- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
OMIM = 105800
MedlinePlus = 000701
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 2883
eMedicine_mult = eMedicine2|neuro|357 eMedicine2|emerg|559
MeshID = D013345
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, pron-en|ˌsʌbəˈræknɔɪd ˈhɛm(ə)rɪdʒ), or subarachnoid haemorrhage in British English, is
bleedinginto the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia matersurrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result from head injury. Symptoms include an intense headachewith a rapid onset (" thunderclap headache"), vomiting, and an altered level of consciousness. The diagnosisis generally made with a CT scan of the head, or occasionally by lumbar puncture. SAH is managed with close observation and prompt neurosurgical investigations, medications and other treatment methods to help prevent recurrence of the bleeding and complications.
SAH is a
medical emergencyand can lead to death or severe disability—even when recognized and treated at an early stage. Up to half of all cases of SAH are fatal and 10–15% die before reaching a hospital, and those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is considered a form of strokeand causes 1–7% of all strokes. Surgery for aneurysms was introduced in the 1930s, but since the 1990s many aneurysms are treated by a procedure called "coiling", which is carried out from within the blood vessels.
igns and symptoms
The classic symptom of subarachnoid hemorrhage is
thunderclap headache(a headache described as "like being kicked in the head",cite book | last=Longmore | first=Murray | coauthors=Ian Wilkinson, Tom Turmezei, Chee Kay Cheung | title=Oxford Handbook of Clinicial Medicine, 7th edition | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2007 | pages=841 | isbn=0-19-856837-1 ] or the "worst ever", developing over seconds to minutes). This headache often pulsates towards the occiput(the back of the head).cite book | last=Ramrakha | first=Punit | coauthors=Kevin Moore | title=Oxford Handbook of Acute Medicine, 2nd edition | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2007 | pages=466-470 | isbn=0-19-852072-6 ] About a third have no symptoms apart from the characteristic headache, and about one in ten people who seek medical care with this symptom are later diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage.cite journal |author=van Gijn J, Kerr RS, Rinkel GJ |title=Subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Lancet |volume=369 |issue=9558 |pages=306–18 |year=2007 |pmid=17258671 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60153-6] Vomitingmay be present, and 1 in 14 have seizures. Confusion, decreased level of consciousness or comamay be present, as may neck stiffness and other signs of meningism. Neck stiffness usually presents six hours after initial onset of SAH.cite book |title=Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Fourth Edition, Volume 3 |last=Warrell |first=David A |coauthors=Timothy M. Cox, "et al" |year=2003 |publisher=Oxford |isbn=0-19-857013-9 |pages=1032–1034] Isolated dilation of a pupil and loss of the pupillary light reflexmay reflect brain herniationas a result of rising intracranial pressure(pressure inside the skull). Intraocular hemorrhage(bleeding into the eyeball) may occur in response to the raised pressure: subhyaloid hemorrhage (bleeding under the hyaloid membrane, which envelops the vitreous bodyof the eye) and vitreous hemorrhage may be visible on fundoscopy. This is known as Terson syndrome(occurring in 3–13% of cases) and is more common in more severe SAH.cite journal |author=McCarron MO, Alberts MJ, McCarron P |title=A systematic review of Terson's syndrome: Frequency and prognosis after subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry |volume=75 |issue=3 |pages=491–3 |year=2004 |pmid=14966173 |pmc=1738971 |url=http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/75/3/491 |doi=10.1136/jnnp.2003.016816] Oculomotor nerveabnormalities (affected eye looking downward and outward and inability to lift the eyelid on the same side) or palsy(loss of feeling) may indicate bleeding from the posterior communicating artery. Seizures are more common if the hemorrhage is from an aneurysm; it is otherwise difficult to predict the site and origin of the hemorrhage from the symptoms. SAH in a person known to have fits is often diagnostic of an arteriovenous malformation.
