Putnam County, New York

Putnam County, New York

Infobox U.S. County
county = Putnam County
state = New York

map size = 250
founded = 1812
seat = Carmel | area_total_sq_mi =246
area_land_sq_mi =231
area_water_sq_mi =15
area percentage = 1.21%
census yr = 2000
pop = 95745
density_km2 =160
web = www.putnamcountyny.com

Putnam County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York, in the lower Hudson Valley. Putnam county formed in 1812, when it detached from Dutchess County. As of 2004, the population is 100,570. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. The county seat is Carmel. Putnam county was named in honor of Israel Putnam, who was a hero in the French and Indian War and a general in the American Revolutionary War. Putnam County is one of the most affluent counties in America, ranked 11th by median household income, and 47th by per-capita income, according to the year 2000 census.

Adjacent Counties

Adjacent counties

*Dutchess County (north)
*Fairfield County, Connecticut (east)
*Westchester County, New York (south)
*Orange County (west)Geographic Location
Centre = Putnam County, New York
North = Dutchess County, New York
Northeast =
East = Fairfield County, Connecticut
Southeast =
South = Westchester County, New York
Southwest =
West = Orange County, New York
Northwest =


When New York State established its first twelve counties in 1683, the present Putnam County was part of Dutchess County. Dutchess County also included two towns in the present Columbia County. Until 1713, Dutchess County was administered by Ulster County.cite web|author=Putnamcountyny|title=Putnam County history|year=2007|publisher=Putnamcountyny|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.putnamcountyny.com/historian/aboutpc.htm#0]

In 1609, a group of Native Americans called the Wappingers inhabited the east bank of the Hudson River. They cultivated, hunted, and fished for shellfish in the rich land of the Hudson Valley. They often encountered Dutch traders, from which they obtained goods such as alcohol and firearms.cite web|author=Mahopac Library|title=History of the native Americans in Putnam County|year=2008|publisher=|accessdate=2008-01-29|url=http://www.mahopaclibrary.org/localhistory/addendum.htm]

In 1691, a group of Dutch traders purchased an area of land that is now known as Putnam County from the Wappingers. Six years later the traders sold it to wealthy Dutch-American merchant Adolph Philipse, who then obtained a royal patent for land extending all the way from the Hudson to the Connecticut border--an area to be known as the Philipse Patent. [http://www.putnamcountyny.com/historian/aboutpc.htm#0 Putnam County Online: Historian ] ]

In 1737, the Colonial Assembly designated the Philipse Patent as the South Precinct of Dutchess County, and the Philipses began leasing farms to immigrants from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Long Island and lower Westchester. After Adolph Philipse's death, the Patent was divided in 1754 into nine lots granted to three heirs: Mary Philipse, Philip Philipse, and Susannah Philipse Robinson. During the French and Indian War, many of the Wappingers went to Stockbridge, Massachusetts".

Due to increasing population of Dutchess County and the great distance from its county seat, Poughkeepsie, Putnam detached from Dutchess in 1812, and created its own county.Cite web|author=GenWeb|title=Putnam County|year=2006|publisher=|Rootsweb|accessdate=2008-01-27|url=http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyputnam/] Putnam was also able to function as a separate county because of the easy transportation provided by the Hudson River. Boats transporting goods traveled up the Hudson to Putnam. Problems arose when the river froze in the winter, which resulted in little food or goods being brought to the county. To resolve that, the Philipstown Turnpike was created in 1815 as a toll road from Cold Spring to Connecticut. The wagons that traveled the road would transport produce from eastern Putnam and iron ore from the mines in Highland.

Putnam County played an important role in the Civil war. One third of the county's men between the ages of 15 and 55 served in the military at the time of the war. Durning the post-Cilvil War years, industry and agriculture suffered losses. Iron, which was produced in the Highland Mountains, could be found elsewhere. Agriculture was also affected greatly. The increasing need for drinking water in New York City led the city to search the Hudson Valley for water. In Putnam County, much of the farmland were flooded to create reservoirs. The abandoning of farms, the creation of reservoirs, and the preservation of the remaining open land resulted in scenic lands that drew large amounts of tourism from New York City.

By the 20th century, improved roads brought vacationers from New York City, which led to creation of the Taconic State Parkway during the Great Depression. This brought more vacationers, which were attracted to the scenic land and the inexpensive hotels, inns, and summer houses. Putnam County's population doubled during the summer months.

