- Los Angeles River
The Los Angeles River is a creek flowing through
Los Angeles County, California, from Canoga Park in the west end of the San Fernando Valley, 51 miles (82 km) southeast to its mouth in Long Beach. For most of its length, it flows through a narrow concrete channel. Today, some environmental groups advocate the removal of concrete and the restoration of natural vegetation and wildlife.
Before the opening of the
Los Angeles Aqueduct, the river was the primary source of fresh water for the city. Although the Los Angeles region still gets some of its water from the river and other local sources, most comes from several aqueducts serving the area. The river suffers severe pollution from garbage and urban runoff.
The river's official starting point is at the union of Bell Creek and
Calabasas Wash(Arroyo Calabasas or Calabasas Creek) in the southwestern San Fernando Valley(coord|34.1952|N|118.601838|W). But the majority of its source waters flow from high in the San Gabriel Mountainsto the east of the San Fernando Valley, and the Santa Susana Mountainsto the north.
Major tributaries, in order of their appearance on the river, are
Aliso Canyon Wash, the Tujunga Wash, Brown's Canyon Wash, the Western Burbank Channel, the Verdugo Wash, the Arroyo Seco, the Rio Hondo, and Compton Creek. The river flows eastward through the San Fernando Valley until turning south and southeast in the city of Burbank. It then flows between the Santa Monica Mountainsand the Verdugo Mountainsthrough a passage known as the Glendale Narrows. When it leaves the Glendale Narrows, the River flows directly south through Downtown Los Angeles and continues flowing in a straight southerly direction until it reaches Long Beach. The river flows in a concrete flood control channel capable of delivering massive amounts of rainwater to the sea during the rainy season. These flood waters come from the Santa Monica Mountains, the Verdugo Mountains, the Santa Susana Mountains, and the San Gabriel Mountains, collecting more urban runoff from Los Angeles and Pasadena along its path to the Pacific Ocean. In the dry season, about 80% of the water in the river consists of tertiary treated sewagewater. While this water is cleaner than the water in most urban rivers around the world, the river is polluted from runoff from the city streets, which drain into the river all along its fifty mile course. Rainy season floodwaters from the streets of Los Angeles are particularly toxicand have created pollution problems along the beaches following heavy storms.
The river provided water and sustenance for the
GabrielinoIndians for hundreds of years prior to the arrival of the Spanish. The Gabrielinos were hunters and gatherers who lived primarily off the fish, small mammals and acorns from the abundant oaktrees along the river's path. There were at least 45 Gabrielino villages located near the Los Angeles River, concentrated in the San Fernando Valley, and Elysian Valley in what is present day Glendale. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolàduring his 1769 expedition of Alta California named it "El Rio de Nuestra Señora La Reina de Los Angeles de Porciúncula", so translated: "The River of Our Lady Queen of the Angels of Porciuncula." It was referred to as the Porciuncula River.
The River was originally an
alluvialriver that ran freely across a flood plainthat is now occupied by Los Angeles, Long Beach, and other townships in Southern California. Its path was unstable and unpredictable, and the mouth of the River moved frequently from one place to another between Long Beach and Ballona Creek. In the early nineteenth Century, the River turned southwest after leaving the Glendale Narrows, where it joined Ballona Creekand discharged into Santa Monica Bayin present Marina del Rey. However, during a catastrophic flash floodin 1835, its course was diverted again to its present one, flowing due south just east of present-day downtown Los Angeles and discharging into San Pedro Bay. (Prior to another major flood in 1862, it was joined by the San Gabriel River in present-day Long Beach, but in that year the San Gabriel carved out a new course 6 miles (10 km) to the east, and has discharged into Alamitos Bayever since.)
Until the opening of the
Los Angeles Aqueduct, the Los Angeles River was the primary water source for the Los Angeles Basin, and much of its channel was dry except during the winter rains.Fact|date=June 2008 Unpredictable and devastating floods continued to plague it well into the 1930s (most notably the catastrophic 1938 flood that precipitated the recall of corrupt Los Angeles mayor Frank L. Shaw), leading to calls for flood control measures. The Army Corps of Engineersduly began an ambitious project of completely encasing the river's bed and banks in concrete, with only a trickle of water usually flowing down its middle. Ever since, it has primarily served as a flood control channel, fed by storm drains. The only portions of the river in which it is not completely paved over are in the flood control basin behind the Sepulveda Damnear Van Nuys; a 3-mile (5-km) stretch east of Griffith Parkknown as the Glendale Narrows; and along its last few miles in Long Beach.
Points of interest
Sepulveda Basinis a flood-control basin to control floodwater runoff. Except for infrequent but dramatic flood episodes, this otherwise dry-land flood control basin, most of which is leased from the Corps by the City of Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks, plays host to diverse uses today including athletic fields, agriculture, golf courses, a fishing lake, parklands, a sewage treatment facility, and a wildlife reserve.
Los Angeles River bicycle pathruns through the Glendale Narrows and is accessible to the public at its north end at Riverside Drive, at Los Feliz Boulevard, and at its south end at Glendale Boulevard. The bike path runs parallel to the 5 freeway for the majority of its length and has mile markers and call boxes for information and safety purposes.
