List of birds of Malaysia

List of birds of Malaysia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Malaysia. The avifauna of Malaysia includes a total of 781 species, of which 10 are endemic, 3 have been introduced by humans, and 10 are rare or accidental. 45 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Malaysia.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Malaysia.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Malaysia.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Malaysia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.



Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Little Grebe "Tachybaptus ruficollis"

hearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with a medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Bulwer's Petrel "Bulweria bulwerii"
*Streaked Shearwater "Calonectris leucomelas"
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater "Puffinus pacificus"


Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are relatives of the petrels, and are the smallest of sea-birds. They feed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Wilson's Storm-Petrel "Oceanites oceanicus"
*Swinhoe's Storm-Petrel "Oceanodroma monorhis"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their heads and long wings have black markings. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Red-billed Tropicbird "Phaethon aethereus"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. As with other members of the order Pelecaniformes, they have webbed feet with four toes. There are 8 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Great White Pelican "Pelecanus onocrotalus"
*Spot-billed Pelican "Pelecanus philippensis"

Boobies and Gannets

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups comprise medium-to-large coastal sea-birds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 9 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Masked Booby "Sula dactylatra"
*Red-footed Booby "Sula sula"
*Brown Booby "Sula leucogaster"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Little Black Cormorant "Phalacrocorax sulcirostris"
*Great Cormorant "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Little Cormorant "Phalacrocorax niger"//////


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Darter "Anhinga melanogaster"


Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black and white or completely black, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Christmas Island Frigatebird "Fregata andrewsi"
*Great Frigatebird "Fregata minor"
*Lesser Frigatebird "Fregata ariel"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Grey Heron "Ardea cinerea"
*Great-billed Heron "Ardea sumatrana"
*Purple Heron "Ardea purpurea"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Intermediate Egret "Egretta intermedia"
*Little Egret "Egretta garzetta"
*Chinese Egret "Egretta eulophotes"
*Pacific Reef-Heron "Egretta sacra"
*Indian Pond-Heron "Ardeola grayii"
*Chinese Pond-Heron "Ardeola bacchus"
*Javan Pond-Heron "Ardeola speciosa"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Rufous Night-Heron "Nycticorax caledonicus"
*Malayan Night-Heron "Gorsachius melanolophus"
*Yellow Bittern "Ixobrychus sinensis"
*Schrenck's Bittern "Ixobrychus eurhythmus"
*Cinnamon Bittern "Ixobrychus cinnamomeus"
*Black Bittern "Ixobrychus flavicollis"
*Great Bittern "Botaurus stellaris"


Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Milky Stork "Mycteria cinerea"
*Painted Stork "Mycteria leucocephala"
*Asian Openbill "Anastomus oscitans"
*Woolly-necked Stork "Ciconia episcopus"
*Storm's Stork "Ciconia stormi"
*Black-necked Stork "Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus"
*Lesser Adjutant "Leptoptilos javanicus"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Black-headed Ibis "Threskiornis melanocephalus"
*White-shouldered Ibis "Pseudibis davisoni"
*Glossy Ibis "Plegadis falcinellus"
*Eurasian Spoonbill "Platalea leucorodia"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Wandering Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna arcuata"
*Lesser Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna javanica"
*White-winged Duck "Cairina scutulata"
*Cotton Pygmy-goose "Nettapus coromandelianus"
*Eurasian Wigeon "Anas penelope"
*Eurasian Teal "Anas crecca"
*Mallard "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Northern Pintail "Anas acuta"
*Garganey "Anas querquedula"
*Northern Shoveler "Anas clypeata"
*Tufted Duck "Aythya fuligula"


Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 41 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Jerdon's Baza "Aviceda jerdoni"
*Black Baza "Aviceda leuphotes"
*Oriental Honey-buzzard "Pernis ptilorhynchus"
*Bat Hawk "Macheiramphus alcinus"
*Black-shouldered Kite "Elanus caeruleus"
*Black Kite "Milvus migrans"
*Brahminy Kite "Haliastur indus"
*White-bellied Sea-Eagle "Haliaeetus leucogaster"
*Lesser Fish-Eagle "Ichthyophaga humilis"
*Gray-headed Fish-Eagle "Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus"
*White-rumped Vulture "Gyps bengalensis"
*Indian Vulture "Gyps indicus"
*Himalayan Griffon "Gyps himalayensis" (A)
*Cinereous Vulture "Aegypius monachus" (A)
*Red-headed Vulture "Sarcogyps calvus"
*Short-toed Eagle "Circaetus gallicus"
*Mountain Serpent-Eagle "Spilornis kinabaluensis"
*Crested Serpent-Eagle "Spilornis cheela"
*Western Marsh-Harrier "Circus aeruginosus"
*Eastern Marsh-Harrier "Circus spilonotus"
*Northern Harrier "Circus cyaneus"
*Pied Harrier "Circus melanoleucos"
*Crested Goshawk "Accipiter trivirgatus"
*Shikra "Accipiter badius"
*Chinese Goshawk "Accipiter soloensis"
*Japanese Sparrowhawk "Accipiter gularis"
*Besra "Accipiter virgatus"
*Eurasian Sparrowhawk "Accipiter nisus"
*Rufous-winged Buzzard "Butastur liventer"
*Gray-faced Buzzard "Butastur indicus"
*Eurasian Buzzard "Buteo buteo"
*Black Eagle "Ictinaetus malayensis"
*Greater Spotted Eagle "Aquila clanga"
*Steppe Eagle "Aquila nipalensis"
*Imperial Eagle "Aquila heliaca"
*Booted Eagle "Aquila pennatus"
*Rufous-bellied Eagle "Aquila kienerii"
*Changeable Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus cirrhatus"
*Flores Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus floris"
*Blyth's Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus alboniger"
*Wallace's Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus nanus"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Black-thighed Falconet "Microhierax fringillarius"
*White-fronted Falconet "Microhierax latifrons"
*Eurasian Kestrel "Falco tinnunculus"
*Eurasian Hobby "Falco subbuteo"
*Oriental Hobby "Falco severus"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"


Order: GalliformesFamily: Megapodiidae

The Megapodiidae are stocky, medium-large chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet. All but the Malleefowl occupy jungle habitats, and most have brown or black colouring. There are 21 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Tabon Scrubfowl "Megapodius cumingii"