As a result of the bleeding, the body releases large amounts of
adrenalineand similar hormones. This leads to a sharp increase in the blood pressure; the heart comes under substantial strain, and neurogenic pulmonary edema(accumulation of fluid in the lungs), cardiac arrhythmias (irregularities in the heart rate and rhythm), electrocardiographic changes (in 27% of cases)cite book | last=Allman | first=Keith G. | coauthors=Iain H. Wilson | title=Oxford Handbook of Anaesthesia, 2nd edition | publisher=Oxford University Press | year=2006 | pages=408–409 | 0-19-856609-0 ] and cardiac arrest(in 3% of cases) may occur rapidly after the onset of hemorrhage. [cite journal |author=Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Dae MW, "et al" |title=Acute neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Circulation |volume=112 |issue=21 |pages=3314–9 |year=2005 |pmid=16286583 |doi=10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.558239 | url=http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/112/21/3314]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage may also occur in people who have suffered a head injury. Symptoms may include headache, decreased level of consciousness and
hemiparesis(weakness of one side of the body). SAH is a frequent occurrence in traumatic brain injury, and carries a poor prognosis if it is associated with deterioration in the level of consciousness. [cite journal |author=Servadei F, Murray GD, Teasdale GM, "et al" |title=Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: demographic and clinical study of 750 patients from the European brain injury consortium survey of head injuries |journal=Neurosurgery |volume=50 |issue=2 |pages=261–7; discussion 267–9 |year=2002 |month=February |pmid=11844260 |doi=10.1097/00006123-200202000-00006]
The initial steps for evaluating a person with a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage are obtaining a
medical historyand performing a physical examination; these are aimed at determining whether the symptoms are due to SAH or to another cause. The diagnosis cannot, however, be made on clinical grounds alone; therefore medical imagingis generally required to confirm or exclude bleeding. The modality of choice is computed tomography(CT scan) of the brain. This has a high sensitivity and will correctly identify over 95% of cases—especially on the first day after the onset of bleeding. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) may be more sensitive than CT after several days. Lumbar puncture, in which cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) is removed with a needle from the lumbarsac, will show evidence of hemorrhage in 3% of people in whom CT was found normal; lumbar puncture is therefore regarded as mandatory in people with suspected SAH if imaging is negative. At least three tubes of CSF are collected. If an elevated number of red blood cells is present equally in all bottles, this indicates a subarachnoid hemorrhage. If the number of cells decreases per bottle, it is more likely that it is due to damage to a small blood vessel during the procedure (known as a "traumatic tap"). The CSF sample is also examined for xanthochromia—the yellow appearance of centrifugated fluid. More sensitive is spectrophotometry(measuring the absorption of particular wavelengths of light) for detection of bilirubin, a breakdown product of hemoglobinfrom red blood cells.cite journal |author=Cruickshank A, Auld P, Beetham R, "et al" |title=Revised national guidelines for analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for bilirubin in suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Annals of Clinical Biochemistry |volume=45 |issue=Pt 3 |pages=238–44 |year=2008 |month=May |pmid=18482910 |doi=10.1258/acb.2008.007257 |url=http://acb.rsmjournals.com/cgi/content/full/45/3/238] Xanthochromia and spectrophotometry remain reliable ways to detect SAH several days after the onset of headache. An interval of at least 12 hours between the onset of the headache and lumbar puncture is required, as it takes several hours for the hemoglobin from the red blood cells to be metabolized into bilirubin.
As only 10% of people admitted to the emergency department with a thunderclap headache are suffering from an SAH, other possible causes are usually considered simultaneously, such as
meningitis, migraine, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage, in which bleeding occurs within the brain itself, is twice as common as SAH and is often misdiagnosed as the latter. It is not unusual for SAH to be initially misdiagnosed as a migraine or tension headache, which can lead to a delay in obtaining a CT scan. In a 2004 study, this occurred in 12% of all cases and was more likely in people who had smaller hemorrhages and no impairment in their mental status. The delay in diagnosis led to a worse outcome.cite journal |author=Kowalski RG, Claassen J, Kreiter KT, "et al" |title=Initial misdiagnosis and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Journal of the American Medical Association |volume=291 |issue=7 |pages=866–9 |year=2004 |month=February |pmid=14970066 |doi=10.1001/jama.291.7.866 |url=http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/291/7/866] In some people, the headache resolves by itself, and no other symptoms are present. This type of headache is referred to as "sentinel headache", because it is presumed to result from a small leak (a "warning leak") from an aneurysm. A sentinel headache still warrants investigations with CT scan and lumbar puncture, as further bleeding may occur in the subsequent three weeks.cite journal |author=Suarez JI, Tarr RW, Selman WR |title=Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |volume=354 |issue=4 |pages=387–96 |year=2006 |month=January |pmid=16436770 |doi=10.1056/NEJMra052732]
After a subarachnoid hemorrhage is confirmed, its origin needs to be determined. If the bleeding is likely to have originated from an aneurysm (as determined by the CT scan appearance), the choice is between
cerebral angiography(injecting radiocontrast through a catheterto the brain arteries) and CT angiography (visualizing blood vessels with radiocontraston a CT scan) to identify aneurysms. Catheter angiography also offers the possibility of coiling an aneurysm (see below).