After World War Two, Putnam County became an exurb of New York city. Rapid development occurred as Putnam County became a bedroom community. However, the protection of Putnam county's reservoirs put a brake on development, as much of the land in the county is close to wetlands or reservoirs. Since World War Two, the county has seen the development of the Taconic State Parkway as well as several state routes. The county has also seen three county executives; David D. Bruen 1979-1986, Peter C. Alexanderson, 1987-1990 and Robert J. Bondi, 1991-present.cite web|author=Putnam county ny|title=County Excecutive|year=2007|publisher=Putnam county ny|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.putnamcountyny.com/countyexecutive/ceo.htm]

Government and Politics

County Executives

Governmental operations in Putnam County are outlined in the County Charter which was approved by the voters of the County in November 1977. It is administered by a County Executive and a 9-member County Legislature. The current County Executive is Robert J. Bondi. He took the oath of office on January 1, 1991.

The County has had three County Executives:

Prior to the Charter form of government, the County's affairs were managed by a six-member Board of Supervisors (one Supervisor from each town in the County).

County Legislature

The members of the County Legislature are: Daniel G. Birmingham, Chairman, District 7, Vincent Tamagna, District 1, Sam Oliverio, Jr., District 2, Terry Intrari, District 3, Mary Conklin, District 4, Mary Ellen Odell, District 5, Tony Hay, District 6, Robert McGuigan, Jr., District 8 and Regina Morini, District 9.cite web|author=Putnam county ny|title=Putnam county legislator|year=2007|publisher=Putnam county ny|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.putnamcountyny.com/boe/electedofficials/pclegis.htm]

County Courts

There are three types of general trial courts in Putnam County: the New York Supreme Court, the County Court and the Justice Courts. The Supreme Court is the trial level court of the New York State Unified Court System, which presents some confusion as the Supreme Court is the highest court of appeals in the federal system as well as in most states (the Court of Appeals is the highest court in New York State). The Supreme Court has broad authority over all categories of cases, both civil and criminal. Generally the Supreme Court in Putnam hears civil cases involving claims in excess of $25,000. While the Supreme Court has jurisdiction over criminal cases in most counties this is handled by the County Courts. In Putnam however, the Supreme Court does exercise jurisdiction over some criminal cases.cite web|author=New York State united court system|title=Courts in Putnam county|year=2007|publisher=New York State united court system|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courts/9jd/Putnam/supremecounty.shtml]

The County Court is authorized to hear all criminal cases that have occurred in the county as well as limited jurisdiction over civil cases. The County Court handles felony cases exclusively and shares jurisdiction with the town and village justice courts on misdemeanor cases and other minor offenses and violations. The County Court's jurisdiction on civil cases is limited to those involving less than $25,000.

The Historic Putnam County Courthouse is located in the town of Carmel. Built in 1814 in Greek Revival style, it is the second oldest working courthouse in New York State. Portico and pillars were added to the structure in the 1840s. It was recently extensively remodeled to preserve the structure and adapt it for use as the Surrogate’s Court. [ [http://www.visitputnam.org/historic/carmel.html Putnam County Visitors' Bureau] ]

The New Putnam County Courthouse opened on January 2, 2008. It was constructed at a cost of $22.8 million. Jury assembly, court clerks and a public law library are located on the first floor. The second floor includes a Family Court and hearing room. On all floors are judges' chambers, jury deliberation rooms, prisoner cells and conference rooms. The third floor has two courtrooms for the County Court. The Supreme Court and a law library occupy the fourth floor. [ [http://lohud.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071229/NEWS04/712290359 "Putnam's $22.8M courthouse to open Wednesday," by Susan Elan, "The Journal News", December 29 2007 ] ]

County Sheriff

The current sheriff, Donald B. Smith, was elected in 2002. [ [http://www.putnamsheriff.com/modules/content/index.php?id=12 Putnam County Sheriff's Office] , retrieved on February 2, 2008.] The Sheriff's Department includes a Civil Bureau, patrol division , a marine unit, a motorcycle unit, a school resource unit, and a narcotics enforcement unit.


Putnam County is considered a red county. Bush won 56% of the vote to John Kerry's 42% in 2004. In 2006 however it was surprisingly won by Eliot Spitzer over John Faso by a margin of 58% to 39%. Senator Hillary Clinton also won Putnam County in 2006 by a much smaller margin over John Spencer of 51% to 45%.