The river's southern stretch forms the heart of an industrial corridor stretching nearly unbroken from Lincoln Heights to Long Beach. In this area, the busy
Long Beach Freeway(I-710) and several high-voltage power lines run within a few hundred feet of the riverbed. Several rail yards are located along the river's banks in this stretch, as well. Just outside of the industrial corridor lie some of the most densely populated cities in the state of California, such as the cities of Cudahy and South Gate; most of these cities are in the river's flood plain and experienced significant flooding prior to channelization.
One of the initiatives shepherded by the Ad Hoc River Committee is the Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan. As a result of the Ad Hoc River Committee’s efforts, and with funding from the
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, the City of Los Angeles’ Department of Public Works-Bureau of Engineering issued a Request for Proposals in 2005 for the preparation of a Revitalization Master Plan which would identify proposals that would make the Los Angeles River a “front door” to the City, and support a multitude of civic activities.
The 18-month revitalization planning process looked at improvements along the project area all aimed towards protecting wildlife, promoting the health of the river, and leveraging economic development. By the end of the planning process, a 20-year blueprint for development and management of the Los Angeles River was developed for implementation by the City of Los Angeles. The plan was officially adopted by the City of Los Angeles in May 2007.
Friends of the Los Angeles River (FoLAR) and other environmental groups have been advocating restoration of the river, creation of a wildlife corridor from the mountains to the sea and a radical change in the way rainwater on individual properties is dealt with.
The Mountains Recreation and Conservation Authority, has a powerful State mandate to connect Elysian and Griffith Parks to the mountains. With an initial budget of $1,000,000, MRCA is evaluating the acquisition of properties to create parks and trails along the river between the two large parks. (See the article by Ester Feldman in the April '94 TPR).
California Coastal Conservancy, a state agency, published its Los Angeles River Park and Recreation Study in 1993, identifying potential projects along the river. In November 2005, Unpave LA sponsored a well attended conference, Rethinking the River, to promote discussion of LA River management options.In 2006, Mayor Villaraigosa visited South Korea to look at their river restoration project, the Cheonggyecheon.
Numerous films, video games, and television programs have featured various sites along the Los Angeles River, many of which involve the river as a sinister plot location. Films involving the river include "
Chinatown", " Them!", " Blue Thunder", " Escape from L.A.", ', "Grease", "Volcano", "Point Blank", "Roadblock", "Hot Rod Girl", " Blood in Blood Out", "Boomtown", ', " Midnight Club II", "Rize", " The Core", " Repo Man", "The Italian Job", " Point Break", "Gone in 60 Seconds","Transformers", "24", " The Gumball Rally", " To Live and Die in L.A.", " The First Power", " Purple Rain", and many others, including a skit on the show "Jackass" in which Johnny Knoxvilletries to jump a section on roller blades, but breaks his ankle.
Several music videos have also been filmed at the Los Angeles River, including:
*"So Hard" -
Voice of the Beehive
*"It's Funky Enough" -
*"Life is.. Too Short" -
*"The River" -
*"Got the Life" - Korn
*"Wake Up Call" -
*"Under the Bridge" -
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Don't Cha- Pussycat Dolls"Take The Long Road And Walk It- The Music
Wherever You Will Go- The Calling
Communities and Cities along the banks of the Los Angeles River include:
*East Los Angeles
South Central Los Angeles
Crossings are listed from south to north. [
National Bridge Inventory]
List of California rivers
*"The Los Angeles River: Its Life, Death, and Possible Rebirth." Blake Gumprecht. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8018-6047-4.
*"Eden by design: the 1930 Olmsted-Bartholomew plan for the Los Angeles region." Greg Hise & William Francis Deverell. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 0-520-22414-0. ISBN 0-520-22415-9.
*"Río L.A.: Tales from the Los Angeles River." Patt Morrison. Los Angeles: Angel City Press, 2001. ISBN 1-883318-24-6.
*"Down By The Los Angeles River: Friends of the Los Angeles River's Official Guide" Joe Linton. Berkeley: Wilderness Press, 2005. ISBN 0-89997-391-4.
*"Hazardous Metropolis: Flooding and Urban Ecology in Los Angeles" Jared Orsi. University of California Press, 2004. ISBN 0520238508.
* [http://ladpw.org/wmd/watershed/LA/LA_River_Plan.cfm The Los Angeles River Master Plan]
* [http://www.longbeach.gov/park/facilities/index.asp Long Beach RiverLink] , part of the San Pedro Bay Estuary Project.
* [http://www.lariver.org Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan and City Ad Hoc Committee.]
* [http://www.lalc.k12.ca.us/target/units/river/tour/index.html The Los Angeles River Tour]
* [http://www.theriverproject.org/index.html The River Project]
* [http://www.folar.org F.O.L.A.R Friends of the Los Angeles River]
* [http://seriss.com/people/erco/fovicks/ Friends Of Vast Industrial Concrete Kafkaesque Structures] , a photo journal of photographs of the Los Angeles River flood control channel.
* [http://www.plasmatic-concepts.com/lariver/movie.html The Los Angeles River Film] , a 28-minute documentary film about the Los Angeles River including recent revitalization efforts.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.