nunquam patiar").[21]

Imprisonment and execution

On 16 February 1553, Servetus, while in Vienne, was denounced as a heretic by Guillaume Trie, a rich merchant who had taken refuge in Geneva— a very good friend of Calvin,[22]—in a letter sent to a cousin, Antoine Arneys, who was living in Lyon. On behalf of the French inquisitor Matthieu Ory, Servetus as well as Arnollet, the printer of Christianismi Restitutio, were questioned, but they denied all charges and were released for lack of evidence. Arneys was asked by Ory to write back to Trie, demanding proof. On 26 March 1553, the letters sent by Servetus to Calvin and some manuscript pages of Christianismi Restitutio were forwarded to Lyon by Trie. On 4 April 1553 Servetus was arrested by Roman Catholic authorities, and imprisoned in Vienne. He escaped from prison three days later. On 17 June, he was convicted of heresy by the French Inquisition, "thanks to the 17 letters sent by Jehan Calvin, preacher in Geneva"[23] and sentenced to be burned with his books. An effigy and his books were burned in his absence.

Meaning to flee to Italy, Servetus inexplicably stopped in at Geneva, where Calvin and his Reformers had denounced him. On 13 August, he attended a sermon by Calvin at Geneva. He was immediately recognized and arrested after the service[24] and was again imprisoned. All his property was confiscated. French Inquisitors asked that Servetus be extradited to them for execution. Calvin wanted to show himself as firm in defense of Christian orthodoxy as his usual opponents. "He was forced to push the condemnation of Servetus with all the means at his command."[24] Calvin's delicate health meant he did not personally appear against Servetus.[25] Nicholas de la Fontaine played the more active role in Servetus's prosecution and the listing of points that condemned him.

At his trial, Servetus was condemned on two counts, for spreading and preaching Nontrinitarianism and anti-paedobaptism (anti-infant baptism).[26] Of paedobaptism Servetus had said, "It is an invention of the devil, an infernal falsity for the destruction of all Christianity."[27] In the case the procureur général (chief public prosecutor) added some curious sounding accusations in the form of inquiries—the most odd sounding perhaps being, "whether he has married, and if he answers that he has not, he shall be asked why, in consideration of his age, he could refrain so long from marriage." To this oblique imputation of unchastity (or perhaps homosexuality), Servetus replied that rupture (hernia?) had long since made him incapable of that particular sin. More offensive to modern ears might be the question "whether he did not know that his doctrine was pernicious, considering that he favours Jews and Turks, by making excuses for them, and if he has not studied the Koran in order to disprove and controvert the doctrine and religion that the Christian churches hold, together with other profane books, from which people ought to abstain in matters of religion, according to the doctrine of St. Paul."

Calvin believed Servetus deserving of death on account of what he termed as his "execrable blasphemies".[28] Calvin expressed these sentiments in a letter to Farel, written about a week after Servetus’ arrest, in which he also mentioned an exchange with Servetus. Calvin wrote:

...after he [Servetus] had been recognized, I thought he should be detained. My friend Nicolas summoned him on a capital charge, offering himself as a security according to the lex talionis. On the following day he adduced against him forty written charges. He at first sought to evade them. Accordingly we were summoned. He impudently reviled me, just as if he regarded me as obnoxious to him. I answered him as he deserved... of the man’s effrontery I will say nothing; but such was his madness that he did not hesitate to say that devils possessed divinity; yea, that many gods were in individual devils, inasmuch as a deity had been substantially communicated to those equally with wood and stone. I hope that sentence of death will at least be passed on him; but I desired that the severity of the punishment be mitigated.[29]

As Servetus was not a citizen of Geneva, and legally could at worst be banished, the government, in an attempt to find some plausible excuse to disregard this legal reality, had consulted with other Swiss Reformed cantons (Zürich, Bern, Basel, Schaffhausen.) They universally favored his condemnation and suppression of his doctrine, but without saying how that should be accomplished.[30] Martin Luther had condemned his writing in strong terms. Servetus and Philip Melanchthon had strongly hostile views of each other. The party called the "Libertines", who were generally opposed to anything and everything John Calvin supported, were in this case strongly in favor of the execution of Servetus at the stake (while Calvin argued for something more humane). In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was presided over by Perrin (a Libertine) who ultimately on 24 October sentenced Servetus to death by burning for denying the Trinity and infant baptism.[31] When Calvin requested that Servetus be executed by decapitation rather than fire, Farel, in a letter of 8 September, chided him for undue lenience.[32] The Geneva Council refused his request. On 27 October 1553 Servetus was burned at the stake just outside Geneva with what was believed to be the last copy of his book chained to his leg. Historians record his last words as: "Jesus, Son of the Eternal God, have mercy on me."[33]

