- Martin 2-0-2
Martin 2-0-2 Japan Airlines Martin 2-0-2 "Mokusei" (1951) Role Airliner Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company First flight November, 1946 Introduction August, 1947 Retired about 1975 Primary users Northwest Orient Airlines
Trans World Airlines
Number built 47 Variants Martin 4-0-4
The Martin 2-0-2 was one of the first modern airliners. The twin-engined piston aircraft was designed and built by the Glenn L. Martin Company.
Design and development
Glenn L. Martin, president of the company, intended that the Model 202 would be a replacement for the DC-3. It was also known as the "Martin Executive".
The first flight of the Model 2-0-2 was in November 1946. Full civilian certification was gained in August 1947. This was several months before competing aircraft types. The total production of 2-0-2 and 2-0-2A was 47 aircraft.
The aircraft was non-pressurized but was considered a long range airliner. The fatal crash in 1948 of Northwest Airlines Flight 421 revealed a serious structural problem in the wings. Structural metal fatigue was the problem in a major wing spar. Alloy 7075-T6 was used, which is susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking and low toughness. The airliner was grounded and modifications were made. The wing components were redesigned and the engines replaced. The changed type was designated the Martin 2-0-2A.
On November 13, 1945 Pennsylvania Central Airlines purchased a fleet of 35 Martin 202's from the Glenn Martin Company, for a price of $7,000,000 . Two weeks later, Colonial Airlines announced they would purchase 20 airplanes at the price of $4,000,000 and scheduled for delivery in 1947.. Early in the next year, Martin announced Pennsylvania-Central Airlines ordered 15 more 202's bringing the total aircraft on order in early January 1947 to 137 aircraft, with a sales value of $27,000,000 .
Despite the announcement of these large orders, the contract terms allowed the airlines to cancel them without any penalty.. The 2-0-2 was unpressurised, unlike the competing Convair 240. Therefore, as delays in production built up, all airlines except Northwest, TWA, LAN and LAV called their orders and only 31 2-0-2s and 12 2-0-2As were actually delivered to the airlines.
The 202 was the first airplane subjected to the CAA's then new 'Accelerated Service Test', introduced May 15, 1947. In this test an airliner was to undergo a rigorous 150-hour test, attempting to squeeze one year's service into a week to ten day's flying. The 202 made such a test visiting about 50 cities in 7 days. At each city comprehensive inspections were made of the aircraft systems to assess how wear or malfunction would occur .
TWA and Northwest, initial customers of the 2-0-2, eventually sold their Martin 2-0-2s to California Central and Pioneer Airlines. Later, Allegheny Airlines acquired many of the 2-0-2's as part of the company's expansion plans, beginning June 1, 1955. Eventually they acquired a total of 18 aircraft.
This airliner type was eventually developed into the Martin 4-0-4, which was far more successful.
The Martin Company designated the following quantities for the airlines (though not all were built), listed by Martin Model number:
- 2-0-2 - twin engine prototype: 3, in 1946
- 2-0-2FL - twin engine commercial transport, Chile: 4, in 1947
- 2-0-2NW - twin engine commercial transport, Northwest Airlines: 25, in 1947
- 2-0-2LAV - twin engine commercial transport, Venezuela: 2, in 1947
- 2-0-2A - twin engine commercial transport, Trans World Airlines: 21, in 1947
- 2-0-2E - twin engine commercial transport, Eastern Airlines: 25, in 1947
- LAN Chile (four new delivered 1947-1948)
- Japan Air Lines (leased)
- Servicios Aéreos Baja
- RAPSA Panama
- Admiral Airlines
- Allegheny Airlines (18 1955-1966)
- California Central Airlines
- Northwest Orient Airlines (25 new delivered 1947)
- Pacific Air Lines (seven 1958-1964)
- Pioneer Air Lines (nine 1952-1960)
- Southwest Airways
- Trans World Airlines (12 new delivered 1950)
- Transocean Airlines (15 1951-1952)
- Linea Aeropostal Venezolana (two new delivered 1947)
Accidents and incidents
The Martin 2-0-2 had 13 hull-loss accidents and incidents of which nine were fatal accidents.
- 29 August 1948 - Northwest Airlines Flight 421 crashed after losing a wing near Winona, Minnesota, United States, 37 fatalities.
- 7 March 1950 - Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 307 crashed after hitting a flag pole near Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. 15 fatalities including two on the ground.
