Astronomy (from the Greek words "astron" (ἄστρον), "star", and "nomos" (νόμος), "law") is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as
stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere(such as the cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe.
Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Astronomers of early civilizations performed methodical observations of the night sky, and astronomical artifacts have been found from much earlier periods. However, the invention of the
telescopewas required before astronomy was able to develop into a modern science. Historically, astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry, celestial navigation, observational astronomy, the making of calendars, and even astrology, but professional astronomy is nowadays often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics. Since the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring and analyzing data, mainly using basic principles of physics. Theoretical astronomy is oriented towards the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena. The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the observational results, and observations being used to confirm theoretical results.
Amateur astronomers have contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, and astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can still play an active role, especially in the discovery and observation of transient
Old or even ancient astronomy is not to be confused with
astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated with the positions of celestial objects. Although the two fields share a common origin and a part of their methods (namely, the use of ephemerides), they are distinct.cite book | author=Albrecht Unsöld | coauthors=Bodo Baschek, W.D. Brewer (translator) | title=The New Cosmos: An Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics | year=2001| location=Berlin, New York | publisher=Springer | id =ISBN 3-540-67877-8 ]
The word "astronomy" literally means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation) and is derived from the Greek αστρονομία, "astronomia", from the words άστρον ("astron", "star") and νόμος ("nomos", "laws or cultures").
Use of terms "astronomy" and "astrophysics"
Generally, either the term "astronomy" or "astrophysics" may be used to refer to this subject.cite web
title=Curions About Astronomy: What is the difference between astronomy and astrophysics?
accessdate=2007-06-20] cite web
title=Archive of Astronomy Questions and Answers: What is the difference between astronomy and astrophysics?
accessdate=2007-06-20] cite web
title=Penn State Erie-School of Science-Astronomy and Astrophysics
accessdate=2007-06-20] Based on strict dictionary definitions, "astronomy" refers to "the study of objects and matter outside the earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties"cite web
work=Results for "astronomy".
accessdate=2007-06-20] and "astrophysics" refers to the branch of astronomy dealing with "the behavior, physical properties, and dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena".cite web
work=Results for "astrophysics".
accessdate=2007-06-20] In some cases, as in the introduction of the introductory textbook "The Physical Universe" by
Frank Shu, "astronomy" may be used to describe the qualitative study of the subject, whereas "astrophysics" is used to describe the physics-oriented version of the subject.cite book
author = F. H. Shu
title = The Physical Universe
publisher = University Science Books
date = 1982
location = Mill Valley, California
id = ISBN 0-935702-05-9] However, since most modern astronomical research deals with subjects related to physics, modern astronomy could actually be called astrophysics. Various departments that research this subject may use "astronomy" and "astrophysics", partly depending on whether the department is historically affiliated with a physics department, and many professional astronomers actually have physics degrees. One of the leading scientific journals in the field is named
Astronomy & Astrophysics.
In early times, astronomy only comprised the observation and predictions of the motions of objects visible to the naked eye. In some locations, such as
Stonehenge, early cultures assembled massive artifacts that likely had some astronomical purpose. In addition to their ceremonial uses, these observatories could be employed to determine the seasons, an important factor in knowing when to plant crops, as well as in understanding the length of the year.cite book | author=George Forbes | title=History of Astronomy | publisher=Watts & Co. | location=London | year=1909 | format =Free e-book from Project Gutenberg| url=http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/8172 ]
Before tools such as the telescope were invented early study of the stars had to be conducted from the only vantage points available, namely tall buildings and high ground using the bare eye.
As civilizations developed, most notably in Mesopotamia, Greece, Egypt, Persia, Maya, India, China, and the Islamic world, astronomical observatories were assembled, and ideas on the nature of the universe began to be explored. Most of early astronomy actually consisted of mapping the positions of the stars and planets, a science now referred to as
astrometry. From these observations, early ideas about the motions of the planets were formed, and the nature of the Sun, Moon and the Earth in the universe were explored philosophically. The Earth was believed to be the center of the universe with the Sun, the Moon and the stars rotating around it. This is known as the geocentric model of the universe.
A few notable astronomical discoveries were made prior to the application of the telescope. For example, the obliquity of the ecliptic was estimated as early as 1000 BC by the Chinese. The Chaldeans discovered that
lunar eclipsesrecurred in a repeating cycle known as a saros. [ [http://sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEsaros/SEsaros.html Eclipses and the Saros] NASA. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.] In the 2nd century BC, the size and distance of the Moon were estimated by Hipparchus. [ [http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Hipparchus.html Hipparchus of Rhodes] School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.]
