List of close election results

List of close election results

This is a list of close election results at national and state level. It lists results that have been decided by a margin of less than 1 vote in 1000 (a margin of victory of less than 0.1%).

The large number of close results in Canada's federal parliamentary elections is largely due to the way that Canadian ridings are structured and allocated. Canadian ridings are set by an independent commission based on the current formula of 308 seats, with some other variables in structuring what are formally known as the "electoral districts", making ridings often unusually balanced in political affiliation. This is one (but obviously not the only) factor that accounts for the unusual number of election results that have produced a difference of less than 0.1% between the winner and loser in those elections.

Race Margin
Total Votes Cast Description
Saint-Jean; Quebec general election, 1994 0% 0 &1000000000003889400000038,894 Incumbent Liberal Michel Charbonneau tied with Parti québécois candidate Roger Paquin. Consequently, a by-election was held 42 days later, which Paquin narrowly won.[1]
Champlain; Quebec general election, 2003 0% 0 &1000000000003391900000033,919 PQ candidate Noëlla Champagne tied with Liberal Pierre Brouillette. Consequently, a by-election was held 36 days later, which Champagne narrowly won.[2]
Pontiac—Témiscamingue; Canadian federal election, 1963 0% 0 &1000000000001658700000016,587 Progressive Conservative incumbent Paul Martineau defeated Liberal Paul-Oliva Goulet. A deciding vote was cast by the returning officer after the two candidates tied.[3]
Ashton-under-Lyne; UK general election, 1886 0% 0 &100000000000060990000006,099 The vote was tied, so under the law of the day, the returning officer was given a casting vote.[4]
Shelburne; Nova Scotia general election, 1999 0% 0 &100000000000032060000003,206 Progressive Conservative Cecil O'Donnell defeated Liberal Clifford Huskilson. The deciding vote was cast by the returning officer after the two candidates tied.
Joliette; Canadian federal election, 1887 0% 0 &100000000000030650000003,065 Conservative Édouard Guilbault defeated Liberal F. Neveu. The deciding vote was cast by the returning officer after the two candidates tied.[5]
Assiniboia West; Canadian federal election, 1896 0% 0 &100000000000030050000003,005 Conservative Nicholas Flood Davin defeated independent John K. McInnes. The deciding vote was cast by the returning officer after the two candidates tied.[6]
United States Senate election in New Hampshire, 1974 0.00090% 2 &10000000000223363000000223,363 Louis Wyman beat John A. Durkin after several recounts. The US Senate called for a re-vote, which Durkin won.[7]
Indiana's 8th congressional district, 1984 0.00171% 4 &10000000000233286000000233,286 Indiana's Secretary of State (a Republican) certified Rick McIntyre as the winner by 34 votes, ignoring other recounted tallies that actually showed Frank McCloskey was in the lead. The Democratic-controlled House conducted their own recount. The House seated McCloskey after declaring him the winner by just four votes.[citation needed]
Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 1839 0.00195% 2 &10000000000102066000000102,066 Marcus Morton won the governorship by only two votes.[citation needed]
Winchester, UK general election, 1997 0.00322% 2 &1000000000006205400000062,054 Mark Oaten gained the seat from the Conservatives (the result was later annulled and Oaten won by 21,000 votes in the subsequent by-election). This was the smallest percentage majority and the joint smallest numerical majority, in a UK Parliamentary election, since universal adult suffrage.
Washington gubernatorial election, 2004 0.00473% 133 &100000000028100580000002,810,058 Democrat Christine Gregoire defeated Republican Dino Rossi, following two recounts, after the initial count and first recount showed Rossi as the winner.
Ilkeston, UK general election, 1931 0.00569% 2 &1000000000003517200000035,172 A.J. Flint (National Labour) gained the seat from George Oliver (Labour) in a straight fight (the joint smallest numerical majority in a UK Parliamentary election, since universal adult suffrage).[8]
Cape Verdean presidential election, 2001 0.00791% 12 &10000000000153406000000153,406 Pedro Pires (African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde) defeated Carlos Veiga (Movement for Democracy) in the second round of the election after neither won more than 50% in the first round.[9]
Fermanagh and South Tyrone, UK general election, 2010 0.00855% 4 &1000000000004680300000046,803 Michelle Gildernew (Sinn Féin) defeated independent Rodney Connor.[10]
Texas Senatorial Democratic Primary Runoff, 1948 0.00880% 87 &10000000000988295000000988,295 Lyndon Johnson is declared the winner over Coke Stevenson, despite suspicion about 200 mysterious votes from precinct 13 of Jim Wells County.