Calvin agreed that those whom the ruling religious authorities determined to be heretics should be punished:

Whoever shall maintain that wrong is done to heretics and blasphemers in punishing them makes himself an accomplice in their crime and guilty as they are. There is no question here of man's authority; it is God who speaks, and clear it is what law he will have kept in the church, even to the end of the world. Wherefore does he demand of us a so extreme severity, if not to show us that due honor is not paid him, so long as we set not his service above every human consideration, so that we spare not kin, nor blood of any, and forget all humanity when the matter is to combat for His glory.[34]


Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair.

Some other antitrinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in expressing their views: Martin Cellarius, Lelio Sozzini and others either ceased writing or wrote only in private. The fact that Servetus was dead meant that his writings could be distributed more liberally, though others such as Giorgio Biandrata developed them in their own names.

The writings of Servetus had some influence on the beginnings of the Unitarian movement in Poland and Transylvania.[35] Piotr z Goniądza's advocacy of Servetus' views led to the separation of the Polish brethren from the Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like John Biddle.

Legacy and relevance

Theological influence

Because of his rejection of the Trinity and eventual execution by burning for heresy, Unitarians often regard Servetus as the first (modern) Unitarian martyr – though he was not a Unitarian either in the 17thC sense nor the modern one. Other non-trinitarian groups, such as Jehovah's Witnesses,[36] and Oneness Pentecostalism,[37] also claim Servetus as a spiritual ancestor. Oneness Pentecostalism particularly identifies with Servetus' teaching on the divinity of Jesus Christ and his insistence on the oneness of God, rather than a Trinity of three distinct persons: "And because His Spirit was wholly God He is called God, just as from His flesh He is called man."[38]

Swedenborg wrote a systematic theology that had many similarities to the theology of Servetus.[39][40][verification needed][dubious ]

More recently Servetus' name has been given prominence by the originally anonymous author "Servetus the Evangelical".

Freedom of conscience

In recent years Michael Servetus has also been credited with being one of the modern forerunners of freedom of religion and freedom of conscience in the Western world. A renowned Spanish scholar on Servetus' work, Ángel Alcalá, identified the radical search for truth and the right for freedom of conscience as Servetus' main legacies, rather than his theology.[41] The Polish-American scholar, Marian Hillar, has studied the evolution of freedom of conscience, from Servetus and the Polish Socinians, to John Locke and to Thomas Jefferson and the American Declaration of Independence. According to Hillar: "Historically speaking, Servetus died so that freedom of conscience could become a civil right in modern society."[42]

Monument to Michael Servetus, Champel, Switzerland

Scientific legacy

Servetus was the first European to describe the function of pulmonary circulation, although his achievement was not widely recognized at the time, for a few reasons. One was that the description appeared in a theological treatise, Christianismi Restitutio, not in a book on medicine. Most copies of the book were burned shortly after its publication in 1553 because of persecution of Servetus by religious authorities. Three copies survived, but these remained hidden for decades.

It was not until William Harvey's publication of findings from his dissections in 1616 that the function of pulmonary circulation was widely accepted by physicians. Western historians of science have since learned that a separate discovery of pulmonary circulation was made in the 13th century by Ibn al-Nafis, who was born in 1213 A.D. in Damascus.[43] Because of limitations of culture and language, his discovery was not transmitted to Europe.