Pheasants and Partridges

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds which consists of quails, partridges, snowcocks, francolins, spurfowls, tragopans, monals, pheasants, peafowls and jungle fowls. In general, they are plump (although they may vary in size) and have broad, relatively short wings. There are 156 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Long-billed Partridge "Rhizothera longirostris"
*Black Partridge "Melanoperdix nigra"
*Blue-breasted Quail "Coturnix chinensis"
*Grey-breasted Partridge "Arborophila orientalis"
*Bar-backed Partridge "Arborophila brunneopectus" (A)
*Red-breasted Partridge "Arborophila hyperythra"
*Chestnut-necklaced Partridge "Arborophila charltonii"
*Ferruginous Partridge "Caloperdix oculea"
*Crimson-headed Partridge "Haematortyx sanguiniceps"
*Crested Partridge "Rollulus rouloul"
*Red Junglefowl "Gallus gallus"
*Crestless Fireback "Lophura erythrophthalma"
*Crested Fireback "Lophura ignita"
*Bulwer's Pheasant "Lophura bulweri"
*Mountain Peacock-Pheasant "Polyplectron inopinatum" (E)
*Malayan Peacock-Pheasant "Polyplectron malacense"
*Bornean Peacock-Pheasant "Polyplectron schleiermacheri"
*Crested Argus "Rheinardia ocellata"
*Great Argus "Argusianus argus"
*Green Peafowl "Pavo muticus"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Turnicidae

The buttonquails are small, drab, running birds which resemble the true quails.The female is the brighter of the sexes, and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Small Buttonquail "Turnix sylvatica"
*Barred Buttonquail "Turnix suscitator"


Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Sarus Crane "Grus antigone"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Red-legged Crake "Rallina fasciata"
*Slaty-legged Crake "Rallina eurizonoides"
*Slaty-breasted Rail "Gallirallus striatus"
*Water Rail "Rallus aquaticus"
*White-breasted Waterhen "Amaurornis phoenicurus"
*Baillon's Crake "Porzana pusilla"
*Ruddy-breasted Crake "Porzana fusca"
*Band-bellied Crake "Porzana paykullii"
*White-browed Crake "Porzana cinerea"
*Watercock "Gallicrex cinerea"
*Purple Swamphen "Porphyrio porphyrio"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Dusky Moorhen "Gallinula tenebrosa"
*Eurasian Coot "Fulica atra"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Masked Finfoot "Heliopais personata"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Comb-crested Jacana "Irediparra gallinacea"
*Pheasant-tailed Jacana "Hydrophasianus chirurgus"
*Bronze-winged Jacana "Metopidius indicus"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Greater Painted-snipe "Rostratula benghalensis"

Crab Plover

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Dromadidae

The Crab Plover is related to the waders. It resembles a plover but with very long grey legs and a strong heavy black bill similar to a tern. It has black and white plumage, a long neck, partially webbed feet and a bill designed for eating crabs.

*Crab Plover "Dromas ardeola"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Black-winged Stilt "Himantopus himantopus"
*White-headed Stilt "Himantopus leucocephalus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Beach Thick-knee "Burhinus magnirostris"

Pratincoles and Coursers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Glareolidae is a family of wading birds comprising the pratincoles, which have short legs, long pointed wings and long forked tails, and the coursers, which have long legs, short wings and long pointed bills which curve downwards. There are 17 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Australian Pratincole "Stiltia isabella"
*Oriental Pratincole "Glareola maldivarum"
*Small Pratincole "Glareola lactea"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Yellow-wattled Lapwing "Vanellus malabaricus"
*Grey-headed Lapwing "Vanellus cinereus"
*Red-wattled Lapwing "Vanellus indicus"
*Pacific Golden-Plover "Pluvialis fulva"
*Grey Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Common Ringed Plover "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Long-billed Plover "Charadrius placidus"
*Little Ringed Plover "Charadrius dubius"
*Kentish Plover "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Malaysian Plover "Charadrius peronii"
*Lesser Sandplover "Charadrius mongolus"
*Greater Sandplover "Charadrius leschenaultii"
*Oriental Plover "Charadrius veredus"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 40 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Eurasian Woodcock "Scolopax rusticola"
*Jack Snipe "Lymnocryptes minimus"
*Wood Snipe "Gallinago nemoricola"
*Pintail Snipe "Gallinago stenura"
*Swinhoe's Snipe "Gallinago megala"
*Common Snipe "Gallinago gallinago"
*Asian Dowitcher "Limnodromus semipalmatus"
*Black-tailed Godwit "Limosa limosa"
*Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
*Little Curlew "Numenius minutus"
*Whimbrel "Numenius phaeopus"
*Eurasian Curlew "Numenius arquata"
*Far Eastern Curlew "Numenius madagascariensis"
*Spotted Redshank "Tringa erythropus"
*Common Redshank "Tringa totanus"
*Marsh Sandpiper "Tringa stagnatilis"
*Common Greenshank "Tringa nebularia"
*Nordmann's Greenshank "Tringa guttifer"
*Green Sandpiper "Tringa ochropus"
*Wood Sandpiper "Tringa glareola"
*Terek Sandpiper "Xenus cinereus"
*Common Sandpiper "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Gray-tailed Tattler "Heterosceles brevipes"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Great Knot "Calidris tenuirostris"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Red-necked Stint "Calidris ruficollis"
*Little Stint "Calidris minuta"
*Temminck's Stint "Calidris temminckii"
*Long-toed Stint "Calidris subminuta"
*Pectoral Sandpiper "Calidris melanotos"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper "Calidris acuminata"
*Curlew Sandpiper "Calidris ferruginea"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina"
*Spoon-billed Sandpiper "Eurynorhynchus pygmeus"
*Broad-billed Sandpiper "Limicola falcinellus"
*Ruff "Philomachus pugnax"
*Red-necked Phalarope "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius"

kuas and Jaegers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

The family Stercorariidae are, in general, medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They nest on the ground in temperate and arctic regions and are long-distance migrants. There are 7 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Pomarine Skua "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Arctic Skua "Stercorarius parasiticus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Brown-headed Gull "Larus brunnicephalus"
*Black-headed Gull "Larus ridibundus"


Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Gull-billed Tern "Sterna nilotica"
*Caspian Tern "Sterna caspia"
*Lesser Crested Tern "Sterna bengalensis"
*Chinese Crested Tern "Sterna bernsteini"
*Great Crested Tern "Sterna bergii"
*Roseate Tern "Sterna dougallii"
*Black-naped Tern "Sterna sumatrana"
*Common Tern "Sterna hirundo"
*Little Tern "Sterna albifrons"
*Saunders's Tern "Sterna saundersi"
*Aleutian Tern "Sterna aleutica"
*Bridled Tern "Sterna anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern "Sterna fuscata"
*Whiskered Tern "Chlidonias hybridus"
*White-winged Tern "Chlidonias leucopterus"
*Black Noddy "Anous minutus"
*Brown Noddy "Anous stolidus"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 25 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia"
*Metallic Pigeon "Columba vitiensis"
*Island Collared-Dove "Streptopelia bitorquata"
*Red Collared-Dove "Streptopelia tranquebarica"
*Spotted Dove "Streptopelia chinensis"
*Barred Cuckoo-Dove "Macropygia unchall"
*Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove "Macropygia emiliana"
*Little Cuckoo-Dove "Macropygia ruficeps"
*Emerald Dove "Chalcophaps indica"
*Zebra Dove "Geopelia striata"
*Nicobar Pigeon "Caloenas nicobarica"
*Little Green-Pigeon "Treron olax"
*Pink-necked Pigeon "Treron vernans"
*Cinnamon-headed Pigeon "Treron fulvicollis"
*Orange-breasted Pigeon "Treron bicincta"
*Thick-billed Pigeon "Treron curvirostra"
*Large Green-Pigeon "Treron capellei"
*Yellow-vented Pigeon "Treron seimundi"
*Wedge-tailed Pigeon "Treron sphenura"
*Jambu Fruit-Dove "Ptilinopus jambu"
*Black-naped Fruit-Dove "Ptilinopus melanospila"
*Green Imperial-Pigeon "Ducula aenea"
*Gray Imperial-Pigeon "Ducula pickeringii"
*Mountain Imperial-Pigeon "Ducula badia"
*Pied Imperial-Pigeon "Ducula bicolor"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Blue-rumped Parrot "Psittinus cyanurus"
*Blue-naped Parrot "Tanygnathus lucionensis"
*Red-breasted Parakeet "Psittacula alexandri"
*Long-tailed Parakeet "Psittacula longicauda"
*Vernal Hanging-Parrot "Loriculus vernalis"
*Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrot "Loriculus galgulus"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 30 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Chestnut-winged Cuckoo "Clamator coromandus"
*Large Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus sparverioides"
*Moustached Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus vagans"
*Malaysian Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus fugax"
*Hodgson's Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus nisicolor"
*Northern Hawk-Cuckoo "Cuculus hyperythrus"
*Indian Cuckoo "Cuculus micropterus"
*Oriental Cuckoo "Cuculus saturatus"
*Sunda Cuckoo "Cuculus lepidus"
*Horsfield's Cuckoo "Cuculus horsfieldi"
*Lesser Cuckoo "Cuculus poliocephalus"
*Banded Bay Cuckoo "Cacomantis sonneratii"
*Plaintive Cuckoo "Cacomantis merulinus"
*Brush Cuckoo "Cacomantis variolosus"
*Horsfield's Bronze-Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx basalis"
*Little Bronze-Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx minutillus" (A)
*Asian Emerald Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx maculatus"
*Violet Cuckoo "Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus"
*Asian Drongo-Cuckoo "Surniculus lugubris"
*Asian Koel "Eudynamys scolopacea"
*Black-bellied Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus diardi"
*Chestnut-bellied Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus sumatranus"
*Green-billed Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus tristis"
*Raffles's Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus"
*Red-billed Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus javanicus"
*Chestnut-breasted Malkoha "Phaenicophaeus curvirostris"
*Bornean Ground-Cuckoo "Carpococcyx radiatus"
*Short-toed Coucal "Centropus rectunguis"
*Greater Coucal "Centropus sinensis"
*Lesser Coucal "Centropus bengalensis"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"
*Oriental Bay-Owl "Phodilus badius"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Malaysia.

*White-fronted Scops-Owl "Otus sagittatus"
*Reddish Scops-Owl "Otus rufescens"
*Mountain Scops-Owl "Otus spilocephalus"
*Rajah Scops-Owl "Otus brookii"
*Sunda Scops-Owl "Otus lempiji"
*Oriental Scops-Owl "Otus sunia"
*Barred Eagle-Owl "Bubo sumatranus"
*Dusky Eagle-Owl "Bubo coromandus"
*Brown Fish-Owl "Ketupa zeylonensis"
*Buffy Fish-Owl "Ketupa ketupu"
*Spotted Wood-Owl "Strix seloputo"
*Brown Wood-Owl "Strix leptogrammica"
*Collared Owlet "Glaucidium brodiei"
*Brown Hawk-Owl "Ninox scutulata"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Podargidae

The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars. They are named for their large flattened hooked bills and huge frog-like gape, which they use to take insects. There are 12 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Large Frogmouth "Batrachostomus auritus"
*Dulit Frogmouth "Batrachostomus harterti"
*Gould's Frogmouth "Batrachostomus stellatus"
*Short-tailed Frogmouth "Batrachostomus poliolophus"
*Javan Frogmouth "Batrachostomus javensis"
*Sunda Frogmouth "Batrachostomus cornutus"


Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Malaysian Nightjar "Eurostopodus temminckii"
*Great Eared-Nightjar "Eurostopodus macrotis"
*Gray Nightjar "Caprimulgus indicus"
*Large-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus macrurus"
*Savanna Nightjar "Caprimulgus affinis"
*Bonaparte's Nightjar "Caprimulgus concretus"


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Waterfall Swift "Hydrochous gigas"
*Glossy Swiftlet "Collocalia esculenta"
*Cave Swiftlet "Collocalia linchi"
*Himalayan Swiftlet "Aerodramus brevirostris"
*Indochinese Swiftlet "Aerodramus rogersi"
*Mossy-nest Swiftlet "Aerodramus salangana"
*Black-nest Swiftlet "Aerodramus maximus"
*Edible-nest Swiftlet "Aerodramus fuciphagus"
*German's Swiftlet "Aerodramus germani"
*Silver-rumped Needletail "Rhaphidura leucopygialis"
*White-throated Needletail "Hirundapus caudacutus"
*Silver-backed Needletail "Hirundapus cochinchinensis"
*Brown-backed Needletail "Hirundapus giganteus"
*Asian Palm-Swift "Cypsiurus balasiensis"
*Fork-tailed Swift "Apus pacificus"
*House Swift "Apus nipalensis"