During the Middle Ages, observational astronomy was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, at least until the 13th century. However, observational astronomy flourished in the Islamic world and other parts of the world. Some of the prominent Arab astronomers, who made significant contributions to the science were
Al-Battaniand Thebit. Astronomers during that time introduced many Arabic names that are now used for individual stars.cite book | author=Arthur Berry | title=A Short History of Astronomy From Earliest Times Through the Nineteenth Century | publisher=Dover Publications, Inc. | location=New York | year=1961 ] cite book | editor=Michael Hoskin | title=The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=1999 | id = ISBN 0-521-57600-8 ]
Renaissance, Nicolaus Copernicusproposed a heliocentric modelof the solar system. His work was defended, expanded upon, and corrected by Galileo Galileiand Johannes Kepler. Galileo innovated by using telescopes to enhance his observations.
Kepler was the first to devise a system that described correctly the details of the motion of the planets with the Sun at the center. However, Kepler did not succeed in formulating a theory behind the laws he wrote down. It was left to Newton's invention of
celestial dynamicsand his law of gravitation to finally explain the motions of the planets. Newton also developed the reflecting telescope.
Further discoveries paralleled the improvements in the size and quality of the telescope. More extensive star catalogues were produced by Lacaille. The astronomer
William Herschelmade a detailed catalog of nebulosity and clusters, and in 1781 discovered the planet Uranus, the first new planet found. The distance to a star was first announced in 1838 when the parallaxof 61 Cygniwas measured by Friedrich Bessel.
During the nineteenth century, attention to the
three body problemby Euler, Clairaut, and D'Alembert led to more accurate predictions about the motions of the Moon and planets. This work was further refined by Lagrange and Laplace, allowing the masses of the planets and moons to be estimated from their perturbations.
Significant advances in astronomy came about with the introduction of new technology, including the
spectroscopeand photography. Fraunhofer discovered about 600 bands in the spectrum of the Sun in 1814-15, which, in 1859, Kirchhoff ascribed to the presence of different elements. Stars were proven to be similar to the Earth's own Sun, but with a wide range of temperatures, masses, and sizes.
The existence of the Earth's galaxy, the
Milky Way, as a separate group of stars, was only proved in the 20th century, along with the existence of "external" galaxies, and soon after, the expansion of the universe, seen in the recession of most galaxies from us. Modern astronomy has also discovered many exotic objects such as quasars, pulsars, blazars, and radio galaxies, and has used these observations to develop physical theories which describe some of these objects in terms of equally exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Physical cosmologymade huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the Big Bangheavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble's law, and cosmological abundances of elements.
informationis mainly received from the detection and analysis of visible lightor other regions of the electromagnetic radiation. [cite web | url=http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/emspectrum.html | title = Electromagnetic Spectrum | publisher = NASA | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ] Observational astronomy may be divided according to the observed region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some parts of the spectrum can be observed from the Earth's surface, while other parts are only observable from either high altitudes or space. Specific information on these subfields is given below.
Radio astronomystudies radiation with wavelengths greater than approximately one millimeter.cite book
author=A. N. Cox, editor
title=Allen's Astrophysical Quantities
id=ISBN 0-387-98746-0] Radio astronomy is different from most other forms of observational astronomy in that the observed
radio waves can be treated as waves rather than as discrete photons. Hence, it is relatively easier to measure both the amplitudeand phase of radio waves, whereas this is not as easily done at shorter wavelengths.
radio waves are produced by astronomical objects in the form of thermal emission, most of the radio emission that is observed from Earth is seen in the form of synchrotron radiation, which is produced when electrons oscillate around magnetic fields. Additionally, a number of spectral lines produced by interstellar gas, notably the hydrogenspectral line at 21 cm, are observable at radio wavelengths.
Infrared astronomydeals with the detection and analysis of infraredradiation (wavelengths longer than red light). Except at wavelengths close to visible light, infrared radiation is heavily absorbed by the atmosphere, and the atmosphere produces significant infrared emission. Consequently, infrared observatories have to be located in high, dry places or in space. The infrared spectrum is useful for studying objects that are too cold to radiate visible light, such as planets and circumstellar disks. Longer infrared wavelengths can also penetrate clouds of dust that blocks visible light, allowing observation of young stars in molecular clouds and the cores of galaxies. [cite news
author=Staff | date=2003-09-11
title=Why infrared astronomy is a hot topic
accessdate=2008-08-11 ] Some molecules radiate strongly in the infrared, and this can be used to study chemistry in space, as well as detecting water in comets. [cite news
title=Infrared Spectroscopy - An Overview
optical astronomy, also called visible light astronomy, is the oldest form of astronomy.cite book
title=Philip's Atlas of the Universe
publisher=George Philis Limited
id=ISBN 0-540-07465-9] Optical images were originally drawn by hand. In the late nineteenth century and most of the twentieth century, images were made using photographic equipment. Modern images are made using digital detectors, particularly detectors using
charge-coupled devices(CCDs). Although visible light itself extends from approximately 4000 Å to 7000 Å (400 nm to 700 nm), the same equipment used at these wavelengths is also used to observe some near-ultravioletand near-infraredradiation.
