
CHAPTER V
THE CONSIDERATION OF HAPPINESS AND UNHAPPINESS
(SUKHADUHKHAVIVEKA)
If this ratio is to be explained mathematically we have to divide the enjoyment of happiness
by the desire for happiness and show it in the form of a
fraction, thus : enjoyment of happiness/desire for happiness.
But this is such a queer fraction that its denominator, namely,
the desire for happiness,.is always increasing in a greater
measure than its 'numerator,, is always increasing in a greater
namely, the enjoyment of happiness; so that, if this fraction is
in the beginning it becomes later on 3/10, that is to say, if
the numerator increases three times, the denominator increases,
five times, and the fraction becomes more and more incomplete.
Thus, it is futile to entertain the hope of a man becoming
fully happy. In considering how much there was of happiness
in ancient times, we consider only the numerator of this
fraction by itself and do not pay any attention to the fact that
the denominator has now increased much more than the
numerator. But when we have to consider only whether a
human being is happy or unhappy without reference to time,
we must consider both the numerator and the denominator ;
and we see that this fraction will never become complete.
That is the sum and substance of the words of Manu:
"na jatu kamah kamanam" etc. ^{[1]}. As there is no definite
instrument like a thermometer for measuring happiness and
unhappiness, this mathematical exposition of the mutual ratio
of pain and happiness might not be acceptable to some; but
if this argument is rejected, there remains no measure for
proving that there is a preponderance of happiness in life
for man. Therefore, this objection, which applies as much
to the question of happiness as of unhappiness, leaves un
touched the general proposition in the above discussion, namely,
the theorem proved by the uncontrollable growth of the
desire for happiness beyond the actual enjoyment of happiness.
It is stated in Mahommedan history, that during the Mahomedan
rule in Spain, a just and powerful ruler named Abdul Rahiman
the third^{[2]} had kept a diary of how he spent his days and
from that diary he ultimately found that in a rule of 50 years
he had experienced unalloyed happiness only for 14 days; and
another writer ^{[3]}has stated that if one compares the opinions
of ancient and modern philosophers in the world and especially
in Europe, the number of those who say that life is full of
happiness is seen to be about the same as of those who say
that life is full of unhappiness. If to these numbers we add
the numbers of the Indian philosophers, I need not say which way the scale will turn.
^{[4]}