Order: ApodiformesFamily: Hemiprocnidae

The treeswifts or crested swifts are aerial near passerine birds, closely related to the true swifts. They differ from the other swifts in that they have crests, long forked tails and softer plumage. There are 4 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Gray-rumped Treeswift "Hemiprocne longipennis"
*Whiskered Treeswift "Hemiprocne comata"

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Red-naped Trogon "Harpactes kasumba"
*Diard's Trogon "Harpactes diardii"
*Whitehead's Trogon "Harpactes whiteheadi"
*Cinnamon-rumped Trogon "Harpactes orrhophaeus"
*Scarlet-rumped Trogon "Harpactes duvaucelii"
*Red-headed Trogon "Harpactes erythrocephalus"
*Orange-breasted Trogon "Harpactes oreskios"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Common Kingfisher "Alcedo atthis"
*Blue-eared Kingfisher "Alcedo meninting"
*Blue-banded Kingfisher "Alcedo euryzona"
*Black-backed Kingfisher "Ceyx erithacus"
*Rufous-backed Kingfisher "Ceyx rufidorsa"
*Banded Kingfisher "Lacedo pulchella"
*Brown-winged Kingfisher "Pelargopsis amauropterus"
*Stork-billed Kingfisher "Pelargopsis capensis"
*Ruddy Kingfisher "Halcyon coromanda"
*White-throated Kingfisher "Halcyon smyrnensis"
*Black-capped Kingfisher "Halcyon pileata"
*Collared Kingfisher "Todirhamphus chloris"
*Sacred Kingfisher "Todirhamphus sanctus"
*Rufous-collared Kingfisher "Actenoides concretus"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Meropidae

The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family Meropidae. Most species are found in Africa but others occur in southern Europe, Madagascar, Australia and New Guinea. They are characterised by richly coloured plumage, slender bodies and usually elongated central tail feathers. All are colorful and have long downturned bills and pointed wings, which give them a swallow-like appearance when seen from afar. There are 26 species worldwide and 4 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Red-bearded Bee-eater "Nyctyornis amictus"
*Blue-throated Bee-eater "Merops viridis"
*Blue-tailed Bee-eater "Merops philippinus"
*Chestnut-headed Bee-eater "Merops leschenaulti"

Typical Rollers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Coraciidae

Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the colourful appearance of those groups with blues and browns predominating. The two inner front toes are connected, but the outer toe is not. There are 12 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Indian Roller "Coracias benghalensis"
*Dollarbird "Eurystomus orientalis"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Upupidae

Hoopoes have black, white and orangey-pink colouring with a large erectile crest on their head. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Hoopoe "Upupa epops"


Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Bucerotidae

Hornbills are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cow's horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. Frequently, the bill is brightly coloured. There are 57 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Oriental Pied-Hornbill "Anthracoceros albirostris"
*Black Hornbill "Anthracoceros malayanus"
*Rhinoceros Hornbill "Buceros rhinoceros"
*Great Hornbill "Buceros bicornis"
*Helmeted Hornbill "Buceros vigil"
*Bushy-crested Hornbill "Anorrhinus galeritus"
*White-crowned Hornbill "Aceros comatus"
*Wrinkled Hornbill "Aceros corrugatus"
*Wreathed Hornbill "Aceros undulatus"
*Plain-pouched Hornbill "Aceros subruficollis"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Capitonidae

The barbets are plump birds, with short necks and large heads. They get their name from the bristles which fringe their heavy bills. Most species are brightly coloured. There are 84 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Fire-tufted Barbet "Psilopogon pyrolophus"
*Lineated Barbet "Megalaima lineata"
*Gold-whiskered Barbet "Megalaima chrysopogon"
*Red-crowned Barbet "Megalaima rafflesii"
*Red-throated Barbet "Megalaima mystacophanos"
*Golden-throated Barbet "Megalaima franklinii"
*Black-browed Barbet "Megalaima oorti"
*Mountain Barbet "Megalaima monticola"
*Yellow-crowned Barbet "Megalaima henricii"
*Golden-naped Barbet "Megalaima pulcherrima"
*Blue-eared Barbet "Megalaima australis"
*Bornean Barbet "Megalaima eximia"
*Coppersmith Barbet "Megalaima haemacephala"
*Brown Barbet "Calorhamphus fuliginosus"


Order: PiciformesFamily: Indicatoridae

Honeyguides are among the few birds that feed on wax. They are named for the behaviour of the Greater Honeyguide which leads large animals to bees' nests and then feeds on the wax once the animal has broken the nest open to get at the honey. There are 17 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Malaysian Honeyguide "Indicator archipelagicus"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 28 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Eurasian Wryneck "Jynx torquilla"
*Speckled Piculet "Picumnus innominatus"
*Rufous Piculet "Sasia abnormis"
*White-browed Piculet "Sasia ochracea"
*Brown-capped Woodpecker "Dendrocopos moluccensis"
*Grey-capped Woodpecker "Dendrocopos canicapillus"
*Rufous Woodpecker "Celeus brachyurus"
*White-bellied Woodpecker "Dryocopus javensis"
*Banded Woodpecker "Picus mineaceus"
*Lesser Yellownape "Picus chlorolophus"
*Crimson-winged Woodpecker "Picus puniceus"
*Greater Yellownape "Picus flavinucha"
*Checker-throated Woodpecker "Picus mentalis"
*Streak-breasted Woodpecker "Picus viridanus"
*Laced Woodpecker "Picus vittatus"
*Gray-faced Woodpecker "Picus canus"
*Olive-backed Woodpecker "Dinopium rafflesii"
*Common Flameback "Dinopium javanense"
*Greater Flameback "Chrysocolaptes lucidus"
*Pale-headed Woodpecker "Gecinulus grantia"
*Bamboo Woodpecker "Gecinulus viridis"
*Maroon Woodpecker "Blythipicus rubiginosus"
*Bay Woodpecker "Blythipicus pyrrhotis"
*Orange-backed Woodpecker "Reinwardtipicus validus"
*Buff-rumped Woodpecker "Meiglyptes tristis"
*Buff-necked Woodpecker "Meiglyptes tukki"
*Grey-and-buff Woodpecker "Hemicircus concretus"
*Great Slaty Woodpecker "Mulleripicus pulverulentus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Eurylaimidae