In 85% of cases of spontaneous SAH, the cause is rupture of a cerebral aneurysm—a weakness in the wall of one of the arteries in the brain that becomes enlarged. They tend to be located in the
circle of Willisand its branches. While most cases of SAH are due to bleeding from small aneurysms, larger aneurysms (which are less common) are more likely to rupture.
In 15–20% of cases of spontaneous SAH, no aneurysm is detected on the first
angiogram.cite journal |author=Rinkel GJ, van Gijn J, Wijdicks EF |title=Subarachnoid hemorrhage without detectable aneurysm. A review of the causes |journal=Stroke |volume=24 |issue=9 |pages=1403–9 |year=1993 |pmid=8362440 | url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/24/9/1403 | format=PDF] About half of these are attributed to non-aneurysmal perimesencephalic hemorrhage, in which the blood is limited to the subarachnoid spaces around the midbrain(i.e. mesencephalon). In these, the origin of the blood is uncertain. The remainder are due to other disorders affecting the blood vessels (such as arteriovenous malformations), disorders of the blood vessels in the spinal cord, and bleeding into various tumors. Cocaineabuse and sickle cell anemia(usually in children) and, rarely, anticoagulanttherapy, problems with blood clotting and pituitary apoplexycan also result in SAH.
Subarachnoid blood can be detected on CT scanning in as many as 60% of people with
traumatic brain injury.cite journal |author=Armin SS, Colohan AR, Zhang JH |title=Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: Our current understanding and its evolution over the past half century |journal=Neurological Research |volume=28 |issue=4 |pages=445–52 |year=2006 |month=June |pmid=16759448 |doi=10.1179/016164106X115053] Traumatic SAH (tSAH) usually occurs near the site of a skull fractureor intracerebral contusion. It usually happens in the setting of other forms of traumatic brain injury and has been linked with a poorer prognosis. It is unclear, however, if this is a direct result of the SAH or whether the presence of subarachnoid blood is simply an indicator of severity of the head injury and the prognosis is determined by other associated mechanisms.
There are several grading scales available for SAH. The
Glasgow Coma Scaleis ubiquitously used for assessing consciousness. Three specialized scores are used to evaluate SAH; in each, a higher number is associated with a worse outcome. [cite journal |author=Rosen D, Macdonald R |title=Subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scales: A systematic review |journal=Neurocritical Care |volume=2 |issue=2 |pages=110–8 |year=2005 |pmid=16159052 |doi=10.1385/NCC:2:2:110] These scales have been derived by retrospectively matching characteristics of patients with their outcomes.
The first scale of severity was described by Hunt and Hess in 1968:cite journal |author=Hunt W, Hess R |title=Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms |journal=Journal of Neurosurgery |volume=28 |issue=1 |pages=14–20 |year=1968 |pmid=5635959]
classification schemehas been suggested by Ogilvy and Carter to predict outcome and gauge therapy.cite journal |author=Ogilvy CS, Carter BS |title=A proposed comprehensive grading system to predict outcome for surgical management of intracranial aneurysms |journal=Neurosurgery |volume=42 |issue=5 |pages=959–68; discussion 968–70 |year=1998 |month=May |pmid=9588539 |doi=10.1097/00006123-199805000-00001] The system consists of five grades and it assigns one point for the presence or absence of each of five factors: age greater than 50; Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5; Fisher scale 3 or 4; aneurysm size greater than 10 mm; and posterior circulation aneurysm 25 mm or more.
Management involves general measures to stabilize the patient while also using specific investigations and treatments. These include the prevention of rebleeding by obliterating the bleeding source, prevention of a phenomenon known as
vasospasm, and prevention and treatment of complications.