Ultraviolet astronomyis generally used to refer to observations at ultravioletwavelengths between approximately 100 and 3200 Å (10 to 320 nm). Light at these wavelengths is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, so observations at these wavelengths must be performed from the upper atmosphere or from space. Ultraviolet astronomy is best suited to the study of thermal radiation and spectral emission lines from hot blue stars ( OB stars) that are very bright in this wave band. This includes the blue stars in other galaxies, which have been the targets of several ultraviolet surveys. Other objects commonly observed in ultraviolet light include planetary nebulae, supernova remnants, and active galactic nuclei. However, ultraviolet light is easily absorbed by interstellar dust, and measurement of the ultraviolet light from objects need to be corrected for extinction.
X-ray astronomyis the study of astronomical objects at X-ray wavelengths. Typically, objects emit X-ray radiation as synchrotron emission(produced by electrons oscillating around magnetic field lines), thermal emission from thin gases (called bremsstrahlung radiation) that is above 107 (10 million) kelvins, and thermal emission from thick gases (called blackbody radiation) that are above 107 Kelvin. Since X-rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, all X-ray observations must be done from high-altitude balloons, rockets, or spacecraft. Notable X-ray sources include X-ray binaries, pulsars, supernova remnants, elliptical galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.
Gamma ray astronomyis the study of astronomical objects at the shortest wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays may be observed directly by satellites such as the Compton Gamma Ray Observatoryor by specialized telescopes called atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The Cherenkov telescopes do not actually detect the gamma rays directly but instead detect the flashes of visible light produced when gamma rays are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere.cite web | last = Penston | first = Margaret J. | date = 2002-08-14 | url=http://www.pparc.ac.uk/frontiers/latest/feature.asp?article=14F1&style=feature | title = The electromagnetic spectrum | publisher = Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council | accessdate = 2006-08-17 ]
gamma-rayemitting sources are actually gamma-ray bursts, objects which only produce gamma radiation for a few milliseconds to thousands of seconds before fading away. Only 10% of gamma-ray sources are non-transient sources. These steady gamma-ray emitters include pulsars, neutron stars, and black holecandidates such as active galactic nuclei.
Fields of observational astronomy not based on the electromagnetic spectrum
Other than electromagnetic radiation, few things may be observed from the Earth that originate from great distances.
neutrino astronomy, astronomers use special underground facilities such as SAGE, GALLEX, and Kamioka II/IIIfor detecting neutrinos. These neutrinos originate primarily from the Sunbut also from supernovae. Cosmic rays consisting of very high energy particles can be observed hitting the Earth's atmosphere.Fact|date=June 2007 Additionally, some future neutrino detectors will also be sensitive to the neutrinos produced when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere.
gravitational waveobservatories have been constructed, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO) but gravitational waves are extremely difficult to detect. [cite web | author = G. A. Tammann, F. K. Thielemann, D. Trautmann | date = 2003 | url=http://www.europhysicsnews.com/full/20/article8/article8.html | title = Opening new windows in observing the Universe | publisher = Europhysics News | accessdate = 2006-08-22 ]
Planetary astronomy has benefited from direct observation in the form of spacecraft and sample return missions. These include fly-by missions with remote sensors; landing vehicles that can perform experiments on the surface materials; impactors that allow remote sensing of buried material, and sample return missions that allow direct, laboratory examination.