The broadbills are small, brightly coloured birds that feed on fruit and also take insects in flycatcher fashion, snapping their broad bills. Their habitat is canopies of wet forests. There are 15 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Dusky Broadbill "Corydon sumatranus"
*Black-and-red Broadbill "Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos"
*Banded Broadbill "Eurylaimus javanicus"
*Black-and-yellow Broadbill "Eurylaimus ochromalus"
*Long-tailed Broadbill "Psarisomus dalhousiae"
*Silver-breasted Broadbill "Serilophus lunatus"
*Green Broadbill "Calyptomena viridis"
*Hose's Broadbill "Calyptomena hosii"
*Whitehead's Broadbill "Calyptomena whiteheadi"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pittidae

Pittas are medium-sized by passerine standards, and stocky, with fairly long, strong legs, short tails and stout bills. Many, but not all, are brightly coloured. They are spend the majority of their time on wet forest floors, eating snails, insects and similar invertebrate prey which they find there. There are 32 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Rusty-naped Pitta "Pitta oatesi"
*Giant Pitta "Pitta caerulea"
*Banded Pitta "Pitta guajana"
*Blue-headed Pitta "Pitta baudii"
*Hooded Pitta "Pitta sordida"
*Blue-banded Pitta "Pitta arquata"
*Garnet Pitta "Pitta granatina"
*Black-headed Pitta "Pitta ussheri"
*Black-crowned Pitta "Pitta venusta"
*Fairy Pitta "Pitta nympha"
*Blue-winged Pitta "Pitta moluccensis"
*Mangrove Pitta "Pitta megarhyncha"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Australasian Bushlark "Mirafra javanica"
*Oriental Skylark "Alauda gulgula"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Dusky Crag-Martin "Ptyonoprogne concolor"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"
*Pacific Swallow "Hirundo tahitica"
*Red-rumped Swallow "Cecropis daurica"
*Striated Swallow "Cecropis striolata"
*Rufous-bellied Swallow "Cecropis badia"
*Asian Martin "Delichon dasypus"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Forest Wagtail "Dendronanthus indicus"
*White Wagtail "Motacilla alba"
*Black-backed Wagtail "Motacilla lugens" (A)
*Yellow Wagtail "Motacilla flava"
*Grey Wagtail "Motacilla cinerea"
*Oriental Pipit "Anthus rufulus"
*Olive-backed Pipit "Anthus hodgsoni"
*Pechora Pipit "Anthus gustavi"
*Red-throated Pipit "Anthus cervinus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Campephagidae

The cuckoo-shrikes are small to medium-sized passerine birds. They are predominantly greyish with white and black, although some species are brightly coloured. There are 82 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Large Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina macei"
*Sunda Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina larvata"
*Javan Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina javensis"
*Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina striata"
*Lesser Cuckoo-shrike "Coracina fimbriata"
*Pied Triller "Lalage nigra"
*Ashy Minivet "Pericrocotus divaricatus"
*Fiery Minivet "Pericrocotus igneus"
*Scarlet Minivet "Pericrocotus flammeus"
*Gray-chinned Minivet "Pericrocotus solaris"
*Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike "Hemipus picatus"
*Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike "Hemipus hirundinaceus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Eupetidae

The Eupetidae is a monotypic family; its sole species occurs in Malaysia.

*Malaysian Rail-babbler "Eupetes macrocerus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

Bulbuls are medium-sized songbirds. Some are colourful with yellow, red or orange vents, cheeks, throat or supercilia, but most are drab, with uniform olive brown to black plumage. Some species have distinct crests.There are 130 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Straw-headed Bulbul "Pycnonotus zeylanicus"
*Black-and-white Bulbul "Pycnonotus melanoleucus"
*Black-headed Bulbul "Pycnonotus atriceps"
*Black-crested Bulbul "Pycnonotus melanicterus"
*Scaly-breasted Bulbul "Pycnonotus squamatus"
*Grey-bellied Bulbul "Pycnonotus cyaniventris"
*Red-whiskered Bulbul "Pycnonotus jocosus"
*Sooty-headed Bulbul "Pycnonotus aurigaster"
*Puff-backed Bulbul "Pycnonotus eutilotus"
*Blue-wattled Bulbul "Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii"
*Stripe-throated Bulbul "Pycnonotus finlaysoni"
*Flavescent Bulbul "Pycnonotus flavescens"
*Yellow-vented Bulbul "Pycnonotus goiavier"
*Olive-winged Bulbul "Pycnonotus plumosus"
*Streak-eared Bulbul "Pycnonotus blanfordi"
*Cream-vented Bulbul "Pycnonotus simplex"
*Red-eyed Bulbul "Pycnonotus brunneus"
*Spectacled Bulbul "Pycnonotus erythropthalmos"
*Finsch's Bulbul "Alophoixus finschii"
*Ochraceous Bulbul "Alophoixus ochraceus"
*Gray-cheeked Bulbul "Alophoixus bres"
*Yellow-bellied Bulbul "Alophoixus phaeocephalus"
*Hook-billed Bulbul "Setornis criniger"
*Hairy-backed Bulbul "Tricholestes criniger"
*Buff-vented Bulbul "Iole olivacea"
*Streaked Bulbul "Ixos malaccensis"
*Ashy Bulbul "Hemixos flavala"
*Mountain Bulbul "Ixos mcclellandii"
*Black Bulbul "Hypsipetes leucocephalus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Chloropseidae

The Leafbirds are small, bulbul-like birds. The males are brightly plumaged, usually in greens and yellows. There are 8 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Greater Green Leafbird "Chloropsis sonnerati"
*Lesser Green Leafbird "Chloropsis cyanopogon"
*Blue-winged Leafbird "Chloropsis cochinchinensis"
*Golden-fronted Leafbird "Chloropsis aurifrons"
*Orange-bellied Leafbird "Chloropsis hardwickii"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithinidae

The ioras are bulbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub, but whereas that group tends to be drab in coloration, ioras are sexually dimorphic, with the males being brightly plumaged in yellows and greens. There are 4 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Common Iora "Aegithina tiphia"
*Green Iora "Aegithina viridissima"
*Great Iora "Aegithina lafresnayei"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Malaysia.