Stabilizing the patient is the first priority. Those with a depressed level of consciousness may need to be intubated and mechanically ventilated. Blood pressure,
pulse, respiratory rateand Glasgow Coma Scale are monitored frequently. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, admission to an intensive care unitmay be preferable, especially since 15% may have further bleeding soon after admission. Nutrition is an early priority, with oral or nasogastric tube feeding being preferable over parenteralroutes. Analgesia(pain control) is generally restricted to less sedating agents such as codeine, as sedationmay impact on the mental status and thus interfere with the ability to monitor the level of consciousness. Deep vein thrombosisis prevented with compression stockings, intermittent pneumaticcompression of the calves or both. A bladder catheter is usually inserted to monitor fluid balance. Benzodiazepines may be administered to help relieve distress. Antiemeticdrugs should be given to awake persons.
Prevention of rebleeding
People whose CT scan shows a large
hematoma, depressed level of consciousness or focal neurological symptoms may benefit from urgent surgical removal of the blood or occlusion of the bleeding site. The remainder are stabilized more extensively and undergo an transfemoral angiogram or CT angiogram later. It is hard to predict who will suffer a rebleed, yet it may happen at any time and carries a dismal prognosis. After the first 24 hours have passed, rebleeding risk remains around 40% over the subsequent four weeks, suggesting that interventions should be aimed at reducing this risk as soon as possible.
cerebral aneurysmis identified on angiography, two measures are available to reduce the risk of further bleeding from the same aneurysm: clippingcite journal |author=Dandy WE |title=Intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery: Cured by operation |journal=Annals of Surgery |volume=107 |issue=5 |pages=654–9 |year=1938 |pmid=17857170 |doi=10.1097/00000658-193805000-00003 | pmc=1386933] and coiling.cite journal |author=Guglielmi G, Viñuela F, Dion J, Duckwiler G |title=Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 2: Preliminary clinical experience |journal=Journal of Neurosurgery |volume=75 |issue=1 |pages=8–14 |year=1991 |pmid=2045924] Clipping requires a craniotomy(opening of the skull) to locate the aneurysm, followed by the placement of clips around the neck of the aneurysm. Coiling is performed through the large blood vessels (endovascularly): a catheter is inserted into the femoral arteryin the groin and advanced through the aortato the arteries (both carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries) that supply the brain. When the aneurysm has been located, platinumcoils are deployed that cause a blood clot to form in the aneurysm, obliterating it. The decision as to which treatment is undertaken is typically made by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist and often other health professionals.
Generally, the decision between clipping and coiling is made on the basis of the location of the aneurysm, its size and the condition of the patient. Aneurysms of the
middle cerebral arteryand its related vessels are hard to reach with angiography and tend to be amenable to clipping. Those of the basilar arteryand posterior cerebral artery are hard to reach surgically and are more accessible for endovascular management.cite journal |author=Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Yu LM, "et al" |title=International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: A randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion |journal=Lancet |volume=366 |issue=9488 |pages=809–17 |year=2005 |pmid=16139655 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67214-5] These approaches are based on general experience, and the only randomized controlled trialdirectly comparing the different modalities was performed in relatively well patients with small (less than 10 mm) aneurysms of the anterior cerebral arteryand anterior communicating artery(together the "anterior circulation"), who constitute about 20% of all patients with aneurysmal SAH. [cite journal |author=van der Schaaf I, Algra A, Wermer M, "et al" |title=Endovascular coiling versus neurosurgical clipping for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) |issue=4 |pages=CD003085 |year=2005 |pmid=16235314 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD003085.pub2 |url=http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003085/frame.html] This trial, the "International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial" (ISAT), showed that in this group the likelihood of death or being dependent on others for activities of daily livingwas reduced (7.4% absolute risk reduction, 23.5% relative riskreduction) if endovascular coiling was used as opposed to surgery. The main drawback of coiling is the possibility that the aneurysm will recur; this risk is extremely small in the surgical approach. In ISAT, 8.3% needed further treatment in the longer term. Hence, people who have undergone coiling