Demosponge

Demosponge
Demosponge
Barrel sponge (Xestospongia testudinaria)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum*: "Porifera"
Class: Demospongiae
Sollas, 1885
Subclasses

The Demospongiae are the largest class in the phylum Porifera. Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica, or both. Where spicules of silica are present, they have a different shape from those in the otherwise similar glass sponges.[1] The demosponges include 90% of all species of sponges and are predominantly leuconoid in structure.

There are many diverse orders in this class, including all of the large sponges. Most are marine dwellers, but several live in freshwater environments. Some species are brightly colored, and there is great variety in body shape; the largest species are over 1 metre (3.3 ft) across.[1] They reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Contents

Classification

The Demospongia have an ancient history with the first demosponge fossils appearing in Precambrian deposits at the end of the Cryogenian "Snowball Earth" period, where their presence has been detected by fossilized steroids, called steranes, hydrocarbon markers that are characteristic of the cell membranes of the sponges, rather than from direct fossils of the sponges themselves. They represent a continuous 100-Myr-long chemical fossil record of demosponges through the end of the Neoproterozoic.[2] The earliest sponge-bearing reefs date to the Early Cambrian,[3] exemplified by a small bioherm constructed by archaeocyathids and calcified microbes at the start of the Tommotian stage (about 540–535 Ma), found in southeast Siberia.[4] A major radiation occurred in the Lower Cambrian and further major radiations in the Ordovician possibly from the middle Cambrian. (Finks, 1970[citation needed]

The extant Demospongiae have been organized into 14 orders that encompass 88 families, 500 genera and more than 8000 described species.

Hooper and van Soest give the following classification of demosponges into orders:[1]

Monanchora arbuscula (red encrusting sponge)
Monanchora arbuscula
  • Subclass Homoscleromorpha Bergquist 1978
    • Homosclerophorida Dendy 1905
  • Subclass Tetractinomorpha
  • Subclass Ceractinomorpha Levi 1953
    • Agelasida Verrill 1907
    • Dendroceratida Minchin 1900
    • Dictyoceratida Minchin 1900
    • Halichondrida Gray 1867
    • Halisarcida Bergquist 1996
    • Haplosclerida Topsent 1928
    • Poecilosclerida Topsent 1928
    • Verongida Bergquist 1978
    • Verticillitida Termier & Termier 1977

However, molecular evidence suggests that the Homoscleromorpha may not belong in this class and that other classifications may need to be revised.[2]

Systematics

Demosponge systematics is an active area of research, and much is still to be learned. However, some rudimentary outlines can be made. The basal clade of the Demospongia is the Homoscleromorpha, characterized by the possession of a larva more reminiscent of that of the Calcarea than that of the rest of the Demospongia. Demosponges other than the Homoscleromorpha are split into two major groups, the Tetractinomorpha and the Ceractinomorpha. These two groups share characters that indicate common descent such as a distinctive larval type and the presence of spongin. Currently, the two groups are each characterized by distinctive types of microscleres, though some doubt still remains as to whether the distinctive microsclere types evolved only once in each group. Fossils of each of these groups is known from the Cambrian suggesting an early radiation of the major clades of demosponges. The Lithistida, a taxonomic grouping into which many of the fossil demosponges fall, is most certainly polyphyletic with members in both the Tetractinomorpha and the Ceractinomorpha.

A molecular study of the mitochondrial genome suggests that five major clades exist in the Demospongiae.[5] These clades are

  • Homoscleromorpha: order Homosclerophorida
  • Keratosa: orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida and Verticillitida
  • Myxospongiae: orders Chondrosida, Halisarcida and Verongida
  • Haplosclerida (marine species)
  • Remainder of the demosponges: orders Agelasida, Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Poecilosclerida, Spirophorida and Haploscerida (freshwater species)

The branching order appears to be ( Homoscleromorpha, ( Keratosa, Myxospongiae )( Haplosclerida [marine species], Remainder of the demosponges) )

Reproduction

Red volcano sponge (Acarnus erithacus).

Spermatocytes develop from the transformation of choanocytes and oocytes arise from archeocytes. Repeated cleavage of the zygote egg takes place in the mesohyl and forms a parenchymula larva with a mass of larger internal cells surrounded by small, externally flagellated cells. The resulting swimming larva enters a canal of the central cavity and is expelled with the exhalant current.

Methods of asexual reproduction include both budding and the formation of gemmules. In budding, aggregates of cells differentiate into small sponges that are released superficially or expelled through the oscula. Gemmules are found in the freshwater family Spongellidae. They are produced in the mesohyl as clumps of archeocytes, are surrounded with a hard layer secreted by other amoebocytes. Gemmules are released when the parent body breaks down, and are capable of surviving harsh conditions. In a favorable situation, an opening called the micropyle appears and releases amoebocytes, which differentiate into cells of all the other types.

Economic Importance

The most economically important group of demospongians to human are the bath sponges. These are harvested by divers and can also be grown commercially. They are bleached and marketed; the spongin gives the sponge its softness and absorbency.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 105–106. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  2. ^ Gordon D, Love et al., "Fossil steroids record the appearance of Demospongiae during the Cryogenian period", Nature, 2009
  3. ^ They are the earliest known reef structure built by animals.
  4. ^ Robert Riding and Andrey Yu. Zhuravlev, "Structure and diversity of oldest sponge-microbe reefs: Lower Cambrian, Aldan River, Siberia", Geology 23.7 (July 1995:649-52) doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1995)​023<0649:SADOOS>​2.3.CO;2
  5. ^ Lavrov D.V., Wang X., Kelly M. (2008) "Reconstructing ordinal relationships in the Demospongiae using mitochondrial genomic data". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 49(1):111–124

References

  1. ^ J. N. A. Hooper and R. W. M. van Soest (2002). "Class Demospongiae Sollas, 1885". Systema Porifera. A guide to the classification of sponges. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 
  2. ^ C. Borchiellini, C. Chombard, M. Manuel, E. Alivon, J. Vacelet, and N. Boury-Esnault (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of Demospongiae: implications for classification and scenarios of character evolution". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 32 (3): 823–37. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.02.021. PMID 15288059. 
  • Barnes, R.S.K. et al. (2001). The Invertebrates: A Synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-04761-5
  • Bergquist, P. R. Sponges. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 1978.
  • Hickman, C. P. Pages 86–103 in Biology of the Invertebrates. Saint Louis, MO: C.V. Mosely Publishing.
  • Kozloff, E. N. Pages 74–91 in Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing; 1990.
  • Kelly-Borges, M. and S. A. Pomponi. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of lithistid sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae): a preliminary assessment using ribosomal DNA sequence comparisons. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology, 3(2): 87–103.
  • Reitner, J. and D. Mehl. 1996. Monophyly of the Porifera. Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. 36: 5–32.

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