Astrometry and celestial mechanics
One of the oldest fields in astronomy, and in all of science, is the measurement of the positions of celestial objects. Historically, accurate knowledge of the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and stars has been essential in
Careful measurement of the positions of the planets has led to a solid understanding of gravitational perturbations, and an ability to determine past and future positions of the planets with great accuracy, a field known as
celestial mechanics. More recently the tracking of near-Earth objects will allow for predictions of close encounters, and potential collisions, with the Earth. [cite web | last = Calvert | first = James B. | date = 2003-03-28 | url=http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/orbits.htm | title = Celestial Mechanics | publisher = University of Denver | accessdate = 2006-08-21 ]
The measurement of stellar parallax of nearby stars provides a fundamental baseline in the
cosmic distance ladderthat is used to measure the scale of the universe. Parallax measurements of nearby stars provide an absolute baseline for the properties of more distant stars, because their properties can be compared. Measurements of radial velocityand proper motionshow the kinematics of these systems through the Milky Way galaxy. Astrometric results are also used to measure the distribution of dark matterin the galaxy. [cite web | url=http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~rjp0i/museum/engines.html | title = Hall of Precision Astrometry | publisher = University of Virginia Department of Astronomy | accessdate = 2006-08-10 ]
During the 1990s, the astrometric technique of measuring the
stellar wobblewas used to detect large extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars.cite journal| author=Wolszczan, A.; Frail, D. A.| title=A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257+12| journal=Nature| year=1992| volume=355| issue=| pages=145 – 147| doi= 10.1038/355145a0]
Theoretical astronomers use a wide variety of tools which include analytical models (for example,
polytropes to approximate the behaviors of a star) and computational numerical simulations. Each has some advantages. Analytical models of a process are generally better for giving insight into the heart of what is going on. Numerical models can reveal the existence of phenomena and effects that would otherwise not be seen. [H. Roth, "A Slowly Contracting or Expanding Fluid Sphere and its Stability", "Phys. Rev." (39, p;525–529, 1932)] [A.S. Eddington, "Internal Constitution of the Stars"]
Theorists in astronomy endeavor to create theoretical models and figure out the observational consequences of those models. This helps observers look for data that can refute a model or help in choosing between several alternate or conflicting models.
Theorists also try to generate or modify models to take into account new data. In the case of an inconsistency, the general tendency is to try to make minimal modifications to the model to fit the data. In some cases, a large amount of inconsistent data over time may lead to total abandonment of a model.
Topics studied by theoretical astronomers include:
stellar dynamicsand evolution; galaxy formation; large-scale structureof matterin the Universe; origin of cosmic rays; general relativityand physical cosmology, including string cosmology and astroparticle physics. Astrophysical relativity serves as a tool to gauge the properties of large scale structures for which gravitation plays a significant role in physical phenomena investigated and as the basis for black hole("astro") physicsand the study of gravitational waves.
Some widely accepted and studied theories and models in astronomy, now included in the
Lambda-CDM modelare the Big Bang, Cosmic inflation, dark matter, and fundamental theories of physics.
A few examples of this process:
Dark matterand dark energyare the current leading topics in astronomy, as their discovery and controversy originated during the study of the galaxies.
ubfield of astronomy for specific astronomical objects
At a distance of about eight light-minutes, the most frequently studied star is the
Sun, a typical main-sequence dwarf starof stellar classG2 V, and about 4.6 Gyr in age. The Sun is not considered a variable star, but it does undergo periodic changes in activity known as the sunspot cycle. This is an 11-year fluctuation in sunspotnumbers. Sunspots are regions of lower-than- average temperatures that are associated with intense magnetic activity.cite web | last = Johansson | first = Sverker | date = 2003-07-27 | url=http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-solar.html | title = The Solar FAQ | publisher = Talk.Origins Archive | accessdate = 2006-08-11 ]
The Sun has steadily increased in luminosity over the course of its life, increasing by 40% since it first became a main-sequence star. The Sun has also undergone periodic changes in luminosity that can have a significant impact on the Earth.cite web | last = Lerner & K. Lee Lerner | first = Brenda Wilmoth | date = 2006 | url=http://catalog.loc.gov/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?v3=1&DB=local&CMD=010a+2006000857&CNT=10+records+per+page | title = Environmental issues : essential primary sources." | publisher = Thomson Gale | accessdate = 2006-09-11 ] The
Maunder minimum, for example, is believed to have caused the Little Ice Agephenomenon during the Middle Ages.cite web | author=Pogge, Richard W. | year=1997 | url=http://www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Lectures/vistas97.html | title=The Once & Future Sun|format=lecture notes | work= [http://www-astronomy.mps.ohio-state.edu/Vistas/ New Vistas in Astronomy] | accessdate=2005-12-07]
The visible outer surface of the Sun is called the
photosphere. Above this layer is a thin region known as the chromosphere. This is surrounded by a transition region of rapidly increasing temperatures, then by the super-heated corona.
At the center of the Sun is the core region, a volume of sufficient temperature and pressure for
nuclear fusionto occur. Above the core is the radiation zone, where the plasma conveys the energy flux by means of radiation. The outer layers form a convection zonewhere the gas material transports energy primarily through physical displacement of the gas. It is believed that this convection zone creates the magnetic activity that generates sun spots.