are typically followed up for many years afterwards with angiography or other measures to ensure recurrence of aneurysms is identified early. [cite journal |author=Campi A, Ramzi N, Molyneux AJ, "et al" |title=Retreatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms in patients randomized by coiling or clipping in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) |journal=Stroke |volume=38 |issue=5 |pages=1538–44 |year=2007 |pmid=17395870 |doi=10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.466987 |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/5/1538] Other trials have also found a higher rate of recurrence necessitating further treatments. [cite journal |author=Piotin M, Spelle L, Mounayer C, "et al" |title=Intracranial aneurysms: Treatment with bare platinum coils—aneurysm packing, complex coils, and angiographic recurrence |journal=Radiology |volume=243 |issue=2 |pages=500–8 |year=2007 |pmid=17293572 |doi=10.1148/radiol.2431060006 |url=http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/243/2/500] [cite journal |author=Raymond J, Guilbert F, Weill A, "et al" |title=Long-term angiographic recurrences after selective endovascular treatment of aneurysms with detachable coils |journal=Stroke |volume=34 |issue=6 |pages=1398–403 |year=2003 |pmid=12775880 |doi=10.1161/01.STR.0000073841.88563.E9 | url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/34/6/1398]
Vasospasm, in which the blood vessels constrict and thus restrict
blood flow, is a serious complication of SAH. It can cause ischemic brain injury (referred to as "delayed ischemia") and permanent brain damagedue to lack of oxygen in parts of the brain. It can be fatal if severe. Delayed ischemia is characterized by new neurological symptoms, and can be confirmed by transcranial doppleror cerebral angiography. About one third of all people admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage will have delayed ischemia, and half of those suffer permanent damage as a result.cite journal |author=Dorhout Mees S, Rinkel G, Feigin V, "et al" |title=Calcium antagonists for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Online) |issue=3 |pages=CD000277 |year=2007 |pmid=17636626 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD000277.pub3] It is possible to screen for the development of vasospasm with transcranial doppler every 24–48 hours. A blood flow velocity of more than 120 centimeters per second is suggestive of vasospasm.
The use of
calcium channel blockers, thought to be able to prevent the spasm of blood vessels by preventing calciumfrom entering smooth muscle cells, has been proposed for the prevention of vasospasm. The oral calcium channel blocker nimodipineimproves outcome if administered between the fourth and twenty-first day after the hemorrhage, even if it does not significantly reduce the amount of vasospasm detected on angiography.cite journal |author=Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ, "et al" |title=Cerebral arterial spasm: A controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |volume=308 |issue=11 |pages=619–24 |year=1983 |pmid=6338383] In "traumatic" subarachnoid hemorrhage, nimodipine does not affect long-term outcome, and is not recommended. [cite journal |author=Vergouwen MD, Vermeulen M, Roos YB |title=Effect of nimodipine on outcome in patients with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage: A systematic review |journal=Lancet Neurology |volume=5 |issue=12 |pages=1029–32 |year=2006 |month=December |pmid=17110283 |doi=10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70582-8] Other calcium channel blockers and magnesium sulfatehave been studied, but are not presently recommended; neither is there any evidence that shows benefit if nimodipine is given intravenously.
A protocol referred to as "triple H" is often used as a measure to treat vasospasm when it causes symptoms; this is the use of intravenous fluids to achieve a state of
hypertension(high blood pressure), hypervolemia(excess fluid in the circulation) and hemodilution (mild dilution of the blood).cite journal |author=Kassell NF, Peerless SJ, Durward QJ, Beck DW, Drake CG, Adams HP |title=Treatment of ischemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension |journal=Neurosurgery |volume=11 |issue=3 |pages=337–43 |year=1982 |month=September |pmid=7133349 |doi=10.1097/00006123-198209000-00001] Evidence for this approach is inconclusive; no randomized controlled trials have been undertaken to demonstrate its benefits. [cite journal |author=Sen J, Belli A, Albon H, Morgan L, Petzold A, Kitchen N |title=Triple-H therapy in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage |journal=Lancet Neurology |volume=2 |issue=10 |pages=614–21 |year=2003 |month=October |pmid=14505583 |doi=10.1016/S1474-4422(03)00531-3]
If the symptoms of delayed ischemia do not improve with medical treatment, angiography may be attempted to identify the sites of vasospasms and administer
vasodilatormedication (drugs that relax the blood vessel wall) directly into the artery. Angioplasty(opening the constricted area with a balloon) may also be performed.
