 Downlink CNR

Downlink CNR (Carrier to noise ratio in satellite reception) is an important figure in system TVRO design. Below are certain parameters used in CNR computation.
Contents
Figure of merit
Figure of merit is given as
Where t is the temparature and g is the gain of he receiver antenna. For lossless case
and
where n is the noise factor, t_{a} is the noise temparature of the antenna and t_{0} is the temparature of the envirıonment (taken as 290^{0}K). F in db is simply
Path loss
Path loss is defined as
Where λ is the wavelength of the carrier and the d is the distance in meters between the satellite and the receiver . For Geosynchronous satellites this distance is 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) at the projection on the earth (at the mean sea level). In actual cases the distance is slightly more than this figure depending on the geographic location. (But for geosynchronous satellites the variation is less than 1 %). The Path loss in dB is
The same relation can be given in terms of frequency.
Where c is the velocity of light.
With metric units
Using km for d and GHz for f
Using miles for d and GHz for f
^{[1]}^{[2]}
EIRP
P_{e} is the Equivalent isotropically radiated power (also known as EIRP) in dBW. It depends on the output of the transponders of the satellite and the antenna gain of the transmitting antenna. This figure is given by the service provider.
where p is the output power of the transponder and g is the antenna gain.
Baseband
B is the baseband of the channel given in dB
Where b is the base band given in metric units (Hz).
When b is given in MHz, than
Boltzmann's constant
K is the Boltzmann constant given in dB units.
CNR in dB units
 CNR = F + P − B − K − L
References
 ^ Reference Data for radio Engineers , Howard W.sams Co.ISBN 0672212188p 333
 ^ Elektrik Mühendisliği No 257, Haşmet Esen : Uydulardan Doğrudan yayın, Ankara,141152
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