*White-throated Rock-Thrush "Monticola gularis"
*Blue Rock-Thrush "Monticola solitarius"
*Bornean Whistling-thrush "Myophonus borneensis"
*Malayan Whistling-thrush "Myophonus robinsoni" (E)
*Blue Whistling-Thrush "Myophonus caeruleus"
*Orange-headed Thrush "Zoothera citrina"
*Everett's Thrush "Zoothera everetti" (E)
*Siberian Thrush "Zoothera sibirica"
*Scaly Thrush "Zoothera dauma"
*Eurasian Blackbird "Turdus merula"
*Island Thrush "Turdus poliocephalus"
*Eyebrowed Thrush "Turdus obscurus"
*Pale Thrush "Turdus pallidus"
*Fruit-hunter "Chlamydochaera jefferyi" (E)
*Lesser Shortwing "Brachypteryx leucophrys"
*White-browed Shortwing "Brachypteryx montana"

Cisticolas and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cisticolidae

The Cisticolidae are warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. There are 111 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Zitting Cisticola "Cisticola juncidis"
*Golden-headed Cisticola "Cisticola exilis"
*Hill Prinia "Prinia atrogularis"
*Rufescent Prinia "Prinia rufescens"
*Grey-breasted Prinia "Prinia hodgsonii"
*Yellow-bellied Prinia "Prinia flaviventris"
*Plain Prinia "Prinia inornata"

Old World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are 291 species worldwide and 29 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Bornean Stubtail "Urosphena whiteheadi" (E)
*Sunda Bush-Warbler "Cettia vulcania"
*Friendly Bush-Warbler "Bradypterus accentor" (E)
*Lanceolated Warbler "Locustella lanceolata"
*Pallas's Warbler "Locustella certhiola"
*Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler "Locustella ochotensis"
*Black-browed Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus bistrigiceps"
*Oriental Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus orientalis"
*Clamorous Reed-Warbler "Acrocephalus stentoreus"
*Thick-billed Warbler "Acrocephalus aedon"
*Mountain Tailorbird "Orthotomus cuculatus"
*Common Tailorbird "Orthotomus sutorius"
*Dark-necked Tailorbird "Orthotomus atrogularis"
*Rufous-tailed Tailorbird "Orthotomus sericeus"
*Ashy Tailorbird "Orthotomus ruficeps"
*Dusky Warbler "Phylloscopus fuscatus"
*Buff-throated Warbler "Phylloscopus subaffinis"
*Radde's Warbler "Phylloscopus schwarzi" (A)
*Yellow-browed Warbler "Phylloscopus inornatus"
*Arctic Warbler "Phylloscopus borealis"
*Greenish Warbler "Phylloscopus trochiloides"
*Pale-legged Leaf-Warbler "Phylloscopus tenellipes"
*Eastern Crowned Leaf-Warbler "Phylloscopus coronatus"
*Sulphur-breasted Warbler "Phylloscopus ricketti"
*Mountain Warbler "Phylloscopus trivirgatus"
*Chestnut-crowned Warbler "Seicercus castaniceps"
*Yellow-breasted Warbler "Seicercus montis"
*Yellow-bellied Warbler "Abroscopus superciliaris"
*Tawny Grassbird "Megalurus timoriensis"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

Old World flycatchers are a large group of small passerine birds native to the Old World. They are mainly small arboreal insectivores. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. There 274 species worldwide and 51 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Brown-chested Jungle-flycatcher "Rhinomyias brunneata"
*Grey-chested Jungle-flycatcher "Rhinomyias umbratilis"
*Fulvous-chested Jungle-flycatcher "Rhinomyias olivacea"
*Chestnut-tailed Jungle-flycatcher "Rhinomyias ruficauda"
*Eyebrowed Jungle-flycatcher "Rhinomyias gularis" (E)
*Grey-spotted Flycatcher "Muscicapa griseisticta"
*Siberian Flycatcher "Muscicapa sibirica"
*Asian Brown Flycatcher "Muscicapa dauurica"
*Brown-streaked Flycatcher "Muscicapa williamsoni"
*Ferruginous Flycatcher "Muscicapa ferruginea"
*Korean Flycatcher "Ficedula zanthopygia"
*Narcissus Flycatcher "Ficedula narcissina"
*Mugimaki Flycatcher "Ficedula mugimaki"
*Red-breasted Flycatcher "Ficedula parva"
*Taiga Flycatcher "Ficedula albicilla"
*Snowy-browed Flycatcher "Ficedula hyperythra"
*Rufous-browed Flycatcher "Ficedula solitaris"
*Rufous-chested Flycatcher "Ficedula dumetoria"
*Little Pied Flycatcher "Ficedula westermanni"
*Blue-and-white Flycatcher "Cyanoptila cyanomelana"
*Verditer Flycatcher "Eumyias thalassina"
*Indigo Flycatcher "Eumyias indigo"
*Large Niltava "Niltava grandis"
*Rufous-vented Niltava "Niltava sumatrana"
*White-tailed Flycatcher "Cyornis concretus"
*Hainan Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis hainanus"
*Pale Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis unicolor"
*Blue-throated Flycatcher "Cyornis rubeculoides"
*Hill Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis banyumas"
*Long-billed Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis caerulatus"
*Malaysian Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis turcosus"
*Bornean Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis superbus"
*Tickell's Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis tickelliae"
*Mangrove Blue-flycatcher "Cyornis rufigastra"
*Pygmy Blue-flycatcher "Muscicapella hodgsoni"
*Gray-headed Canary-flycatcher "Culicicapa ceylonensis"
*Siberian Rubythroat "Luscinia calliope"
*Bluethroat "Luscinia svecica"
*Rufous-headed Robin "Luscinia ruficeps"
*Siberian Blue Robin "Luscinia cyane"
*Red-flanked Bluetail "Tarsiger cyanurus"
*Oriental Magpie-Robin "Copsychus saularis"
*White-rumped Shama "Copsychus malabaricus"
*Rufous-tailed Shama "Trichixos pyrropyga"
*White-tailed Robin "Cinclidium leucurum"
*Siberian Stonechat "Saxicola maura"
*Chestnut-naped Forktail "Enicurus ruficapillus"
*Slaty-backed Forktail "Enicurus schistaceus"
*White-crowned Forktail "Enicurus leschenaulti"
*Pied Bushchat "Saxicola caprata"
*Northern Wheatear "Oenanthe oenanthe"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Rhipiduridae