Hydrocephalus(obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid) may complicate SAH in both the short- and long term. It is detected on CT scanning, on which there is enlargement of the lateral ventricles. If the level of consciousness is decreased, drainage of the excess fluid is performed by therapeutic lumbar puncture, extraventricular drain(a temporary device inserted into the one of the ventricles) or occasionally a permanent shunt. Relief of hydrocephalus can lead to an enormous improvement in a person's condition. Fluctuations in blood pressure and electrolyte disturbances, as well as pneumoniaand cardiac decompensation occur in about half the hospitalized persons with SAH and may worsen prognosis. Seizures occur during the hospital stay in about a third of cases. Many believe that patients might benefit from prevention with antiepileptic drugs. Although this is widely practiced,cite journal |author=Rosengart AJ, Huo JD, Tolentino J, "et al" |title=Outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with antiepileptic drugs |journal=Journal of Neurosurgery |volume=107 |issue=2 |pages=253–60 |year=2007 |month=August |pmid=17695377 |doi=10.3171/JNS-07/08/0253] it is controversial and not based on good evidence.cite journal |author=Naval NS, Stevens RD, Mirski MA, Bhardwaj A |title=Controversies in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Critical Care Medicine |volume=34 |issue=2 |pages=511–24 |year=2006 |month=February |pmid=16424735 | doi=10.1097/01.CCM.0000198331.45998.85] cite journal |author=Liu KC, Bhardwaj A |title=Use of prophylactic anticonvulsants in neurologic critical care: a critical appraisal |journal=Neurocritical Care |volume=7 |issue=2 |pages=175–84 |year=2007 |pmid=17763834 |doi=10.1007/s12028-007-0061-5] In some studies, use of these drugs was associated with a worse prognosis; this might be because they actually cause harm, or because they are used more often in persons with a poorer prognosis.cite journal |author=Naidech AM, Kreiter KT, Janjua N, "et al" |title=Phenytoin exposure is associated with functional and cognitive disability after subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Stroke |volume=36 |issue=3 |pages=583–7 |year=2005 |month=March |pmid=15662039 |doi=10.1161/01.STR.0000141936.36596.1e |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/36/3/583]
Early morbidity and mortality
SAH is often associated with a poor outcome.cite journal |author=Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM, "et al" |title=Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies |journal=Stroke |volume=36 |issue=12 |pages=2773–80 |year=2005 |pmid=16282541 |doi=10.1161/01.STR.0000190838.02954.e8 |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/36/12/2773] The death rate (mortality) for SAH is between 40 and 50%, but trends for survival are improving. Of those who survive hospitalization, more than a quarter have significant restrictions in their lifestyle, and less than a fifth have no residual symptoms whatsoever. Delay in diagnosis of minor SAH (mistaking the sudden headache for migraine) contributes to poor outcome. Factors found on admission that are associated with poorer outcome include poorer neurological grade;
systolic hypertension; a previous diagnosis of heart attack or SAH; liver disease; more blood and larger aneurysm on the initial CT scan; location of an aneurysm in the posteriorcirculation; and higher age. Factors that carry a worse prognosis during the hospital stay include occurrence of delayed ischemia resulting from vasospasm, development of intracerebral hematomaor intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding into the ventricles of the brain) and presence of feveron the eighth day of admission.cite journal |author=Rosengart AJ, Schultheiss KE, Tolentino J, Macdonald RL |title=Prognostic factors for outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Stroke |volume=38 |issue=8 |pages=2315–21 |year=2007 |month=August |pmid=17569871 |doi=10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.484360 | url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/8/2315]
So-called "angiogram-negative subarachnoid hemorrhage", SAH that does not show an aneurysm with four-vessel angiography, carries a better prognosis than SAH with aneurysm; however, it is still associated with a risk of ischemia, rebleeding and
hydrocephalus. Perimesencephalic SAH (bleeding around the mesencephalonin the brain), however, has a very low rate of rebleeding or delayed ischemia, and the prognosis of this subtype is excellent. [cite journal |author=Greebe P, Rinkel GJ |title=Life expectancy after perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Stroke |volume=38 |issue=4 |pages=1222–4 |year=2007 |month=April |pmid=17332451 |doi=10.1161/01.STR.0000260093.49693.7a |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/38/4/1222]
The prognosis of head trauma is thought to be influenced in part by the location and amount of subarachnoid bleeding. It is difficult to isolate the effects of SAH from those of other aspects of traumatic brain injury; it is unknown whether the presence of subarachnoid blood actually worsens the prognosis or whether it is merely a sign that a significant trauma has occurred. People with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury who have SAH when admitted to a hospital have as much as twice the risk of dying as those who do not. They also have a higher risk of severe disability and
persistent vegetative state, and traumatic SAH has been correlated with other markers of poor outcome such as post traumatic epilepsy, hydrocephalus, and longer stays in the intensive care unit. However, more than 90% of people with traumatic subarachnoid bleeding and a Glasgow Coma Score over 12 have a good outcome.
