Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries

The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) is a multi-governmental organization headquartered in Kuwait which coordinates energy policies between oil–producing Arab nations, and whose main purpose is developmental.



Map of OAPEC Members and their status

On 9 January 1968, three of the then–most conservative Arab oil states Kuwait, Libya, and Saudi Arabia agreed at a conference in Beirut, Lebanon to found the Organization of Arab Petroleum Engineering Countries, aiming to separate the production and sale of oil from politics in the wake of the halfhearted 1967 oil embargo in response to the Six Day War. Such use of the economic weapon of oil embargo in the struggle against Israel had been regularly proposed at Arab Petroleum Congresses, but it took the Six Day War for the embargo happen. However Saudi Arabia's oil production was up by 9% that year, and the main embargo lasted only ten days and was completely ended by the Khartoum Conference.

OAPEC was originally intended to be a conservative Arab political organization which, by restricting membership to countries whose main export was oil, would exclude governments seen as radical such as Egypt and Algeria. This organizational exclusivity was bolstered by an additional rule in the organization's charter requiring the three founders' approval all new members. The original aim was to control the economic weapon of potential oil embargo and prevent its use caused by popular emotion. Iraq initially declined to join, preferring to work under the umbrella of the Arab League, considering OAPEC too conservative.[1] Equally the three founders considered Iraq too radical to be desirable as a member.[2] However, by early 1972, the criteria for admission changed to oil being a significant source, rather than the principal source of revenue of a prospective member nation and Algeria, Iraq, Syria and Egypt had been admitted. Consequently the OPAEC became a much more activist organization, contrary to the original intention.

1973 was a turning point for the organization. In October that year, the forces of Egypt and Syria attempted to overwhelm the state of Israel in an offensive later known as the Yom Kippur War. On October 16, ten days after the war's start, Kuwait hosted separate meetings of both OAPEC and the Persian Gulf members of OPEC, including Iran. OAPEC resolved to cut oil production 5% monthly "until the Israeli forces are completely evacuated from all the Arab territories occupied in the June 1967 war...." The embargo would last for some five months before it was lifted in March 1974 after negotiations at the Washington Oil Summit. The embargo's aftereffects would linger throughout the rest of the decade. For the oil exporting countries, the embargo was the first instance of the exercise of their ability to leverage their production for political gains. A number of the member nations would use this sense of control to renegotiate the contracts they had made with the companies that had discovered and exploited their resources. Ironically the vastly increased revenues would prove addictive, and a unified OAPEC oil embargo was never again possible.

In 1979, Egypt was expelled from OAPEC for signing the Camp David Accords, although it was readmitted a decade later.

OAPEC is regarded as a regional, specialized international organization focusing on organizing cooperation in oil development, collective projects, and regional integration.


See also

External links


  1. ^ "FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 1964-1968, Volume XXXIV Energy, Diplomacy, and Global Issues, Document 260". US State Dept. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  2. ^ J.B. Kelly (1980). Arabia, the Gulf and the West. Basic Books. p. 239. ISBN 0-465-00416-4. 


  • J.B. Kelly (1980). Arabia, the Gulf and the West. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-00416-4. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Organization Of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries - OAPEC — An inter governmental organization based in Kuwait that seeks to foster cooperation among the 11 Arab oil exporting nations that are its members, and develop their petroleum industry. OAPEC was established in 1968 by Kuwait, Libya and Saudi… …   Investment dictionary

  • Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries —    ► See OAPEC …   Financial and business terms

  • Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Organization of — ▪ Arab organization Arabic  Munaẓẓamat al Aqṭār al ʿArabiyyah al Muṣaddirah lil Batrūl   Arab organization formed in January 1968 to promote international economic cooperation within the petroleum industry. Chairmanship rotates annually; meetings …   Universalium

  • Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries — noun an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum • Syn: ↑OPEC • Hypernyms: ↑world organization, ↑world organisation, ↑international organization, ↑international organisation,… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Arab League — Infobox Country native name = جامعة الدول العربية JāmaUnicode|ʻat ad Duwal al ʻArabiyya name = League of Arab States linking name = the Arab League |mapwidth=225px symbol type = Emblem image symbol = League of Arab States Emblem.svg membership =… …   Wikipedia

  • Arab lobby in the United States — The Arab lobby in the United States is a collection of formal and informal groups that lobby the public and government of the United States on behalf of Arab interestsMark N. Katz, [ where is the …   Wikipedia

  • Petroleum — For other uses, see Petroleum (disambiguation). Proven world oil reserves, 2009 …   Wikipedia

  • Foreign relations of the United Arab Emirates — The UAE joined the United Nations and the Arab League and has established diplomatic relations with more than 60 countries, including the United States, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, India, the People s Republic of China, and most Western European… …   Wikipedia

  • Outline of the United Arab Emirates — The Coat of arms of the UAE The Flag of the United Arab Emirates …   Wikipedia

  • List of Arab world organizations — *Arab Leaguean organization that includes 22 members and 2 observers, and concentrates mainly on Political issues rather than Economical and Social ones.*Gulf Cooperation Councila Minor Arab Organization, more concerned with the Economic… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”