United States presidential election in Florida, 2000 electoral votes 0.00901% 537 &100000000059626570000005,962,657 Republican George W. Bush defeated Democrat Al Gore after a mandatory statewide recount. An additional hand recount was halted by the United States Supreme Court.
Ontario; Canadian federal election, 1972 0.00949% 4 &1000000000004215000000042,150 Liberal incumbent Norman Cafik defeated Progressive Conservative Frank Charles McGee.[11]
Alaska House of Representatives District 7, 2008 0.00997% (preliminary) 1 (preliminary) &1000000000001003500000010,035 (preliminary) Incumbent Republican Mike Kelly defeated Democratic challenger Karl Kassel by one vote following a recount.[12]
Exeter, UK general election, December 1910 0.01047% 1 &100000000000095530000009,553 Henry Duke (Conservative), the incumbent at the time of the general election, re-gained the seat from Harold St Maur (Liberal) on an election petition in 1911. The court changed the original result (under which the Liberal had won by 4 votes). The revised result was the smallest numerical majority in a UK Parliamentary election, in the twentieth century.[13]
United States Senate election in Minnesota, 2008 0.0108% 312 &100000000028876460000002,887,646 After the first count, Norm Coleman edged out Al Franken by 215 votes, but following a state mandated recount, Al Franken defeated Norm Coleman by 225.[14] Coleman contested the recount, after which Franken's lead grew to 312. After the Minnesota Supreme Court unanimously rejected Coleman's appeals, he conceded the race to Franken on June 30, 2009, 238 days after the election.[15]
Connecticut's 2nd congressional district, 1994 0.01129% 21 &10000000000186071000000186,071 After two recounts, Sam Gejdenson had 21 more votes than Edward Munster.[citation needed]
German federal election, 2002 0.01256%[16] 6,027 &1000000004799648000000047,996,480 valid
(in a total of 48,582,761)
The SPD received more indirect votes (Zweitstimmen, determining the percentage of seats distributed to a party) than the CDU/CSU. This did not matter, as seats were distributed by an MMP system; for details, see Bundestag.
Leeds; Canadian federal election, 1968 0.01376% 4 &1000000000002907300000029,073 Progressive Conservative Desmond Code defeated Liberal incumbent John Matheson.[17]
Yamaska; Canadian federal election, 1930 0.01427% 1 &100000000000070090000007,009 Liberal incumbent Aimé Boucher defeated Conservative Paul-François Comtois.[18] The riding result was later declared void, and Boucher won the by-election in 1933 by 84 votes (0.1%).
Annapolis—Kings; Canadian federal election, 1949 0.01515% 4 &1000000000002640000000026,400 Liberal Angus Alexander Elderkin defeated Progressive Conservative incumbent George Nowlan.[19]
Somaliland presidential election, 2003 0.01637% 80 &10000000000488543000000488,543 Dahir Riyale Kahin, of the For Unity, Democracy, and Independence party narrowly defeated the Peace, Unity, and Development Party's Ahmed M. Mahamoud Silanyo in a three-way race.[20]
London—Middlesex; Canadian federal election, 1988 0.01654% 8 &1000000000004835800000048,358 Progressive Conservative MP Terry Clifford narrowly edged out Liberal Garnet Bloomfield.[21]
Attorney General of Virginia election, 2005 0.01662% 323 &100000000019432500000001,943,250 Bob McDonnell was certified as the victor over Creigh Deeds following a recount.[22]
Oklahoma state elections, 2006 0.020846 % 2 &100000000000095940000009,594 After a recount Republican Todd Thomsen beat Democrat Darrel Nemecek by two votes for the Oklahoma House of Representatives seat in its 25th district.[23][24][25]
Vancouver—Burrard; Canadian federal election, 1935 0.02133% 6 &1000000000002813000000028,130 Liberal Gerald Grattan McGeer defeated Co-operative Commonwealth Arnold Alexander Webster.[26]
Ontario North; Canadian federal election, 1896 0.02148% 1 &100000000000046550000004,655 Liberal-Conservative John Alexander McGillivray defeated Patrons of Industry Duncan Graham.[6]
Selkirk; Canadian federal election, 1900 0.02303% 1 &100000000000043430000004,343 Liberal William Forsythe McCreary defeated Conservative John Herber Haslam.[27] This was the second time in a row that a Liberal candidate defeated his Conservative rival in this riding by a single vote.