The Fantails are small insectivorous birds which are specialist aerial feeders. There are 44 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*White-throated Fantail "Rhipidura albicollis"
*Pied Fantail "Rhipidura javanica"
*Spotted Fantail "Rhipidura perlata"

Monarch flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Monarchidae

The monarch flycatchers are small to medium-sized insectivorous passerines, which hunt by flycatching. There are 99 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Black-naped Monarch "Hypothymis azurea"
*Japanese Paradise-flycatcher "Terpsiphone atrocaudata"
*Asian Paradise-Flycatcher "Terpsiphone paradisi"

Whistlers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pachycephalidae

The family Pachycephalidae includes the whistlers, shrike-thrushes, shrike-tits, pitohuis and Crested Bellbird. There are 57 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Mangrove Whistler "Pachycephala grisola"
*Bornean Whistler "Pachycephala hypoxantha"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

The babblers or timaliids are somewhat diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. There are 270 species worldwide and 54 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Sunda Laughingthrush "Garrulax palliatus"
*White-crested Laughingthrush "Garrulax leucolophus"
*Black Laughingthrush "Garrulax lugubris"
*Chestnut-capped Laughingthrush "Garrulax mitratus"
*Chestnut-crowned Laughingthrush "Garrulax erythrocephalus"
*White-chested Babbler "Trichastoma rostratum"
*Ferruginous Babbler "Trichastoma bicolor"
*Abbott's Babbler "Malacocincla abbotti"
*Horsfield's Babbler "Malacocincla sepiarium"
*Short-tailed Babbler "Malacocincla malaccensis"
*Buff-breasted Babbler "Pellorneum tickelli"
*Temminck's Babbler "Pellorneum pyrrogenys"
*Puff-throated Babbler "Pellorneum ruficeps"
*Black-capped Babbler "Pellorneum capistratum"
*Moustached Babbler "Malacopteron magnirostre"
*Sooty-capped Babbler "Malacopteron affine"
*Scaly-crowned Babbler "Malacopteron cinereum"
*Rufous-crowned Babbler "Malacopteron magnum"
*Grey-breasted Babbler "Malacopteron albogulare"
*Large Scimitar-Babbler "Pomatorhinus hypoleucos"
*Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler "Pomatorhinus montanus"
*Bornean Wren-Babbler "Ptilocichla leucogrammica"
*Striped Wren-Babbler "Kenopia striata"
*Large Wren-Babbler "Napothera macrodactyla"
*Black-throated Wren-Babbler "Napothera atrigularis"
*Marbled Wren-Babbler "Napothera marmorata"
*Streaked Wren-Babbler "Napothera brevicaudata"
*Mountain Wren-Babbler "Napothera crassa" (E)
*Eyebrowed Wren-Babbler "Napothera epilepidota" (A)
*Pygmy Wren-Babbler "Pnoepyga pusilla"
*Rufous-fronted Babbler "Stachyris rufifrons"
*Golden Babbler "Stachyris chrysaea"
*Grey-throated Babbler "Stachyris nigriceps"
*Grey-headed Babbler "Stachyris poliocephala"
*White-necked Babbler "Stachyris leucotis"
*Black-throated Babbler "Stachyris nigricollis"
*Chestnut-rumped Babbler "Stachyris maculata"
*Chestnut-winged Babbler "Stachyris erythroptera"
*Striped Tit-Babbler "Macronous gularis"
*Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler "Macronous ptilosus"
*Chestnut-capped Babbler "Timalia pileata"
*Silver-eared Mesia "Leiothrix argentauris"
*Cutia "Cutia nipalensis"
*White-browed Shrike-Babbler "Pteruthius flaviscapis"
*Black-eared Shrike-Babbler "Pteruthius melanotis"
*White-hooded Babbler "Gampsorhynchus rufulus"
*Blue-winged Minla "Minla cyanouroptera"
*Chestnut-tailed Minla "Minla strigula"
*Rufous-winged Fulvetta "Alcippe castaneceps"
*Brown Fulvetta "Alcippe brunneicauda"
*Mountain Fulvetta "Alcippe peracensis"
*Long-tailed Sibia "Heterophasia picaoides"
*Chestnut-crested Yuhina "Yuhina everetti"
*White-bellied Yuhina "Yuhina zantholeuca"

Thornbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Acanthizidae

Thornbills are small passerine birds, similar in habits to the tits. There are 65 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Golden-bellied Gerygone "Gerygone sulphurea"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Great Tit "Parus major"
*Sultan Tit "Melanochlora sultanea"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Velvet-fronted Nuthatch "Sitta frontalis"
*Blue Nuthatch "Sitta azurea"

unbirds and Spiderhunters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Nectariniidae

The sunbirds and spiderhunters are very small passerine birds which feed largely on nectar, although they will also take insects, especially when feeding young. Flight is fast and direct on their short wings. Most species can take nectar by hovering like a hummingbird, but usually perch to feed. There are 131 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Ruby-cheeked Sunbird "Chalcoparia singalensis"
*Plain Sunbird "Anthreptes simplex"
*Plain-throated Sunbird "Anthreptes malacensis"
*Red-throated Sunbird "Anthreptes rhodolaema"
*Purple-naped Sunbird "Hypogramma hypogrammicum"
*Copper-throated Sunbird "Leptocoma calcostetha"
*Purple-throated Sunbird "Leptocoma sperata"
*Purple Sunbird "Cinnyris asiaticus" (A)
*Olive-backed Sunbird "Cinnyris jugularis"
*Black-throated Sunbird "Aethopyga saturata"
*Crimson Sunbird "Aethopyga siparaja"
*Temminck's Sunbird "Aethopyga temminckii"
*Thick-billed Spiderhunter "Arachnothera crassirostris"
*Spectacled Spiderhunter "Arachnothera flavigaster"
*Long-billed Spiderhunter "Arachnothera robusta"
*Little Spiderhunter "Arachnothera longirostra"
*Yellow-eared Spiderhunter "Arachnothera chrysogenys"
*Gray-breasted Spiderhunter "Arachnothera modesta"
*Streaked Spiderhunter "Arachnothera magna"
*Whitehead's Spiderhunter "Arachnothera juliae"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicaeidae

The flowerpeckers are very small, stout, often brightly coloured birds, with short tails, short thick curved bills and tubular tongues. There are 44 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker "Prionochilus maculatus"
*Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker "Prionochilus percussus"
*Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker "Prionochilus xanthopygius"
*Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker "Prionochilus thoracicus"
*Thick-billed Flowerpecker "Dicaeum agile"
*Brown-backed Flowerpecker "Dicaeum everetti"
*Yellow-vented Flowerpecker "Dicaeum chrysorrheum"
*Orange-bellied Flowerpecker "Dicaeum trigonostigma"
*Plain Flowerpecker "Dicaeum concolor"
*Fire-breasted Flowerpecker "Dicaeum ignipectus"
*Black-sided Flowerpecker "Dicaeum monticolum"
*Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker "Dicaeum cruentatum"
*Scarlet-headed Flowerpecker "Dicaeum trochileum"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Zosteropidae

The white-eyes are small and are mostly of undistinguished appearance, the plumage above being generally either some dull color like greenish olive, but some species have a white or bright yellow throat, breast or lower parts, and several have buff flanks. As their name suggests many species have a white ring around the eyes. There are 96 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Oriental White-eye "Zosterops palpebrosus"
*Black-capped White-eye "Zosterops atricapillus"
*Everett's White-eye "Zosterops everetti"
*Javan White-eye "Zosterops flavus"
*Pygmy White-eye "Oculocincta squamifrons" (E)
*Mountain Black-eye "Chlorocharis emiliae" (E)

Old World Orioles

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Oriolidae

The Old World Orioles are colourful passerine birds. They are not related to the New World orioles. There are 29 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Dark-throated Oriole "Oriolus xanthonotus"
*Black-naped Oriole "Oriolus chinensis"
*Black-hooded Oriole "Oriolus xanthornus"
*Black Oriole "Oriolus hosii"
*Black-and-crimson Oriole "Oriolus cruentus"
*Maroon Oriole "Oriolus traillii"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Irenidae

The Fairy-bluebirds are bubbul-like birds of open forest or thorn scrub. The males are dark-blue and the females a duller green. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Asian Fairy-bluebird "Irena puella"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Tiger Shrike "Lanius tigrinus"
*Brown Shrike "Lanius cristatus"
*Long-tailed Shrike "Lanius schach"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prionopidae

The helmetshrikes are similar in build to the shrikes, but tend to be colourful species with distinctive crests or other head ornaments, such as wattles, from which they get their name. There are 12 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Large Woodshrike "Tephrodornis gularis"
*Rufous-winged Philentoma "Philentoma pyrhopterum"
*Maroon-breasted Philentoma "Philentoma velatum"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dicruridae

The drongos are mostly are black or dark grey in colour, sometimes with metallic tints. They have long forked tails, and some Asian species have elaborate tail decorations. They have short legs and sit very upright whilst perched, like a shrike. They flycatch or take prey from the ground. There are 24 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Black Drongo "Dicrurus macrocercus"
*Ashy Drongo "Dicrurus leucophaeus"
*Crow-billed Drongo "Dicrurus annectans"
*Bronzed Drongo "Dicrurus aeneus"
*Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus remifer"
*Hair-crested Drongo "Dicrurus hottentottus"
*Greater Racket-tailed Drongo "Dicrurus paradiseus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Artamidae

The woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds. They are smooth, agile flyers with moderately large, semi-triangular wings. There are 11 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*White-breasted Woodswallow "Artamus leucorynchus"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pityriaseidae

The Bornean Bristlehead is large black bird with a red and yellow head. Females also have some red in the wings. It has a massive heavy black hooked bill and a short tail. The crown of the head has short, coloured projections like bare feather shaft, hence the name 'Bristlehead'.

*Bornean Bristlehead "Pityriasis gymnocephala"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 9 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Crested Jay "Platylophus galericulatus"
*Black Magpie "Platysmurus leucopterus"
*Green Magpie "Cissa chinensis"
*Short-tailed Magpie "Cissa thalassina"
*Bornean Treepie "Dendrocitta cinerascens"
*Racket-tailed Treepie "Crypsirina temia"
*House Crow "Corvus splendens"
*Slender-billed Crow "Corvus enca"
*Large-billed Crow "Corvus macrorhynchos"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds. Their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country. They eat insects and fruit. Plumage is typically dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species worldwide and 11 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Asian Glossy Starling "Aplonis panayensis"
*Golden-crested Myna "Ampeliceps coronatus"
*Common Hill Myna "Gracula religiosa"
*White-vented Myna "Acridotheres grandis" (I)
*Crested Myna "Acridotheres cristatellus" (I)
*Jungle Myna "Acridotheres fuscus"
*Common Myna "Acridotheres tristis"
*Vinous-breasted Starling "Acridotheres burmannicus" (A)
*Daurian Starling "Sturnia sturnina"
*Chestnut-cheeked Starling "Sturnia philippensis" (A)
*White-shouldered Starling "Sturnia sinensis"

Weavers and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ploceidae

The weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. They are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills. The males of many species are brightly coloured, usually in red or yellow and black, some species show variation in colour only in the breeding season. There are 116 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Baya Weaver "Ploceus philippinus"

Waxbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Estrildidae

The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They are gregarious and often colonial seed-eaters with short thick but pointed bills. They are all similar in structure and habits, but have a wide variation in plumage colours and pattern. There are 141 species worldwide and 10 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Red Avadavat "Amandava amandava"
*Tawny-breasted Parrotfinch "Erythrura hyperythra"
*Pin-tailed Parrotfinch "Erythrura prasina"
*White-rumped Munia "Lonchura striata"
*Dusky Munia "Lonchura fuscans"
*Nutmeg Mannikin "Lonchura punctulata"
*White-bellied Munia "Lonchura leucogastra"
*Chestnut Munia "Lonchura atricapilla"
*White-headed Munia "Lonchura maja"
*Java Sparrow "Padda oryzivora" (I)

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 3 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Chestnut-eared Bunting "Emberiza fucata"
*Little Bunting "Emberiza pusilla"
*Yellow-breasted Bunting "Emberiza aureola"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Malaysia.

*Brown Bullfinch "Pyrrhula nipalensis"


Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Malaysia.

*Plain-backed Sparrow "Passer flaveolus"
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow "Passer montanus"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region


*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url =
title = Checklist of birds of Malaysia
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 27 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880

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