Putnam County is situated in the southeastern part of New York State, between the Hudson River on its west and the New York-Connecticut border on its east. Putnam is southeast of Newburgh, and it is north of White Plains.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 246 square miles (638 km²), of which, 231 square miles (599 km²) of it is land and 15 square miles (39 km²) of it (6.08%) is water.cite web|author=U.S. census bureau|title=Putnam County demographics|year=2008|publisher=U.S. census burea|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36079.html] The terrain of the county is generally hilly. The region of the county nearest the Hudson River is especially so, and is part of the Hudson Highlands. The highest point in Putnam County is Scofield Ridge, with four summits at approximately 1,540 feet (469 m) above sea level. The lowest point is sea level along the Hudson.cite web|author=United States Geological Survey|title=Scofield Ridge|year=2007|publisher=United States Geological Survey|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://www.topozone.com/map.asp?lat=41.4818&lon=-73.93885&size=l&u=4&datum=nad83&layer=DRG] The Hudson River, named for Henry Hudson, has provided transportation of goods from New York City, north to the Hudson Valley, throughout history.


Putnam County is known for its large number of reservoirs, which partially supply New York City's large need for drinking water. Some of the largest reservoirs include:cite web|author|title=NYC Department of Environmental Protection|year=2008|publisher=NYC Department of Environmental Protection|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/watershed_protection/html/reservoirs.html] Bog Brook in Southeast; Croton Falls in Carmel and Southeast; Diverting in Southeast; East Branch in Brewster; Middle Branch in Southeast; West Branch in Kent and Carmel and Boyds Corner in Kent.

Adjacent counties

The adjacent counties include: Dutchess County, New York to the north; Fairfield County, Connecticut to the east; Westchester County, New York to the south; Rockland County, New York to the southwest; and Orange County, New York to the west


The climate of Putnam County is humid continental, as is the rest of New York State.cite web|author=Cornell Cooperative Extension|title=Climate of New York|year=2007|publisher=Cornell Cooperative Extension|accessdate=2008-01-30|url=http://nysc.eas.cornell.edu/climate_of_ny.html] In the winter, bouts of cold, dry air arrive from Canada, and interior sections of North America. In the summer, the Gulf Stream brings hot, moist, humid air to the county.cite web|author=Cornell Cooperative Extension|title=Climate of New York|year=2007|publisher=Cornell Cooperative Extension|accessdate=2008-01- 30|url=http://nysc.eas.cornell.edu/climate_of_ny.html] Extratropical storms often affect the county; in the winter, Nor'easters bring heavy snow and rain, and sometimes high wind. In the summer and fall, back door cold fronts move in from the north and bring thunderstorms, sometimes severe.

Towns and municipalities


Carmel is the county seat of Putnam County, with a population of 34,000.cite web|author=U.S. Census bureau|title=Demographcis of Carmel New York|year=2000|publisher|U.S. census burea|accessdate=2008-01-14|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=06000US3607912529&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Carmel&_cityTown=Carmel&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=] The town of Carmel includes the villages and hamlets of Carmel, Carmel Hills, Field Corners, Hopkins Corners, Mahopac,
Mahopac Falls, Mahopac Point, Secor Corners, Tilly Foster, and West Mahopac. Carmel is along the southern border of Putnam County. Carmel is known for its historic courthouse and high school, which serves grades 9-12.cite web|author=|title=Carmel High School|year=2007|publisher=Carmel High School|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://www.ccsd.k12.ny.us/chs/] Carmel was taken from what is now know as Kent in 1795.cite web|author=|title=Putnam County history|year=2007|publisher=Rootsweb|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyputnam/putnam1841.html]


Kent is a town located along a the northern border of Putnam with a population of 14,000.cite web|author=U.S. Census bureau|year=2006|title=Population of Kent|publisher=U.S. Census bureau|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=06000US3607939331&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Kent&_cityTown=Kent&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=] Kent contains the villages and hamlets of Lake Carmel, Kent Corners, Kent Hills, and Luddingtonville. Kent was originally named Fredericktown, when it was founded in 1778.


Patterson is a town located in the northeast area of Putnam County with a population of 12,000.cite web|author=U.S. census bureau|title=Population of Patterson|year=2006|publisher=U.S. Census bureau|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=06000US3607956748&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=Patterson&_cityTown=Patterson&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=] Patterson, originally named Franklin, was founded in 1795. Patterson contains the villages and hamlets of Barnum Corners, Camp Brady, Fields Corners, Haines Corners, Haviland Hollow, Putnam Lake, Steinbeck Corners, Towners, and West Patterson.


) is located across the Hudson River from the village of Cold Spring.