In 1984, a Zaragoza public hospital changed its name from José Antonio to Miguel Servet. It is now a university hospital. Most Spanish cities also include at least a street, square or park named after Servetus. Geneva, Switzerland, named a street after him: la rue Michel Servet.[44]

Increasing numbers of Servet Scholars agree that previously unknown works have been found by Dr Francisco Javier González Echeverría, a Spanish pediatrician and historian of the modern age. These works include a noted "Dioscorides" found at Sesma, a village of Navarra, and several bibles.[45]



In Geneva, 350 years after the execution, remembering Servetus was still a controversial issue. In 1903 a committee was formed by supporters of Servetus to erect a monument in his honor. The group was led by a French Senator, Auguste Dide, an author of a book on heretics and revolutionaries which was published in 1887. The committee commissioned a local sculptor, Clothilde Roch, to do a statue showing a suffering Servetus. The work was three years in the making and was finished in 1907. However by then, supporters of Calvin in Geneva, having heard about the project, had already erected a simple stele in memory of Servetus in 1903, the main text of which served more as an apologetic for Calvin, reading:

Duteous and grateful followers of Calvin our great Reformer, yet condemning an error which was that of his age, and strongly attached to liberty of conscience according to the true principles of his Reformation and gospel, we have erected this expiatory monument. Oct. 27, 1903

About the same time, a short street close by the stele was named after him.[46]

The city council then rejected the request of the committee to erect the completed statue, on the grounds that there was already a monument to Servetus. The committee then offered the statue to the French town of Annemasse, which in 1908 placed it in front of the city hall, with the following inscriptions:

“The arrest of Servetus in Geneva, where he did neither publish nor dogmatize, hence he was not subject to its laws, has to be considered as a barbaric act and an insult to the Right of Nations”. Voltaire

I beg you, shorten please these deliberations. It is clear that Calvin for his pleasure wishes to make me rot in this prison. The lice eat me alive. My clothes are torn and I have nothing for a change, nor shirt, only a worn out vest.” Servetus, 1553

In 1942, the Vichy Government took down the statue, as it was a celebration of freedom of conscience, and melted it. In 1960, having found the original molds, Annemasse had it recast and returned the statue to its previous place.[47]

Finally, on the 3rd of October 2011, Geneva erected a copy of the statue which it had rejected over 100 years before. It was cast in Aragon from the molds of Clothilde Roch's original statue. Rémy Pagani, former mayor of Geneva, inaugurated the statue. He previously had described Servetus as "the dissident of dissidents."Tribune de Geneve Representatives from the Roman Catholic Church in Geneva and the Director of Geneva's International Museum of the Reformation attended the ceremony. A Geneva newspaper noted the absence of officials from the National Protestant Church of Geneva, the church of John Calvin. [48]


In 1984, a Zaragoza public hospital changed its name from José Antonio to Miguel Servet. It is now a university hospital.

Most Spanish cities also include at least a street, square or park named after Servetus.

In literature

  • Austrian author Stefan Zweig features Servetus in Castellio gegen Calvin oder Ein Gewissen gegen die Gewalt.
  • Canadian dramatist Robert Lalonde wrote Vesalius and Servetus, a 2008 play on Servetus.[49]


Only the dates of the first editions are included.

  • 1531 “On the Errors of the Trinity. De Trinitatis Erroribus” (Hageunau, Setzer). Signed as Michael Servetus
  • 1532 “ Dialogs on the Trinity. Diaologorum de Trinitaty” (Hageunau, Setzer). Signed as Michael Servetus
  • 1535 “Geography of Claudius Ptolemy. Claudii Ptolemaeii Alexandrinii Geographicae.” Lyon, Trechsel. Signed as Michel De Villeneuve
  • 1536 “The Apology against Leonard Fuchs. In Leonardum Fucsium Apologia.“ Lyon, printed by Gilles Hugetan, with Parisian prologue. Signed as Michel De Villeneuve
  • 1537 “Universal explanation of the syrups. Syruporum universia ratio”. Paris, edited by Simon des Colines. Signed as Michael De Villeneuve
  • 1538 “Apologetic discourse of Michel De Villeneuve in favour of astrology and against a certain physician. Michaelis Villanovani in quedam medicum apologetica disceptatio pro Astrologia.” Which brought about his first death sentence by the University of Paris. The sentence was commuted to the withdrawal of this edition. From this year the name of Michel De Villeneuve will never appear on the cover of a first edition.
  • 1542 “Sacred Bible according to the translation of Santes Pagnini. Biblia sacra ex Santes Pagnini tralation, hebraist.” Lyon, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. The name Michel De Villeneuve appears in the prologue, the last time this name would appear in any of his works.
  • 1542 "Biblia sacra ex postremis doctorum". Vienne in Dauphiné, edited by Delaporte and printed by Trechsel. Anonymous. Generally accepted attributed work to Michael Servetus.
  • 1545 "Sacred Bible with commentaries. Biblia Sacra cum Glossis."[50]. Lyon, printed by Trechsel and Vincent. Called "Ghost Bible" by scholars who denied its existence. There is an anonymous work from this year that was edited in accordance with the contract that Miguel De Villeneuve made with the Company of Booksellers in 1540. The work consists of 7 volumes (6 volumes and an index) illustrated by Hans Holbein. This research was carried out by the scholar Julien Bodriel in the sixties. Recently the scholar Francisco Javier González Echeverría has graphically proved the existence of this work the International Society for the History of Medicine[51] from a copy of the Bible he located in the archives of the city council of Tudela of Navarre. Anonymous
  • 1553 "The Restoration of Christianity. Cristianismi Restitutio". Vienne in Dauphiné, printed by Baltasar Arnoullet. Signed as Michael Servetus