A solar wind of plasma particles constantly streams outward from the Sun until it reaches the
heliopause. This solar wind interacts with the magnetosphereof the Earth to create the Van Allen radiation belts, as well as the aurora where the lines of the Earth's magnetic fielddescend into the atmosphere. [cite web | author = D. P. Stern, M. Peredo | date = 2004-09-28 | url=http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/Intro.html | title = The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere | publisher = NASA | accessdate = 2006-08-22 ]
This astronomical field examines the assemblage of
planets, moons, dwarf planets, comets, asteroids, and other bodies orbiting the Sun, as well as extrasolar planets. The solar systemhas been relatively well-studied, initially through telescopes and then later by spacecraft. This has provided a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system, although many new discoveries are still being made.cite book | author=J. F. Bell III, B. A. Campbell, M. S. Robinson | title=Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences: Manual of Remote Sensing | publisher=John Wiley & Sons | edition = 3rd | year=2004 | url=http://marswatch.tn.cornell.edu/rsm.html | accessdate = 2006-08-23 ]
The solar system is subdivided into the inner planets, the
asteroid belt, and the outer planets. The inner terrestrial planets consist of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. The outer gas giantplanets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the small terrestrial planet Pluto.cite web | author = E. Grayzeck, D. R. Williams | date = 2006-05-11 | url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/ | title = Lunar and Planetary Science | publisher = NASA | accessdate = 2006-08-21 ] Beyond Neptune lie the Kuiper Belt, and finally the Oort Cloud, which may extend as far as a light-year.
The planets were formed by a
protoplanetary diskthat surrounded the early Sun. Through a process that included gravitational attraction, collision, and accretion, the disk formed clumps of matter that, with time, became protoplanets. The radiation pressureof the solar windthen expelled most of the unaccreted matter, and only those planets with sufficient mass retained their gaseous atmosphere. The planets continued to sweep up, or eject, the remaining matter during a period of intense bombardment, evidenced by the many impact craters on the Moon. During this period, some of the protoplanets may have collided, the leading hypothesis for how the Moon was formed.cite web | last = Roberge | first = Aki | date = 1997-05-05 | url=http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/akir/Seminar/seminar.html | title = Planetary Formation and Our Solar System | publisher = Carnegie Institute of Washington—Department of Terrestrial Magnetism | accessdate = 2006-08-11 ]
Once a planet reaches sufficient mass, the materials with different densities segregate within, during
planetary differentiation. This process can form a stony or metallic core, surrounded by a mantle and an outer surface. The core may include solid and liquid regions, and some planetary cores generate their own magnetic field, which can protect their atmospheres from solar wind stripping. [cite web | last = Roberge | first = Aki | date = 1998-04-21 | url=http://www.dtm.ciw.edu/akir/Seminar/internal.html | title = The Planets After Formation | publisher = Department of Terrestrial Magnetism | accessdate = 2006-08-23 ]
A planet or moon's interior heat is produced from the collisions that created the body, radioactive materials ("e.g."
uranium, thorium, and 26Al), or tidal heating. Some planets and moons accumulate enough heat to drive geologic processes such as volcanismand tectonics. Those that accumulate or retain an atmospherecan also undergo surface erosionfrom wind or water. Smaller bodies, without tidal heating, cool more quickly; and their geological activity ceases with the exception of impact cratering.cite book | editor=J.K. Beatty, C.C. Petersen, A. Chaikin | title=The New Solar System | publisher=Cambridge press | edition = 4th | year=1999 | id =ISBN 0-521-64587-5 ]
The study of
stars and stellar evolutionis fundamental to our understanding of the universe. The astrophysics of stars has been determined through observation and theoretical understanding; and from computer simulations of the interior. Star formationoccurs in dense regions of dust and gas, known as giant molecular clouds. When destabilized, cloud fragments can collapse under the influence of gravity, to form a protostar. A sufficiently dense, and hot, core region will trigger nuclear fusion, thus creating a main-sequence star.cite web | url=http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/space/stellardeath/stellardeath_intro.html | title = Stellar Evolution & Death | publisher = NASA Observatorium | accessdate = 2006-06-08 ]
Almost all elements heavier than
hydrogenand heliumwere created inside the cores of stars.
The characteristics of the resulting star depend primarily upon its starting mass. The more massive the star, the greater its luminosity, and the more rapidly it expends the hydrogen fuel in its core. Over time, this hydrogen fuel is completely converted into helium, and the star begins to evolve. The fusion of helium requires a higher core temperature, so that the star both expands in size, and increases in core density. The resulting
red giantenjoys a brief life span, before the helium fuel is in turn consumed. Very massive stars can also undergo a series of decreasing evolutionary phases, as they fuse increasingly heavier elements.
