Isobutylene Identifiers CAS number PubChem ChemSpider UNII EC number UN number 1055
In Liquefied petroleum gas: 1075
RTECS number UD0890000 Jmol-3D images Image 1 Properties Molecular formula C4H8 Molar mass 56.11 g mol−1 Appearance Colorless gas Density 0.5879 g/cm3, liquid Melting point
-6.9 °C, 266 K, 20 °F
Solubility in water Insoluble Hazards GHS pictograms Template:GHS04 GHS signal word DANGER GHS hazard statements GHS precautionary statements , , , EU Index 601-012-00-4 EU classification Extremely flammable (F+) R-phrases S-phrases , , , NFPA 704 Flash point flammable gas Autoignition
465 °C (869 ºF) Explosive limits 1.8–9.6% Related compounds Related butenes 1-Butene
Related compounds Isobutane (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Isobutylene (or 2-methylpropene) is a hydrocarbon of significant industrial importance. It is a four-carbon branched alkene (olefin), one of the four isomers of butylene. At standard temperature and pressure it is a colorless flammable gas.
Isobutylene is used as an intermediate in the production of a variety of products. It is reacted with methanol and ethanol in the manufacture of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), respectively. Alkylation with butane produces isooctane, another fuel additive. Isobutylene is also used in the production of methacrolein. Polymerization of isobutylene produces butyl rubber (polyisobutylene). Antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are produced by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of phenols using isobutylene.
Isobutylene can be isolated from refinery streams by reaction with sulfuric acid, but the most common industrial method for its production is by catalytic dehydrogenation of isobutane. In the 1990s, the production of isobutylene increased dramatically as the demand for oxygenates such as MTBE grew. Key manufacturers of this product are Texas Petrochemicals(TPC Group) and Lyondell in North America.
Isobutylene is a highly flammable gas and presents an explosion danger. Usually stored as a compressed gas, if released it may produce an oxygen-deficient atmosphere that presents an asphyxiation hazard.
- ^ The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (11th ed.), Merck, 1989, ISBN 091191028X , 5024.
- ^ a b Isobutene, International Chemical Safety Card 1027, Geneva: International Programme on Chemical Safety, April 2000, http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics1027.htm
- ^ Olah, George A.; Molnár, Árpád, Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 978-0471417828 .
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