Bruce North; Canadian federal election, 1900 0.02422% 1 &100000000000041290000004,129 Liberal-Conservative incumbent Alexander McNeill defeated Liberal J. E. Campbell.[27]
Norfolk—Elgin; Canadian federal election, 1930 0.02654% 5 &1000000000001884300000018,843 Liberal William H. Taylor defeated Conservative John Lawrence Stansell.[18]
Division of McEwen; Australian federal election, 2007 0.02794% 31 &1000000000009664700000096,647 Liberal Fran Bailey defeated Labor Rob Mitchell following a recount and court challenge.[28][29]
Kitchener—Waterloo; Canadian federal election, 2008 0.02808% 17 &1000000000006053400000060,534 Conservative Peter Braid defeated Liberal Andrew Telegdi after a recount.[30]
Wentworth South; Canadian federal election, 1891 0.02821% 1 &100000000000035450000003,545 Conservative Franklin Carpenter defeated Liberal James T. Russell.[31]
Souris; Canadian federal election, 1935 0.02833% 3 &1000000000001058900000010,589 Liberal-Progressive George William McDonald defeated Progressive Conservative incumbent Errick French Willis.[26]
Haldimand; Canadian federal election, 1887 0.02865% 1 &100000000000034910000003,491 Conservative Walter Humphries Montague defeated Liberal incumbent Charles Wesley Coulter.[5]
Selkirk; Canadian federal election, 1896 0.02920% 1 &100000000000034250000003,425 Liberal John Alexander MacDonell defeated Conservative Hugh Armstrong.[6]
Kitchener City Council election, 2010 0.02961% 1 &100000000000033770000003,377 Frank Etherington defeated Debbie Chapman.[32]
Comox—Alberni; Canadian federal election, 1968 0.02967% 9 &1000000000003033100000030,331 Liberal Richard Durante defeated New Democrat incumbent Thomas Speakman Barnett.[17] The riding result was later declared void and Durante lost the by-election to Barnett in 1969.
Nicolet; Canadian federal election, 1891 0.03016% 1 &100000000000033160000003,316 Liberal Joseph Hector Leduc defeated Conservative E. C. Prince.[31]
Colchester—Hants; Canadian federal election, 1945 0.03273% 8 &1000000000002443900000024,439 Progressive Conservative Frank Stanfield defeated Liberal incumbent Gordon Timlin Purdy.[33]
Oshawa—Whitby; Canadian federal election, 1968 0.03309% 15 &1000000000004533200000045,332 New Democrat Ed Broadbent defeated Progressive Conservative incumbent Michael Starr.[17]
Champlain; Canadian federal election, 2000 0.03325% 15 &1000000000004511100000045,111 Bloc Québécois candidate Marcel Gagnon narrowly edged out Liberal Julie Boulet.[34]
Edmonton Northwest; Canadian federal election, 1993 0.03410% 12 &1000000000003519500000035,195 Liberal candidate Anne McLellan narrowly edged out Reform candidate Richard Kayler.[35]
Drummond; Canadian federal election, 1974 0.03521% 13 &1000000000003692500000036,925 Liberal Yvon Pinard defeated Social Credit incumbent Jean-Marie Boisvert.[36]
Halifax; Canadian federal election, 1979 0.03662% 15 &1000000000004096100000040,961 Progressive Conservative George Cooper defeated Liberal Brian Flemming.[37]
Ohio Attorney General election, 1990 0.03672% 1,234 &100000000033601620000003,360,162 Democratic candidate Lee Fisher defeated Republican Paul Pfeifer after a six-week recount, earning the ironic nickname "Landslide Lee." [38]
York East; Canadian federal election, 1896 0.03841% 1 &100000000000034250000003,425 Independent Conservative incumbent William F. McLean defeated Liberal Henry R. Frankland.[6]
Montana House of Representatives district 12 election, 2004 0.04735% 2 &100000000000042240000004,224 Democrat Jeanne Windham defeated Constitution Party candidate Rick Jore.[citation needed]
Vancouver South; Canadian federal election, 2008 0.04779% 20 &1000000000004185200000041,852 Liberal Ujjal Dosanjh defeated Conservative Wai Young after two recounts.[39]
Montmorency; Canadian federal election, 1887 0.05328% 1 &100000000000018770000001,877 Liberal Charles Langelier defeated Conservative P. V. Valin.[5]
River Valley; Singaporean general election, 1959 0.05328% 5 &100000000000093840000009,384 People's Action Party candidate Lim Cheng Lock defeated Soh Ghee Soon of the Singapore People's Alliance.[40]
Lakeview Local Schools tax levy, Ohio, 2010 0.05602% 2 &100000000000035700000003,570 The tax levy passed by two votes.[41]
Parry Sound—Muskoka; Canadian federal election, 2006 0.06064% 28 &1000000000004617100000046,171 Conservative candidate Tony Clement narrowly edged out Liberal MP Andy Mitchell.[42]
U.S. presidential election, 2000, New Mexico electoral votes 0.06114% 366 &10000000000598605000000598,605 Since Florida's electoral votes decided George W. Bush's electoral college win over Al Gore, little attention was paid to the fact that New Mexico's outcome was even closer (in terms of raw vote) than the Florida result.[43]
Northumberland; Canadian federal election, 1988 0.06190% 28 &1000000000004523500000045,235 Liberal candidate Christine Stewart narrowly edged out Progressive Conservative Reg Jewell.[21]