There is also modest evidence that genetic factors influence the prognosis in SAH. For example, having two copies of ApoE4 (a variant of the gene encoding
apolipoprotein Ethat also plays a role in Alzheimer's disease) seems to increase risk for delayed ischemia and a worse outcome.cite journal |author=Lanterna LA, Ruigrok Y, Alexander S, "et al" |title=Meta-analysis of APOE genotype and subarachnoid hemorrhage: clinical outcome and delayed ischemia |journal=Neurology |volume=69 |issue=8 |pages=766–75 |year=2007 |month=August |pmid=17709709 |doi=10.1212/01.wnl.0000267640.03300.6b]
Neurocognitive symptoms, such as fatigue, mood disturbances, and other related symptoms are common
sequelae. Even in those who have made good neurological recovery, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorderand cognitive impairment are common; 46% of people who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage have cognitive impairment that affects their quality of life. Over 60% report frequent headaches. [cite journal |author=Powell J, Kitchen N, Heslin J, Greenwood R |title=Psychosocial outcomes at three and nine months after good neurological recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: Predictors and prognosis |journal=Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry |volume=72 |issue=6 |pages=772–81 |year=2002 |month=June |pmid=12023423 | pmc=1737916 |url=http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/72/6/772 |doi=10.1136/jnnp.72.6.772] Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may lead to damage of the hypothalamusand the pituitary gland, two areas of the brain that play a central role in hormonal regulation and production. More than a quarter of people with a previous SAH may develop hypopituitarism(deficiencies in one or more of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormones such as growth hormone, luteinizing hormoneor follicle-stimulating hormone). [cite journal |author=Schneider HJ, Kreitschmann-Andermahr I, Ghigo E, Stalla GK, Agha A |title=Hypothalamopituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review |journal=Journal of the American Medical Association |volume=298 |issue=12 |pages=1429–38 |year=2007 |month=September |pmid=17895459 |doi=10.1001/jama.298.12.1429 |url=http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/298/12/1429]
According to a review of 51 studies from 21 countries, the average incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is 9.1 per 100,000 annually. Studies from
Japanand Finlandshow higher rates in those countries (22.7 and 19.7, respectively), for reasons that are not entirely understood. South and Central America, in contrast, have a rate of 4.2 per 100,000 on average.cite journal |author=de Rooij NK, Linn FH, van der Plas JA, Algra A, Rinkel GJ |title=Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: A systematic review with emphasis on region, age, gender and time trends |journal=Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry |volume=78 |issue=12 |pages=1365–72 |year=2007 |month=December |pmid=17470467 |doi=10.1136/jnnp.2007.117655]
Although the group of people at risk for SAH is younger than the population usually affected by stroke, the risk still increases with age. Young people are much much less likely than middle-aged people (risk ratio 0.1, or 10%) to suffer a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk continues to rise with age and is 60% higher in the very elderly (over 85) than in those between 45 and 55. Risk of SAH is about 25% higher in women over 55 compared to men the same age, probably reflecting the hormonal changes that result from the
menopause, such as a decrease in estrogenlevels.
Genetics may play a role in a person's disposition to SAH; risk is increased three- to fivefold in first-degree relatives of people who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, lifestyle factors are more important in determining overall risk. These risk factors are smoking, hypertension (high blood pressure) and excessive alcohol intake.cite journal |author=Teunissen LL, Rinkel GJ, Algra A, van Gijn J |title=Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review |journal=Stroke |volume=27 |issue=3 |pages=544–9 |year=1996 |pmid=8610327 |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/27/3/544] Having smoked in the past confers a doubled risk of SAH compared to those who have never smoked. Some protection of uncertain significance is conferred by Caucasian ethnicity, hormone replacement therapy,
diabetes mellitusand higher than normal levels of cholesterol. Approximately 4% of aneurysmal bleeds occur after sexual intercourseand 10% of people with SAH are bending over or lifting heavy objects at the onset of their symptoms.