The final fate of the star depends on its mass, with stars of mass greater than about eight times the
Sunbecoming core collapse supernovae; while smaller stars form planetary nebulae, and evolve into white dwarfs. The remnant of a supernova is a dense neutron star, or, if the stellar mass was at least three times that of the Sun, a black hole.cite book | editor=Jean Audouze, Guy Israel | title=The Cambridge Atlas of Astronomy | edition=3rd | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=1994 | id=ISBN 0-521-43438-6 ] Close binary stars can follow more complex evolutionary paths, such as mass transfer onto a white dwarf companion that can potentially cause a supernova. Planetary nebulae and supernovae are necessary for the distribution of metals to the interstellar medium; without them, all new stars (and their planetary systems) would be formed from hydrogen and helium alone.
solar systemorbits within the Milky Way, a barred spiral galaxythat is a prominent member of the Local Groupof galaxies. It is a rotating mass of gas, dust, stars and other objects, held together by mutual gravitational attraction. As the Earth is located within the dusty outer arms, there are large portions of the Milky Way that are obscured from view.
In the center of the Milky Way is the core, a bar-shaped bulge with what is believed to be a
supermassive black holeat the center. This is surrounded by four primary arms that spiral from the core. This is a region of active star formation that contains many younger, population II stars. The disk is surrounded by a spheroid halo of older, population Istars, as well as relatively dense concentrations of stars known as globular clusters. [cite web | last = Ott | first = Thomas | date = 2006-08-24 | url=http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/GC/index.php | title = The Galactic Centre | publisher = Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ] [cite journal | last = Faulkner | first = Danny R. | title=The Role Of Stellar Population Types In The Discussion Of Stellar Evolution | journal=CRS Quarterly | year=1993 | volume=30 | issue=1 | pages=174–180 | url=http://www.creationresearch.org/crsq/articles/30/30_1/StellarPop.html | accessdate=2006-09-08 ]
Between the stars lies the
interstellar medium, a region of sparse matter. In the densest regions, molecular clouds of molecular hydrogen and other elements create star-forming regions. These begin as irregular dark nebulae, which concentrate and collapse (in volumes determined by the Jeans length) to form compact protostars. [cite web | last = Hanes | first = Dave | date = 2006-08-24 | url=http://www.astro.queensu.ca/~hanes/p014/Notes/Topic_063.html | title = Star Formation; The Interstellar Medium | publisher = Queen's University | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ]
As the more massive stars appear, they transform the cloud into an
H II regionof glowing gas and plasma. The stellar wind and supernova explosions from these stars eventually serve to disperse the cloud, often leaving behind one or more young open clusters of stars. These clusters gradually disperse, and the stars join the population of the Milky Way.
Kinematic studies of matter in the Milky Way and other galaxies have demonstrated that there is more mass than can be accounted for by visible matter. A
dark matter haloappears to dominate the mass, although the nature of this dark matter remains undetermined. [cite journal | author=Van den Bergh, Sidney | title=The Early History of Dark Matter | journal=Publications of the Astronomy Society of the Pacific | year=1999 | volume=111 | pages=657–660 | url=http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/316369 | doi=10.1086/316369 ]
The study of objects outside of our galaxy is a branch of astronomy concerned with the formation and evolution of Galaxies; their morphology and classification; and the examination of active galaxies, and the groups and clusters of galaxies. The latter is important for the understanding of the
large-scale structure of the cosmos.
Most galaxies are organized into distinct shapes that allow for classification schemes. They are commonly divided into spiral, elliptical and Irregular galaxies. [cite web | last = Keel | first = Bill | date = 2006-08-01 | url=http://www.astr.ua.edu/keel/galaxies/classify.html | title = Galaxy Classification | publisher = University of Alabama | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ]
As the name suggests, an elliptical galaxy has the cross-sectional shape of an
ellipse. The stars move along random orbits with no preferred direction. These galaxies contain little or no interstellar dust; few star-forming regions; and generally older stars. Elliptical galaxies are more commonly found at the core of galactic clusters, and may be formed through mergers of large galaxies.
A spiral galaxy is organized into a flat, rotating disk, usually with a prominent bulge or bar at the center, and trailing bright arms that spiral outward. The arms are dusty regions of star formation where massive young stars produce a blue tint. Spiral galaxies are typically surrounded by a halo of older stars. Both the
Milky Wayand the Andromeda Galaxyare spiral galaxies.
Irregular galaxies are chaotic in appearance, and are neither spiral nor elliptical. About a quarter of all galaxies are irregular, and the peculiar shapes of such galaxies may be the result of gravitational interaction.