Southeast is a town located along the southern border of Putnam County with a population of 18,000.cite web|author=U.S. Census bureau|title=Population of Southeast|year=2006|publisher=U.S. Census bureau|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=06000US3607968924&_geoContext=&_street=&_county=southeast&_cityTown=southeast&_state=&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=] It was founded in 1788.Cite web|author=|title=Town of Southeast|year=2007|publisher=Town of Southeast, New York|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://www.townofsoutheast-ny.com/Public_Documents/SoutheastNY_WebDocs/about] It is the second largest town in Putnam County, second only to Carmel. Southeast is located at the crossroads of Interstate highways 684 and 84, and State Routes 22, 312, 6 and 202. Metro-North Railroad's Harlem Line has two stops that service the area, at Brewster Village and Southeast Station (formerly Brewster North) off Route 312. Southeast contains the villages and hamlets of Brewster, Brewster Heights, Deans Corners, Deforest Corners, Drewville Heights, Dykemans, Milltown, Sears Corners, and Sodom.

Putnam Valley

Putnam Valley is a town located on the southern border of Putnam County with a population of 11,000.cite web|author=U.S. Census bureau|title=Population of Putnam Valley|year=2006|publisher=U.S. Census bureau|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=Search&_name=Putnam+Valley&_state=&_county=Putnam+Valley&_cityTown=Putnam+Valley&_zip=&_sse=on&_lang=en&pctxt=fph] Putnam Valley contains the villages and hamlets of Adams Corners, Christian Corners, Gilbert Corners, Lake Peekskill, Oscawana Corners, Putnam Valley, Tompkins Corners, Sunnybrook. Putnam Valley is also home to the Clarence Fahnestock State Park, which covers much of Putnam County, and some of Dutchess County.cite web|author=New York State Park Authority|title=Fahnestalk state park|year=2007|publisher=New York State park authority|accessdate=2008-01-15|url=http://nysparks.state.ny.us/parks/info.asp?parkID=129]


As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 95,745 people, 32,703 households, and 25,181 families residing in the county. The population density was 414 people per square mile (160/km²). There were 35,030 housing units at an average density of 152 per square mile (58/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 93.87% White, 1.63% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.67% from other races, and 1.42% from two or more races. 6.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31.0% were of Italian, 21.1% Irish and 9.7% German ancestry according to Census 2000. 87.5% spoke English, 5.2% Spanish and 3.2% Italian as their first language. As of 2005 the population was estimated to be 86% non-Hispanic whites. African-Americans were now 2.6% of the population. 0.2% of the population was Native Americans. 1.9% was Asian. 9.2% of the population was Latino, representing a significant change in the ethnic make up of the county's population.

In 2000 there were 32,703 households out of which 38.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.40% were married couples living together, 8.30% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.00% were non-families. 18.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county the population was spread out with 26.50% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 32.10% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, and 9.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males.cite web|author=U.S. census bureau|title=Putnam Connty demographics|year=2008|publisher=U.S. census burea|accessdate=2008-01-13|url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36079.html]

The median income for a household in the county was $72,279, and the median income for a family was $82,197, the highest in the state. Males had a median income of $53,295 versus $38,390 for females. The per capita income for the county was $30,127. About 2.70% of families and 4.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.50% of those under age 18 and 7.00% of those age 65 or over.


The county has six public school districts: Brewster, Carmel, Garrison, Haldane, Mahopac, and Putnam Valley. [ [http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/localList.php?local=22495&locTGroup=School_districts&direction=down&sec=0&qty=6 School Districts in or near Putnam County - ePodunk ] ] Mahopac is the largest school district in Putnam County, educating more than 5,000 students in four elementary schools, a middle school, and a high school (1600 students). [http://www.mahopac.k12.ny.us/do/profile/]

The library system consists of eight libraries; the Brewster Public Library in Brewster; the Kent Public Library in Kent; the Reed Memorial Library in Carmel; the Julia L. Butterfield Memorial Library in Cold Spring; the Alice Curtis Desmond and Hamilton Fish Library in Garrison; the Mahopac Public Library in Mahopac; the Patterson Library in Patterson and the Putnam Valley Free Library in Putnam Valley. [ [http://www.nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/libs/publibs/3mh.htm#079 Mid-Hudson Library System ] ]