Overall, about 1% of all people have one or more cerebral aneurysms. Most of these, however, are small and unlikely to rupture.cite journal |author=International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Investigators |title=Unruptured intracranial aneurysms—risk of rupture and risks of surgical intervention |journal=New England Journal of Medicine |volume=339 |issue=24 |pages=1725–33 |year=1998 |month=December |pmid=9867550 | url=http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/339/24/1725 |doi=10.1056/NEJM199812103392401]
creening and prevention
Screening for aneurysms is not performed on a population level; because they are relatively rare, it would not be cost-effective. If someone has two or more first-degree relatives who have suffered an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, screening may be worthwhile.cite journal |author=White PM, Wardlaw JM |title=Unruptured intracranial aneurysms |journal=Journal of Neuroradiology |volume=30 |issue=5 |pages=336–50 |year=2003 |month=December |pmid=14752379 |url=http://www.em-consulte.com/article/126528]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a hereditary kidney condition, is known to be associated with cerebral aneurysms in 8% of cases, but most such aneurysms are small and therefore unlikely to rupture. As a result, screening is only recommended in families with ADPKD where one family member has suffered a ruptured aneurysm. [cite journal |author=Gibbs GF, Huston J, Qian Q, "et al" |title=Follow-up of intracranial aneurysms in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease |journal=Kidney International |volume=65 |issue=5 |pages=1621–7 |year=2004 |month=May |pmid=15086900 |doi=10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00572.x]
An aneurysm may be detected incidentally on brain imaging; this presents a conundrum, as all treatments for cerebral aneurysms are associated with potential complications. The International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) provided prognostic data both in people who had previously suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and people who had aneurysms detected by other means. Those who had previously suffered SAH were more likely to bleed from other aneurysms. In contrast, those who had never bled and had small aneurysms (smaller than 10 mm) were very unlikely to suffer SAH and were likely to sustain harm from attempts to repair these aneurysms. On the basis of the ISUIA and other studies, it is now recommended that people are only considered for preventative treatment if they have a reasonable
life expectancyand have aneurysms that are highly likely to rupture.
While the clinical picture of subarachnoid hemorrhage may have been recognized by
Hippocrates, the existence of cerebral aneurysms and the fact that they could rupture was not established until the 18th century.cite journal |author=Longstreth WT, Koepsell TD, Yerby MS, van Belle G |title=Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage |journal=Stroke |volume=16 |issue=3 |pages=377–85 |year=1985 |pmid=3890278 |url=http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/reprint/16/3/377.pdf] The associated symptoms were described in more detail in 1886 by Edinburghphysician Dr Byrom Bramwell. [cite journal| author=Bramwell B | title=Spontaneous meningeal haemorrhage | journal=Edinburgh Medical Journal | year=1886 | volume=32 | pages=101] In 1924, London neurologistSir Dr Charles P. Symonds (1890–1978) gave a complete account of all major symptoms of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and he coined the term "spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage". [cite journal | author=Symonds CP | title=Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage | journal=Quarterly Journal of Medicine | year=1924 | volume=18 | pages=93–122] cite journal |author=Todd NV, Howie JE, Miller JD |title=Norman Dott's contribution to aneurysm surgery |journal=Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry |volume=53 |issue=6 |pages=455–8 |year=1990 |month=June |pmid=2199609 | pmc=1014202] Symonds also described the use of lumbar puncture and xanthochromia in diagnosis. [cite journal | author=Symonds CP | title=Spontaneous sub-arachnoid hæmorrhage | journal=Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine | year=1924 | volume=17 | pages=39–52 | pmc=2201441]
The first surgical intervention was performed by Mr Norman Dott, who was a pupil of Dr
Harvey Cushingthen working in Edinburgh. He introduced the wrapping of aneurysms in the 1930s, and was an early pioneer in the use of angiograms. American neurosurgeonDr Walter Dandy, working in Baltimore, was the first to introduce clips in 1938. Microsurgerywas applied to aneurysm treatment in 1972 in order to further improve outcomes. [cite journal |author=Krayenbühl HA, Yaşargil MG, Flamm ES, Tew JM |title=Microsurgical treatment of intracranial saccular aneurysms |journal=Journal of Neurosurgery |volume=37 |issue=6 |pages=678–86 |year=1972 |month=December |pmid=4654697] The 1980s saw the introduction of triple H therapy as a treatment for delayed ischemia due to vasospasm, and trials with nimodipine in an attempt to prevent this complication. The Italian neurosurgeon Dr Guido Guiglielmi introduced his endovascular coil treatment in 1991. [cite journal |author=Strother CM |title=Historical perspective. Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach: part 1 and part 2 |journal=AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology |volume=22 |issue=5 |pages=1010–2 |year=2001 |month=May |pmid=11337350 |url=http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/content/full/22/5/1011]
* [http://neuroland.com/cvd/sah.htm Neuroland] SAH page
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