An active galaxy is a formation that is emitting a significant amount of its energy from a source other than stars, dust and gas; and is powered by a compact region at the core, usually thought to be a super-massive black hole that is emitting radiation from in-falling material.
radio galaxyis an active galaxy that is very luminous in the radioportion of the spectrum, and is emitting immense plumes or lobes of gas. Active galaxies that emit high-energy radiation include Seyfert galaxies, Quasars, and Blazars. Quasars are believed to be the most consistently luminous objects in the known universe. [cite web | url=http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/active_galaxies.html | title = Active Galaxies and Quasars | publisher = NASA | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ]
large-scale structure of the cosmosis represented by groups and clusters of galaxies. This structure is organized in a hierarchy of groupings, with the largest being the superclusters. The collective matter is formed into filaments and walls, leaving large voids in between.cite book | first=Michael | last=Zeilik | title=Astronomy: The Evolving Universe | edition=8th | publisher=Wiley | year=2002 | id=ISBN 0-521-80090-0 ]
Cosmology (from the Greek κοσμος "world, universe" and λογος "word, study") could be considered the study of the universe as a whole.
Observations of the
large-scale structureof the universe, a branch known as physical cosmology, have provided a deep understanding of the formation and evolution of the cosmos. Fundamental to modern cosmology is the well-accepted theory of the big bang, wherein our universe began at a single point in time, and thereafter expanded over the course of 13.7 Gyr to its present condition. The concept of the big bang can be traced back to the discovery of the microwave background radiation in 1965.
In the course of this expansion, the universe underwent several evolutionary stages. In the very early moments, it is theorized that the universe experienced a very rapid
cosmic inflation, which homogenized the starting conditions. Thereafter, nucleosynthesis produced the elemental abundance of the early universe. (See also nucleocosmochronology.)
When the first atoms formed, space became transparent to radiation, releasing the energy viewed today as the microwave background radiation. The expanding universe then underwent a Dark Age due to the lack of stellar energy sources.cite web | last = Hinshaw | first = Gary | date = 2006-07-13 | url=http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_uni.html | title = Cosmology 101: The Study of the Universe | publisher = NASA WMAP | accessdate = 2006-08-10 ]
A hierarchical structure of matter began to form from minute variations in the mass density. Matter accumulated in the densest regions, forming clouds of gas and the earliest stars. These massive stars triggered the
reionizationprocess and are believed to have created many of the heavy elements in the early universe.
Gravitational aggregations clustered into filaments, leaving voids in the gaps. Gradually, organizations of gas and dust merged to form the first primitive galaxies. Over time, these pulled in more matter, and were often organized into groups and clusters of galaxies, then into larger-scale superclusters. [cite web | url=http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/gr/public/gal_lss.html | title = Galaxy Clusters and Large-Scale Structure | publisher = University of Cambridge | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ]
Fundamental to the structure of the universe is the existence of
dark matterand dark energy. These are now thought to be the dominant components, forming 96% of the density of the universe. For this reason, much effort is expended in trying to understand the physics of these components. [cite web | last = Preuss | first = Paul | url=http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/dark-energy.html | title = Dark Energy Fills the Cosmos | publisher = U.S. Department of Energy, Berkeley Lab | accessdate = 2006-09-08 ]
Astronomy and astrophysics have developed significant interdisciplinary links with other major scientific fields.
Archaeoastronomyis the study of ancient or traditional astronomies in their cultural context, utilizing archaeological and anthropological evidence. Astrobiologyis the study of the advent and evolution of biological systems in the universe, with particular emphasis on the possibility of non-terrestrial life.
The study of
chemicals found in space, including their formation, interaction and destruction, is called Astrochemistry. These substances are usually found in molecular clouds, although they may also appear in low temperature stars, brown dwarfs and planets. Cosmochemistryis the study of the chemicals found within the Solar System, including the origins of the elements and variations in the isotoperatios. Both of these fields represent an overlap of the disciplines of astronomy and chemistry.