See also


  1. ^ There are new documents with graphical proof for the first time in accepted communications in the International Congresses of the International Society for the History of Medicine that have been inspected by peer historians that conclude that "Servetus" was a pseudonym used for his risky works and in Protestant lands. One is the lost document of Royal Naturalization issued by Henry II of France, with previous required documentation from Spain, inspected by the Court of Finances of France & Royal Chancellery of France that proves he presented legal documentation from Spain and his name was Michel De Villeneuve (Miguel De Villanueva)
  2. ^ 2011 September 9th, Francisco González Echeverría VI International Meeting for the History of Medicine, (S-11: Biographies in History of Medicine (I)), Barcelona. New Discoveries on the biography of Michael De Villeneuve (Michael Servetus) & New discoveries on the work of Michael De Villeneuve (Michael Servetus) VI Meeting of the International Society for the History of Medicine
  3. ^ a b Goldstone, Lawrence; Nancy Goldstone (2002). Out of the Flames: The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of the Rarest Books in the World. New York, New York: Broadway Books. pp. 7. ISBN 0-7679-0836-8. 
  4. ^ Drummond, William H. (1848). The Life of Michael Servetus: The Spanish Physician, Who, for the Alleged Crime of Heresy, was Entrapped, Imprisoned, and Burned, by John Calvin the Reformer, in the City of Geneva, October 27, 1553. London, England: John Chapman. pp. 2. 
  5. ^ Gonzalez Echeverría,“ Andrés Laguna and Michael Servetus: two converted humanist doctors of the XVI century” in: Andrés Laguna International Congress. Humanism, Science and Politics in the Renaissance Europe, García Hourcade y Moreno Yuste, coord., Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid,1999 pp. 377-389
  6. ^ González Echeverría “ Michael Servetus belonged to the famous converted Jewish family The Zaporta”, Pliegos de Bibliofilia, nº 7, Madrid pp. 33-42. 1999
  7. ^ González Echeverría“ On the Jewish origin of Michael Servetus” Raíces. Jewish Magazine of Culture, Madrid, nº 40, pp. 67-69. 1999
  8. ^ a b Drummond, p3.
  9. ^ Declaration of Professor Kotteck from Jerusalem on González Echeverría's speech 2000 “Find of new editions of Bibles and of two ' lost ' grammatical works of Michael Servetus” and “ The doctor Michael Servetus was descendant of Jews”, González Echeverría, Francisco Javier. Abstracts, 37th International Congress on the History of Medicine, September 10-15, 2000, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., pp. 22-23.
  10. ^ Wright, Richard (1806). An Apology for Dr. Michael Servetus: Including an Account of His Life, Persecution, Writings and Opinions. London: F. B. Wright. pp. 91. 
  11. ^ 'De trinitatis erroribus', Book 7.
  12. ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus, Swedenborg and the Nature of God, University Press of America, 2005, p. 93. Online at Google Book Search
  13. ^ Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone, Out of the Flames, Broadway Books, NY NY, 2002, pp. 71–72
  14. ^ Servetus, Restitución del Cristianismo, Spanish edition by Angel Alcalá and Luis Betés, Madrid, Fundación Universitaria Española, 1980, p. 119.
  15. ^ See Restitución, p. 137.
  16. ^ Restitución, p. 148, 168.
  17. ^ Restitución, p. 169.
  18. ^ Book VII, Out of the Flames, Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone, Broadway Books, NY, NY, p. 72
  19. ^ Downton, An Examination of the Nature of Authority, Chapter 3.
  20. ^ Will Durant The Story of Civilization: The Reformation Chapter XXI, page 481
  21. ^ Durant, Story of Civilization, 2
  22. ^ Bainton, Hunted Heretic, p. 103.
  23. ^ Hunted Heretic, p. 164.
  24. ^ a b The Heretics, p. 326.
  25. ^ Hanover History.
  26. ^ Hunted Heretic, p. 141.
  27. ^ Reyburn, Hugh Young (1914). John Calvin: His Life, Letters, and Work. New York: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 175. 
  28. ^ Owen, Robert Dale (1872). The debatable Land Between this World and the Next. New York: G.W. Carleton & Co.. p. 69, notes. 
  29. ^ Calvin to William Farel, August 20, 1553, Bonnet, Jules (1820–1892) Letters of John Calvin, Carlisle, Penn: Banner of Truth Trust, 1980, pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-85151-323-9.
  30. ^ Schaff, Philip: History of the Christian Church, Vol. VIII: Modern Christianity: The Swiss Reformation, William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, 1910, page 780.