- 13 October 1950 - A Northwest Orient 2-0-2 crashed on a training flight at Almelund, Minnesota, United States, 6 fatalities.
- 7 November 1950 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed into a mountain near Butte, Montana, United States, 21 fatalities.
- 16 January 1951 - Northwest Orient Flight 115 crashed near Reardon, Washington, United States, after sudden unexplained loss of control during cruise. 10 fatalities.
- 5 November 1951 - Transocean Air Flight 5763 crashed on approach to Tucumcari, New Mexico, United States, one fatality.
- 9 April 1952 - Japan Airlines Mokusei crashed into Mihara volcano, O'Shuma Island, Japan, 37 fatalities.
- 12 January 1955 - Trans World Airlines Flight 694 was destroyed ina mid-air collision with a Douglas DC-3 near Covington, Kentucky, United States, 13 fatalities plus 2 on the DC-3.
- 14 November 1955 - A Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 had a collapsed undercarriage during a training fight landing at Willimington-Newcastle Airport and was damaged beyond repair.
- 30 December 1955 - A Southwest Airlines 2-0-2 was destroyed in a hangar fire at San Francisco, California, United States.
- 21 August 1959 - A Pacific Air Lines 2-0-2A was damaged beyond repair after a ground incident with a C-46 Commando at Burbank, California, United States.
- 1 December 1959 - Allegheny Airlines Flight 371 crashed into a mountain on approach Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States, 25 fatalities.
- 2 November 1963 - An Allegheny Airlines 2-0-2 was damaged beyond repair at Newark, New Jersey, United States.
Specifications (Martin 2-0-2)
- Crew: 3 (pilot, co-pilot/navigator/radio operator & flight steward)
- Capacity: 42 passengers
- Payload: 8,000-9,500 lb (3,636-4,318 kg)
- Length: 74 ft 7 in (22.74 m)
- Wingspan: 93 ft 3 in (28.43 m)
- Height: 28 ft 5 in (8.66 m)
- Wing area: 864 ft² (80.3 m²)
- Empty weight: 22,500 lb (10,227 kg)
- Loaded weight: 36,500 lb (16,590 kg)
- Useful load: 14,000 lb (6,363 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp 18-cylinder air-cooled radial engine with Hamilton Standard propeller, 2,000 hp (1,491 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 280 mph (242 kn, 450 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 254 mph (220 kn, 409 km/h)
- Stall speed: 115 mph (clean) / 104 mph (full flaps) (100 kn, 185 km/h / 90 kn, 145 km/h)
- Range: 1,800 mi (1,564 nmi, 2,900 km)
- Related development
- Related lists
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Eastwood/Roach 1991, pages 267-269
- ^ The Chester Times (Pennsylvania), November 13, 1945, page 3
- ^ Frederick News-Post (Maryland), November 29, 1945, page 1
- ^ Syracuse Herald Journal, January 8, 1946, page 35
- ^ a b Killion 1997, pp. 19–20
- ^ Big Spring Daily Herald (Texas), August 12, 1947, page 3
- ^ Killion 1997, pp. 128–129
- ^ Killion 1997, p. 142
- ^ Killion 1997, p. 144
- ^ Killion 1997, p. 149
- ^ Martin 2-0-2
- ^ Northwest Orient Flight 421
- ^ Northwest Orient Flight 307
- ^ Northwest Orient NC93037
- ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1950)
- ^ Killion 1997, p. 168
- ^ Northwest Orient 115 (1951)
- ^ Transocean Air Flight 5763
- ^ N93043
- ^ Trans World Airways Flight 694
- ^ N172A
- ^ Allegheny Airlines Flight 371
- First Martin 202 crash due to metal fatigue. - Aviation Safety Network
- Martin Airliners - Maryland Aviation Museum
- "US Airways: A Heritage Story". Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061113162241/http://www.usair.com/awa/content/aboutus/pressroom/history/allegheny.aspx. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
- "Civil Aeronautics Board Accident Report for the first crash of a Martin 2-0-2" (PDF). http://ntl1.specialcollection.net/scripts/ws.dll?file&fn=8&name=*S%3A%5CDOT_56GB%5Cairplane%20accidents%5Cwebsearch%5C082948.pdf. (text version also available)
(if links above fail to load report, visit http://dotlibrary.specialcollection.net and select "Historical Aircraft Accident Reports (1934-1965)", then retry report links)
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