Collectively, amateur astronomers observe a variety of celestial objects and phenomena sometimes with equipment that they build themselves. Common targets of amateur astronomers include the Moon, planets, stars, comets, meteor showers, and a variety of
deep-sky objects such as star clusters, galaxies, and nebulae. One branch of amateur astronomy, amateur astrophotography, involves the taking of photos of the night sky. Many amateurs like to specialize in the observation of particular objects, types of objects, or types of events which interest them. [cite web | url=http://www.amsmeteors.org/ | title = The Americal Meteor Society | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ] [cite web | first=Jerry | last=Lodriguss | url=http://www.astropix.com/ | title = Catching the Light: Astrophotography | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ]
Most amateurs work at visible wavelengths, but a small minority experiment with wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. This includes the use of infrared filters on conventional telescopes, and also the use of radio telescopes. The pioneer of amateur radio astronomy was Karl Jansky who started observing the sky at radio wavelengths in the 1930s. A number of amateur astronomers use either homemade telescopes or use radio telescopes which were originally built for astronomy research but which are now available to amateurs ("e.g." the
One-Mile Telescope). [cite web | author=F. Ghigo | date = 2006-02-07 | url=http://www.nrao.edu/whatisra/hist_jansky.shtml | title = Karl Jansky and the Discovery of Cosmic Radio Waves | publisher = National Radio Astronomy Observatory | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ] [cite web | url=http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~arcus/cara/ | title = Cambridge Amateur Radio Astronomers | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ]
Amateur astronomers continue to make scientific contributions to the field of astronomy. Indeed, it is one of the few scientific disciplines where amateurs can still make significant contributions. Amateurs can make occultation measurements that are used to refine the orbits of minor planets. They can also discover comets, and perform regular observations of variable stars. Improvements in digital technology have allowed amateurs to make impressive advances in the field of astrophotography. [cite web | url=http://www.lunar-occultations.com/iota/iotandx.htm | title = The International Occultation Timing Association | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ] [cite web | url=http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/ep/comet/comet6.html | title = Edgar Wilson Award | publisher = Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ] [cite web | url=http://www.aavso.org/ | title = American Association of Variable Star Observers | publisher = AAVSO | accessdate = 2006-08-24 ]
Major questions in astronomy
Although the scientific discipline of astronomy has made tremendous strides in understanding the nature of the universe and its contents, there remain some important unanswered questions. Answers to these may require the construction of new ground- and space-based instruments, and possibly new developments in theoretical and experimental physics.
* What is the origin of the stellar mass spectrum? That is, why do astronomers observe the same distribution of stellar masses—the
initial mass function—apparently regardless of the initial conditions? [cite journal
last = Kroupa | first = Pavel
title=The Initial Mass Function of Stars: Evidence for Uniformity in Variable Systems
journal=Science | year=2002 | volume=295 | issue=5552
pmid=11778039 ] A deeper understanding of the formation of stars and planets is needed.
* Is there other life in the Universe? Especially, is there other intelligent life? If so, what is the explanation for the
Fermi paradox? The existence of life elsewhere has important scientific and philosophical implications. [cite web
title = Complex Life Elsewhere in the Universe?
publisher = Astrobiology Magazine | accessdate = 2006-08-12 ] [cite web
title = The Quest for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
publisher = Cosmic Search Magazine
accessdate = 2006-08-12 ]
* What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? These dominate the evolution and fate of the cosmos, yet we are still uncertain about their true natures.cite web | url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060203152634/http://www.pnl.gov/energyscience/01-02/11-questions/11questions.htm
title = 11 Physics Questions for the New Century
publisher = Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
accessdate = 2006-08-12 ]
* Why did the universe come to be? Why, for example, are the physical constants so finely tuned that they permit the existence of life? Could they be the result of cosmological natural selection? What caused the
cosmic inflationthat produced our homogeneous universe? [cite web
title = Was the Universe Designed?
publisher = Counterbalance Meta Library
accessdate = 2006-08-12 ]
* What will be the
ultimate fate of the universe? [cite web
last = Hinshaw | first = Gary | date = 2005-12-15
url = http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/m_uni/uni_101fate.html
title = What is the Ultimate Fate of the Universe?
publisher = NASA WMAP | accessdate = 2007-05-28 ]
Astrology and astronomy
Astrophysics Data System
Extragalactic Distance Scale
International Year of Astronomy
List of astronomy acronyms
List of basic astronomy topics
* [http://www.astronomy2009.org International Year of Astronomy 2009] IYA2009 Main website
* [http://www.aip.org/history/cosmology/index.htm Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology] from the American Institute of Physics
* [http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ Astronomy Picture of the Day]
* [http://www.astronomy.net.nz Southern Hemisphere Astronomy]
* [http://www.skyandtelescope.com/ Sky & Telescope] publishers
* [http://www.astronomy.com/ Astronomy Magazine]
* [http://www.universetoday.com/ Universe Today] for astronomy and space-related news
* [http://www.celestiamotherlode.net/catalog/educational.php/ Celestia Motherlode] Educational site for Astronomical journeys through space
* [http://www.hubblesite.org Hubblesite.org - home of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope]
* [http://www.literature.at/elib/index.php5?title=Astronomy_-_A_History_-_George_Forbes_-_1909 Astronomy - A History - G. Forbes - 1909 (eLibrary Project - eLib Text)]
* [http://www.vega.org.uk/video/subseries/16 Prof. Sir Harry Kroto, NL] , Astrophysical Chemistry Lecture Series. 8 Freeview Lectures provided by the Vega Science Trust.
* [http://ads.harvard.edu/books/clab/ Core books] and [http://ads.harvard.edu/books/claj/ core journals] in Astronomy, from the Smithsonian/NASA
Astrophysics Data System
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