  31. ^ Dr. Vollmer, Philip: 'John Calvin: Man of the Millennium,' Vision Forum, Inc., San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2008, 2008, page 87
  32. ^ The History & Character of Calvinism, p. 176.
  33. ^ "Out of the Flames" by Lawrence and Nancy Goldstone - Salon.com
  34. ^ Marshall, John (2006). John Locke, Toleration and Early Enlightenment Culture. Cambridge Studies in Early Modern British History. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 325. ISBN 052165114X.  That no such doctrine was ever a part of the teachings of Christ's ministry or the early Christian church has caused no end of debate as to the real intentions of those who tortured and killed those whose views differed from those of the ecclesiastical authorities at the time .
    • The Latin reads:
    "Nunc vero quisquis haereticis et blasphemis iniuste poenam infligi contendet, sciens et volens eodem se obstringet blasphemiae reatu. His nobis non obtruditur hominum autoritas, sed Deum audimus loquentem, et quid ecclesia suae in perpetuum mandet non obscure intelligimus. Non frustra humanos omnes affectus excutit, quibus molliri corda solent: paternum amorem, quidquid est inter fratres, propinquos et amicos benevolentiae facessere iubet: maritos revocat a thori blanditiis: denique hominess propemodum natura sua exuit, ne quid obstaculi sanctum eorum zelum moretur. Cur tam implacabilis exigitur severitas, nisi ut sciamus non haberi suum Deo honorem, nisi quae illi debetur pietas humanis omnibus officiis praefertur, et quoties asserenda est eius gloria, propemodum ex memoria nostra deletur mutua inter nos humanitas?" Calvin’s Opera, vol. 8, Corpus Reformatorum, vol., 36, p. 475. (vols. 35 & 36 of the CR are one vol.).
  35. ^ See Stanislas Kot, "L'influence de Servet sur le mouvement atitrinitarien en Pologne et en Transylvanie", in B. Becker (Ed.), Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, Haarlem, 1953.
  36. ^ Reasons for Faith
  37. ^ Bernard, D. K., The Oneness of God Word Aflame Press, 1983.
  38. ^ Servetus, M., De Trinitatis Erroribus, 59b (quoted in Bainton, R.H., Hunted Heretic, Blackstone Editions, 2005, p30
  39. ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus, Swedenborg and the Nature of God, University Press of America, 2005. Online at Google Book Search
  40. ^ Andrew M. T. Dibb, Servetus, Swedenborg and the Nature of Salvation, online at newchurchhistory.org
  41. ^ A. Alcalá, "Los dos grandes legados de Servet: el radicalismo como método intelectual y el derecho a la libertad de conciencia", in Turia, #63-64, March 2003, Teruel (Spain), pp. 221-242.
  42. ^ See Marian Hillar & Claire S. Allen, Michael Servetus: Intellectual Giant, Humanist, and Martyr, Lanham, MD, and New York: University Press of America, Inc., 2002.
  43. ^ Chairman's Reflections (2004), "Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting", Heart Views 5 (2), p. 74-85 [80].
  44. ^ Rue Michel Servet, Genéve, Switzerland at Google maps
  45. ^ Francisco J. González Echeverría, Miguel Servet : Editor del Dioscorides, Institututo de Estudios Sijenienes "Miguel Servet" Villanueva de Sijena, Ibercaja ,1997. ISBN 84-922923-0-X
  46. ^ Rue Michel Servet, Genéve, Switzerland at Google maps
  47. ^ Goldstone, Nancy Bazelon; Goldstone, Lawrence (2003). Out of the Flames : The Remarkable Story of a Fearless Scholar, a Fatal Heresy, and One of theRarest Books in the World. New York: Broadway. ISBN 0-7679-0837-6. pp. 313-316
  48. ^ Tribune de Genève, 4 October 2001, p. 23
  49. ^ Lalonde, Robert. Vesalius and Servetus, 2010. http://www.archive.org/details/GalileoGalileivesaliusAndServetus
  50. ^ 2011 “The love for truth. Life and work of Michael Servetus”, (El amor a la verdad. Vida y obra de Miguel Servet.), printed by Navarro y Navarro, Zaragoza, collaboration with the Government of Navarra, Department of Institutional Relations and Education of the Government of Navarra, 607 pp, 64 of them illustrations, p 215-228 & 62th illustration (XLVII)
  51. ^ 2011 September 9th, Francisco González Echeverría VI International Meeting for the History of Medicine, (S-11: Biographies in History of Medicine (I)), Barcelona. New Discoveries on the biography of Michael De Villeneuve (Michael Servetus) & New discoveries on the work of Michael De Villeneuve (Michael Servetus) VI Meeting of the International Society for the History of Medicine