Putnam has two interstate highways. The east-west Interstate 84 comes in from the north near Ludingtonville, and connects to the southbound Interstate 684 in Southeast toward the Connecticut border.cite web|author=|title=Interstate 84|year=2008|publisher=NYC roads|accessdate=2008-01-14|url=http://www.nycroads.com/roads/I-84_NY/] The Taconic State Parkway, another high-speed through road, runs north-south through central Putnam.cite web|author=|title=Taconic state parkway|year=2008|publisher=NYC roads|accessdate=2008-01-14|url=http://www.nycroads.com/roads/taconic/] US 9 runs north-south in the western part of the county, paralleled by NY 9D along the Hudson River. NY 22 runs north-south in the eastern part of the county.cite web|author=Mapquest|title=map of Putnam county|year=2008|publisher=Mapquest|accessdate=2008-01-14|url=http://www.mapquest.com/maps/map.adp?searchtype=address&country=US&addtohistory=&searchtab=home&formtype=address&pop
] NY 301 runs east-west from Cold Spring to Carmel. The short NY 403 connects 9 and 9D near Garrison. Three of the region's major east-west routes traverse the eastern half of the county. NY 52 enters alongside I-84 from Dutchess County, to end at US 6 south of Carmel. East of Brewster, US 6 joins US 202 and the routes leave the county and state concurrently aside the interstate.

The county's highway and facilities department maintains a number of county roads and performs snow and ice control on portions of the following numbered highways within the county:cite web|url=https://www.nysdot.gov/portal/page/portal/divisions/engineering/technical-services/hds-respository/06tdreport.pdf|title=Traffic Data Report - All routes|format=PDF|publisher=NYSDOT|date=2007-07-16|accessdate=2008-01-16] U.S. Route 6 from Westchester County line to the NY 22/U.S. Route 202 concurrency;
NY 6N for the entire duration within Putnam;
NY 9D from NY 301 to the Dutchess County line;
NY 52 from its southern terminus to NY 311;
NY 164 for its entire duration, and
NY 301 for its entire duration.

The county also has several passenger trains that travel through the county. The Harlem Line and the Hudson Line of the Metro-North Railroad run north-south in Putnam. The Harlem Line makes stops at Brewster, Southeast, and Patterson. The Hudson Line makes stops at Manitou, Garrison, Cold Spring, and Breakneck Ridge.cite web|author|title=Metro North railroad|year=2008|publisher=Metro North Railroad|accessdate=2008-01-14|url=http://www.mta.info/mnr/html/mnrmap.htm] A connection to Amtrak can be made to the south at Croton-Harmon in upper Westchester County or to the north at Poughkeepsie in Duchess County, both on the Hudson Line.


Points of interest

Points of interest include Chuang Yen Monastery, located in Carmel and home to the largest Buddha statue in the Western Hemisphere as well as the only library in the United States specializing in Buddhist history;cite web|author=Putnam County visitors bureau|title=Points of interest|year=2007|publisher=Putnam County visitors bureau|accessdate=2008-01-16|url=http://www.visitputnam.org/historic/kent.html] Donald J. Trump State Park, a 436 acre state park located in Putnam and Westchester counties;cite web|author=Journal News|title=Donald J. Trump comes to Putnam county|year=2006|publisher=New York New Jersey Trail Conference|accessdate=2008-01-16|url=http://www.nynjtc.org/externalnews/2006/trump2.html] Thunder Ridge Ski Area, a small ski resort located in Patterson with 30 trails and 3 lifts;cite web|author=Thunder Ridge ski homepage|title=Thunder Ridge Ski area|year=2007|publisher=Thunder Ridge Ski area|accessdate=2008-01-16|url=http://www.thunderridgeski.com/] and Clarence Fahnestock State Park, a 14,000 acre (56 km²) state park named for Clarence Fahnestock containing 15 kilometers of trails for walking and hiking.

Depictions in popular culture

Putnam County served as the setting for the 2005 Broadway musical The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee. Locations such as Putnam Valley were referenced within the show; however, the schools from which the competitors hailed are works of fiction.


*Putnam County gets the majority of its electricity from Indian Point Energy Center electricity plant in Westchester County. [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/at_a_glance/reactors/in_point.html US Nuclear Plants - Indian Point ] ]
*Putnam County gets its water supply mainly from wells, the City of New York's local reservoirs and controlled lakes, or from the Hudson River.
*The main hospital which serves Putnam County is the Putnam Hospital Center, located in Carmel. [ [http://www.putnamhospital.org/foundation/ Putnam Hospital Center ] ]

ee also

* Dutchess County
* Hudson Valley
* Upstate New York


External links

* [http://www.putnamcountyny.com Putnam County, New York site]
* [http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/his/bk3/ch11.html Summary early history of Putnam County]
* [http://fishkillcreekwatershed.org/ Fishkill Creek Watershed Committee]
* [http://www.SoutheastMuseum.org Southeast Museum Brewster, NY]
* [http://www.FriendsofTillyFoster.org Friends of Tilly Foster, Southeast NY]

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