Comitative case

Comitative case

The comitative case (abbreviated com), also known as the associative case (abbreviated ass), is a grammatical case that denotes companionship, and is used where English would use "in company with" or "together with"[citation needed]. Among other languages, it is found in Korean, Finnish, Hungarian, Mongolian, Estonian, Japanese and many Australian Aboriginal languages where it is very commonly used to form names of places and languages[citation needed].



In the Estonian language singular comitative is formed by adding the suffix '-ga' to the genitive in case of singular[citation needed]:

  • nina (nominative: nose) → nina (genitive: of nose) → ninaga (comitative: with a nose)
  • koer (nominative: dog) → koera (genitive: of dog) → koeraga (comitative: with a dog)

And by adding the suffixes '-de' and '-ga' to the singular partitive in case of plural, thus making first a plural genitive case and then adding the comitative suffix:

  • leht (nominative: leaf, page) → lehte (partitive: leaf) → lehtede (genitive: of leaves) → lehtedega (comitative: with leaves)
  • kass (nominative: cat) → kassi (partitive: cat) → kasside (genitive: of cats) → kassidega (comitative: with cats)

In the Estonian language comitative is also used to denote when something is used as an implement - kirvega (with axe / using an axe) or as a means of transport laevaga (by boat)[citation needed].


In the Finnish language, the comitative is rare and seldom used in spoken Finnish. The suffix -ne is used alone only when it is an attribute of another word, otherwise additional possessive suffix must be added, such as -ne+en, e.g. suurine vuorineen "with its large mountains". The Finnish literary comitative expresses only possessions or attributes, and as such does not replace the preposition "from". It has only a plural, which is, paradoxically, used to denote both the singular and the plural, e.g. tyttö koirineen "girl with her dog(s)".

In the expressions corresponding to the Estonian ones above, the adessive may be used, e.g. lehdillä "with leaves" or laivalla "by boat". The idea of "being in company" is expressed with genitive + kanssa, e.g. tyttö koiran kanssa "girl with dog". In spoken Finnish, this abbreviates to a clitic very similar to the Estonian comitative, -nkaa (via -nkans). It is debatable if this is a grammatical case, because it does not obey vowel harmony; that is, there is no form -nkää. Some dialects do have such a form, however.


In the Japanese language, the comitative uses the same particle as the coordinating conjunction to (and)[citation needed].

Yūbe tomodachi-to eiga-o mi-ni itta. ((I) went to the movies with friends last night.) (Lit: last.night friend(s)-with movie(s)-acc see-to went) Compare: tomodachi-to kazoku-wa hitsuyō da. (Friends and family are important.) (Lit: friends and family-TOP necessity COPULA.)


English also exhibits grammatical behavior which may be described as instances of the comitative case. The most prominent example is with the first person singular pronoun, although higher registers tend to avoid this usage via editing:

  • My dad and me haven't ever really been close.
  • Me and my wife's favorite fish is mackerel.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • comitative case — noun Noun case used to denote companionship. In English, this is usually expressed by the prepositional phrase in company with, together with or with, as in with the house. Languages that use the comitative case include Estonian, Finnish,… …   Wiktionary

  • Instrumental-comitative case — This case in Hungarian language contains the Instrumental case and the Comitative case at the same time. It is similar to the English preposition with .It may refer to the means of the action (with a knife, fork; by tram etc.) and to the person… …   Wikipedia

  • comitative — I. ˈkäməˌtād.iv, təd. adjective Etymology: Latin comitatus + English ive : expressing accompaniment comitative case II. noun ( s) …   Useful english dictionary

  • comitative — 1. adjective Of, or relating to the grammatical case that is used in some languages to indicate accompaniment. 2. noun The comitative case, or a word in this case …   Wiktionary

  • comitative — /kom i tay tiv, teuh tiv/, Gram. adj. 1. noting a case whose distinctive function is to indicate accompaniment. n. 2. the comitative case. [1855 60; < L comitat(us) retinue, escort (comit , s. of comes companion (see COMES) + atus ATE3) + IVE] *… …   Universalium

  • Ornative case — In linguistics, the ornative case is a noun case that means endowed with or supplied with . This case is found in the Dumi language, where it is marked by the suffix mi.[1] See also Comitative case References ^ van Driem, George. A grammar of… …   Wikipedia

  • Instrumental case — The instrumental case (also called the eighth case ) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. The noun may be either a physical object or an… …   Wikipedia

  • Sociative case — This case in Hungarian language can express the person in whose company (cf. Latin socius ) the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action (together with their owners). This case is obsolete and nowadays… …   Wikipedia

  • Grammatical case — Grammatical categories Animacy Aspect Case Clusivity Definiteness Degree of comparison Evidentiality …   Wikipedia

  • Vocative case — For the assembly programming concept, see Addressing mode. The vocative case (abbreviated voc) is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed and/or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative… …   Wikipedia

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