Ohio Senate 14th District Republican primary election, 2004 0.06517% 22 &1000000000003376000000033,760 Jean Schmidt won the first count by 62 votes, but Tom Niehaus prevailed in a recount and went on to win the general election.[38]
Grey South; Canadian federal election, 1891 0.06572% 3 &100000000000045650000004,565 Liberal incumbent George Landerkin defeated Conservative John Blyth.[31]
Italian general election, 2006 0.06583% 25,115 &1000000003815334300000038,153,343 L'Unione (centre-left) defeated la Casa delle Libertà (conservative)[citation needed]
Selkirk; Canadian federal election, 1972 0.06690% 30 &1000000000004484100000044,841 New Democrat incumbent Doug Rowland defeated Progressive Conservative Dean Whiteway.[11]
Cumberland; Canadian federal election, 1940 0.06842% 12 &1000000000001753700000017,537 Liberal Percy Chapman Black defeated National Government incumbent Kenneth Judson Cochrane.[44]
Colorado 7th Congressional district election, 2002 0.06877% 121 &10000000000175938000000175,938 In the first race in this newly-created Congressional district, Republican Bob Beauprez narrowly beat out Democrat Mike Feeley.[45]
North Carolina State Agriculture Commissioner election, 2004 0.07066% 2,353 &100000000033301870000003,330,187 Republican Steve Troxler defeated Democrat Britt Cobb.[citation needed]
Laval Centre; Canadian federal election, 2000 0.07667% 42 &1000000000005478200000054,782 Bloc Québécois MP Madeleine Dalphond-Guiral narrowly edged out Liberal Pierre Lafleur.[34]
York North; Canadian federal election, 1988 0.08767% 77 &1000000000008782500000087,825 Liberal Maurizio Bevilacqua narrowly edged out Progressive Conservative Michael O'Brien.[21]
Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke; Canadian federal election, 1984 0.08792% 38 &1000000000004321900000043,219 Liberal MP Len Hopkins narrowly edged out Progressive Conservative Don Whillans.[46]
Crawley constituency; United Kingdom general election, 2005 0.08815% 37 &1000000000004197300000041,973 Labour MP Laura Moffatt retains seat.
Washington United States Senate election, 2000 0.09055% 2,229 &100000000024613790000002,461,379 Democrat Maria Cantwell unseats Republican Slade Gorton, following a mandatory recount.[citation needed]
Shefford (electoral district); Canadian federal election, 1965 0.09334% 27 &1000000000002892600000028,926 Liberal Louis-Paul Neveu defeated Progressive Conservative Paul-O. Trépanier.[47]
Leeds South; Canadian federal election, 1874 0.09372% 3 &100000000000032010000003,201 Conservative David Ford Jones beat challenger W. H. Fredenburgh.[48]
St. John's West; Canadian federal election, 1962 0.09391% 24 &1000000000002555700000025,557 Liberal Richard Cashin defeated Progressive Conservative incumbent William Joseph Browne.[49]
United States presidential election, 1884, New York electoral votes 0.09844 % 1,149 &100000000011671690000001,167,169 Democrat Grover Cleveland edged out James G. Blaine to win New York's decisive 36 electoral votes.[citation needed]
Jacques Cartier; Canadian federal election, 1878 0.09911% 2 &100000000000020180000002,018 Conservative Désiré Girouard defeated Liberal incumbent Rodolphe Laflamme.[50]
Calgary West; Canadian federal election, 1921 0.09955% 16 &1000000000001607300000016,073 Labour Joseph Tweed Shaw defeated Conservative R. B. Bennett who was, at the time, Minister of Justice.[51]
Minnesota House of Representatives elections, 2010 0.0998% 10 &1000000000001097100000010,971 Republican King Banaian holds a 10 vote lead over Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party opponent Carol Lewis in Minnesota District 15B which represents the St. Cloud area. Per Minnesota State Law, a recount was conducted in November 2010. Banaian's lead increased to 13 votes, and he was issued an election certificate.[52]


  1. ^ "Election results in Saint-Jean". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Election results in Champlain". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 26th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  4. ^ Page 256, Social Geography of British Elections 1885-1910, by Henry Pelling (Macmillan 1967)
  5. ^ a b c "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 6th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 8th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Historical Minutes > 1964-Present > Closest Election in Senate History". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  8. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press, revised edition 1977)
  9. ^ Elections in Cape Verde African Elections Database
  10. ^ "Election 2010 | Constituency | Fermanagh & South Tyrone". BBC News. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 29th Parliament". October 30, 1972. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Kelly retains lead in Alaska House race". Associated Press. KTUU-TV. November 25, 2008. 
