- Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China
Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn
The main gate of the Supreme People's Court in Beijing.
Established September 1954 Jurisdiction People's Republic of China Location Beijing Composition method Presidential selection with National People's Congress approval Authorized by Constitution of the People's Republic of China Judge term length 5 years Website http://www.court.gov.cn/ Chief Justice Currently Wang Shengjun Since March 2008 People's Republic of China
This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the People's Republic of China
The Supreme People's Court (最高人民法院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín Fǎyuàn) is the highest court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court.
The court includes over 340 judges which meet in smaller tribunals to decide cases.
Since March 2008, the President of the Supreme People's Court and Chief Grand Justice has been Wang Shengjun (王胜俊).
The SPC trial process consists of a four level, two-hearing system.
In 2005, the Supreme People's Court announced its intent to "[take] back authority for death penalty approval" over concerns about “sentencing quality”, and the National People's Congress officially changed the Organic Law on the People's Courts requiring all death sentences to be approved by the Supreme People's Court on 31 October 2006. It has been reported that since the new review process, the court has rejected 15 percent of the death sentences decided by lower courts.
Courts of the SPC:
- administrative trials
- other courts set up according to actual needs
There are also National Courts with ties to the SPC:
- Military Court
- Maritime Court
- Railway Transportation Court
- Forestry Court
Departments within the SPC:
- research office
- general affairs office
- personnel department
- judicial affairs department
- administrative affairs department
- office affairs bureau
- foreign affairs bureau
- education department
Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Court
- 1949 - 1954
- President: Shen Junru
- 1954 - 1959: 1st National People's Congress
- President: Dong Biwu
- Vice Presidents: Gao Kelin, Ma Xiwu, Zhang Zhirang
- 1959 -1965: 2nd National People's Congress
- President: Xie Juezai
- Vice Presidents: Wu Defeng, Wang Weigang, Zhang Zhirang
- 1965 - 1975: 3rd National People's Congress
- President: Yang Xiufeng
- Vice Presidents: Tan Guansan, Wang Weigang, Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Xing Yimin, Wang Demao, Zhang Zhirang
- 1975 - 1978: 4th National People's Congress
- President: Jiang Hua
- Vice Presidents: Wang Weigang, Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Zheng Shaowen
- 1978 - 1983: 5th National People's Congress
- President: Jiang Hua
- Vice Presidents: Zeng Hanzhou, He Lanjie, Zheng Shaowen, Song Guang, Wang Huaian, Wang Zhanping
- 1983 - 1988: 6th National People's Congress
- 1988 - 1993: 7th National People's Congress
- President: Ren Jianxin
- Vice Presidents: Hua Liankui, Lin Huai, Zhu Mingshan, Ma Yuan, Duan Muzheng
- 1993 - 1998: 8th National People's Congress
- President: Ren Jianxin
- Vice Presidents: Zhu Mingshan, Xie Anshan, Gao Changli, Tang Dehua, Liu Jiachen, Luo Haocai, Li Guoguang, Lin Huai, Hua Liankui, Duan Muzheng, Wang Jingrong, Ma Yuan
- 1998 - 2003: 9th National People's Congress
- 2003 - 2007: 10th National People's Congress
- 2008 - current: 11th National People's Congress
- President: Wang Shengjun
- Vice Presidents:
- Court system of the People's Republic of China
- Supreme People's Procuratorate - the highest legal supervisory body, charged with safeguarding the constitution, laws and people's rights.
- Three Supremes
- ^ Dickie, Mure (2005-10-27). "China’s top court to review all death sentences". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/180cd8da-46d8-11da-b8e5-00000e2511c8.html.
- ^ "China changes law to limit death sentence". China Daily. 2006-10-31. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-10/31/content_721315.htm.
- ^ Bodeen, Christopher (2008-04-10). "China Hails Reform of Death Penalty". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/03/08/international/i025204S77.DTL&hw=china&sn=003&sc=829.
- The Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China Official site.
- Chinacourt English website sponsored by the Supreme People's Court, with court news and legal information including biographical information for the Grand Justices.
- PRC Laws Links to English versions of the Constitution, General Principles of Civil Law, Administrative Procedure Law, Civil and Criminal Procedure Laws, and the Judges Law.
- The Supreme People's Court Court information in English, maintained at People's Daily Online.
Supreme Courts of Asia Sovereign
- Burma (Myanmar)
- People's Republic of China
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- North Korea
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
- Christmas Island
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Hong Kong
Court systems of the People's Republic of China
Supreme People's Court
MacauCourt of Final Appeal
Courts of the First Instance = Primary Court + Administrative Court
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