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  • Michael Servetus — Michael Servet: Stich aus den 17. Jahrhundert Michael Servetus auch Michel Servet (eigentlich Miguel Serveto y Reves; * 1511 in Villanueva de Sigena (Huesca) in Aragón; † 27. Oktober 1553 in Genf; hingerichtet) war ein spanischer Arzt, Gelehrter …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • MICHAEL Servetus — Tarracone Hispanus, Socinistarum Patriarcha. Medicinam primo Lutetiae fecit, dein in Africam, ut Alcoranum accuratiûs addisceret, delatus est. Reversus, diu in Gallia et Germania moratus, impieratis suae venenum passim sparsit. Tandem Genevam cum …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Michael Servetus — Miguel Serveto …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Michael Servet — Michael Servetus (eigentlich Miguel Serveto y Reves; * 1511 in Villanueva de Sigena (Huesca); † 27. Oktober 1553 in Genf) war ein spanischer Arzt, Gelehrter, Humanist, Theologe, Freidenker und Antitrinitarier. Er wird häufig auch als Servet… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Servetus — Michael Servetus (eigentlich Miguel Serveto y Reves; * 1511 in Villanueva de Sigena (Huesca); † 27. Oktober 1553 in Genf) war ein spanischer Arzt, Gelehrter, Humanist, Theologe, Freidenker und Antitrinitarier. Er wird häufig auch als Servet… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • SERVETUS, Michael (Miguel) (1511-1553) — Michael Servetus was a Spanish physician who questioned the Trinity and believed that God is unitary. In Geneva while in flight from persecution in Italy, Servetus was captured and, on orders of John Calvin,* burned at the stake for heresy.… …   Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary

  • SERVETUS — vide Michael Servetus …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Servetus — Michael Servetus born of Spanish parents and baptized Miguel Serveto burned by order of Calvin in 1553 …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Servetus, Michael — ( 151 1 1553 )    Spanish physician and theologian who was executed for his beliefs    John Calvin s consent to the persecution and execution of Michael Servetus for advocating heretical opinions has emerged as the major blot on his otherwise… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Servetus, Michael — (1511–53)    Theologian.    Servetus was born in Tudela, Navarre, and was educated at Saragossa and Toulouse. Subsequently he travelled to Basle and Strasbourg where he met Martin bucer. He came to believe that the doctrine of the Trinity should… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

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