  13. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Macmillan Press 1974)
  14. ^ "2008 U.S. Senate Recount". Minnesota Secretary of State. Retrieved March 23, 2009. 
  15. ^ Pat Doyle (2009-07-01). "At last, a second senator for Minnesota". Minnesota Star Tribune. Retrieved July 1, 2009. [dead link]
  16. ^ "Election to the 15th German Bundestag on September 22, 2002". The Federal Returning Officer. Retrieved September 10, 2009. 
  17. ^ a b c "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 28th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  18. ^ a b "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 17th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  19. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 21st Parliament". June 27, 1949. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Elections in Somaliland". African Elections Database ( November 11, 2007. [unreliable source?]
  21. ^ a b c "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 34th Parliament". November 21, 1988. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  22. ^ docs/Election/results/2005/nov2005/html/ "Commonwealth of Virginia November 5th, 2008 General Election Official Results". State Board of Elections (Commonwealth of Virginia). 2008. docs/Election/results/2005/nov2005/html/. 
  23. ^ "State House candidate to seek recount of two-vote loss". USA Today. 11/9/2006. Retrieved March 17, 2009. 
  24. ^ "State Single votes add up to win elections". Edmond Sun. November 11, 2006. Retrieved March 17, 2009. 
  25. ^ Mock, Jennifer (November 23, 2006). "Recount winner sworn in". Daily Oklahoman. Retrieved March 17, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 18th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  27. ^ a b "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 9th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  28. ^ Vic Division - McEwen, Australian Electoral Commission, 2008,, retrieved February 16, 2009 
  29. ^ Cooper, Mex (July 2, 2008), "Fran Bailey wins McEwen - finally", The Age (Melbourne),, retrieved February 16, 2009 
  30. ^ "Kitchener - Waterloo - Canada Votes". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  31. ^ a b c "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 7th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  32. ^
  33. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 20th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  34. ^ a b "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 37th Parliament". November 27, 2000. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 35th Parliament". October 25, 1993. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  36. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 30th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  37. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 31st Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  38. ^ a b Edward B. Foley and Mike Shecket (September 7, 2004). "Section 5.3 - Recounts and Other Remedies". The E-Book on Election Law: An Online Reference Guide. Moritz College of Law. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  39. ^ "CBC News - British Columbia - Dosanjh keeps seat after 2nd recount in Vancouver South riding". November 4, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Singapore Legislative Assembly General Election 1959 > River Valley". Singapore Elections. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Recount upholds passage of Lakeview levy". WFMJ. Retrieved June 21, 2010. 
  42. ^ e.aspx?ed=1408 "40th General Election: Parry Sound--Muskoka". Elections Canada. October 16, 2008. e.aspx?ed=1408. 
  43. ^ "New Mexico Secretary of State official results for the 2000 Presidential elections". November 3, 1999. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  44. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 19th Parliament". March 26, 1940. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  45. ^ abstract.pdf "Official Publication of the Abstract of Votes Cast" (PDF). Colorado Secretary of State (State of Colorado). 2002. abstract.pdf. 
  46. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 33rd Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 27th Parliament". November 18, 1965. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  48. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 3rd Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 25th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  50. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 4th Parliament". Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Parliament of Canada: History of Federal Ridings: General Elections: 14th Parliament". December 16, 1921. Retrieved June 4, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Only 10 votes apart, Banaian, Lewis await results of 15B recount". November 13, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2010. 

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