Wave (audience)

Wave (audience)
Stadium crowd performing "the wave" at the Confederations Cup 2005 in Frankfurt

The wave (North American) or the Mexican wave (outside North America) is an example of metachronal rhythm achieved in a packed stadium when successive groups of spectators briefly stand and raise their arms. Immediately upon stretching to full height, the spectator returns to the usual seated position.

The result is a "wave" of standing spectators that travels through the crowd, even though individual spectators never move away from their seats. In many large arenas the crowd is seated in a contiguous circuit all the way around the sport field, and so the wave is able to travel continuously around the arena; in discontiguous seating arrangements, the wave can instead reflect back and forth through the crowd. When the gap in seating is narrow, the wave can sometimes pass through it. Usually only one wave crest will be present at any given time in an arena. Simultaneous, counter-rotating waves have been produced.[1]


Origins and Variations

Fenway Park

Some claim that the first appearenece of the wave was at Fenway Park. As the legened goes the wave owes its existence to a section of tightly packed seats behind home plate at Fenway Park. These seats are so close together that whenever a fan had to stand up to, say, get a beer, everyone else in the row also had to stand. The fans in the next row, frustrated that they couldn’t see the game anymore, also got up. This created a domino effect with the entire section rising in rhythmic unison.


Observers report[weasel words] that the wave originated at Pacific Lutheran University in the early 1960s.[citation needed] Reportedly, a cheerleader named Bill T. Peterson would sprint along the basketball court during games, encouraging fans to rise and cheer as he passed and hence creating an early version of the audience "wave."[citation needed]


The wave was done later at the 1976 Montreal Olympics and adopted by the National Hockey League in Canada in the late 1970s, then introduced to a wider audience (intentionally) in October 1981 at a Major League Baseball game in Oakland, California, by Krazy George, and gained notoriety at U.S.American football games in Seattle, Washington's Kingdome stadium.[citation needed] The wave was created in Vancouver, British Columbia by a marketing campaign for the local soccer team the Vancouver Whitecaps, in which they got the crowd to perform this for a commercial in which their slogan was "Catch the Wave."[citation needed]

On June 24, 1981, while waiting for President Reagan to take the podium at the U.S.A. Jaycees National Convention at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas, the Jaycee members and their guests—about 10,000 people—began doing the wave. It lasted for about three or four minutes before the Secret Service requested the U.S.A. Jaycee President ask the membership to stop the action, presumably because it made it difficult to monitor the crowd. This address by the U.S.A President was only the second or third major speech after he had been shot by John Hinckley Jr. on March 30, 1981.

Krazy George

Some claim that the first appearance of the wave was a section by section cheer at a Major League Baseball game that was led by professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson in Oakland, California on October 15, 1981, in an American League Championship Series game between the Oakland Athletics and the New York Yankees.[2][3]

Krazy George believes that the wave originally was inspired by accident when he was leading cheers at a National Hockey League game at the Northlands Coliseum in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. His routine was to have one side of the arena jump and cheer, then have the opposite side respond. One night in late 1980, there was a delayed response from one section of fans, leading to them jumping to their feet a few seconds later than the section beside them. The next section of fans followed suit, and the first wave circled the Northlands Coliseum of its own accord.[4] Krazy George then perfected the method for initiating a wave cheer with the Edmonton fans, and carried the wave with him to other venues, culminating with the aforementioned televised Major League Baseball game.[citation needed]

University of Washington

Many claim that the first wave originated in Seattle at the University of Washington's Husky Stadium on October 31, 1981,[5][6] at the prompting of Dave Hunter (Husky band trumpet player) and Robb Weller (later Entertainment Tonight co-host, and then a television producer). Contrary to Weller's account, former Washington yell leader Tolly Allen has also claimed credit for the first wave. Weller, a Washington graduate, was the guest yell-king during the Huskies' homecoming football game against the Stanford University Cardinal (led by junior quarterback John Elway). Weller's initial concept for the wave was for it to travel vertically, from the bottom of the stands to the top, within the UW student section. Weller claimed to have done this at games when he was yell king. When that was met with limited interest, Weller then came up with the idea to move the wave from top to bottom.

This failed miserably, as it was necessary to turn backward to see the wave progressing downward. Weller then gave up and returned his attention to the game. However, some fans, including Dave Hunter, toward the open (East) end of the stadium on the student side started yelling "sideways". Weller did not hear them, but the students tried to initiate a "sideways" wave on their own. After a few attempts, and more yelling of "sideways" by students, Weller took notice. He instructed the crowd to stand as he ran past. He moved along the track toward the open end of the stadium, explaining to the student crowd what he would do, then ran along the track toward the closed end of the stadium, in front of the student section. After a couple of tries, this caught on, and continued around the entire Husky Stadium, and was repeated throughout the rest of the game and the season. Longtime UW band director Bill Bissell also claimed co-creator credit with Weller, suggesting that the wave was devised by both of them prior to the game. The following week, the wave appeared at Seattle Seahawks professional football games in the Kingdome. While the exact origins of the wave may be in dispute, Seattle was the first place to routinely perform it. It became ubiquitous at every single sporting event in the area in the early 80s, it has been a staple of Seattle sports ever since.

University of Michigan

In the early fall of 1983, the Michigan Wolverines played the Huskies in Seattle and brought the wave back to Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor. A letter to the sports editor of The New York Times claimed,[7] "There are three reasons why the wave caught on at Michigan Wolverine games: It gave the fans something to do when the team was leading its opponent by 40 points, it was thrilling and exciting to see 105,000 people in the stands moving and cheering, and Bo Schembechler asked us not to do it." The fans responded to his request by doing more waves, including "Silent Waves" (standing and waving arms without cheering), "Shsh Waves" (replacing the cheering with a "shshing" sound), the "Fast Wave," the "Slow Wave," and two simultaneous waves traveling in opposite directions. The following spring, fans who had enjoyed the wave in Ann Arbor introduced it to the nearby Tiger Stadium in Detroit. The Tigers won the World Series that year and appeared on many televised games throughout 1984, so people all over America saw it.

1986 FIFA World Cup

In June 1986, the wave was first brought to world-wide attention when it was displayed the 1986 FIFA World Cup in Mexico.[8][9] For many people living outside of North America, this was the first time they ever saw the phenomenon, and it was dubbed the "Mexican wave".[8][9]

Monterrey, Mexico

The wave was done in Monterrey, Mexico, during a football match between Tigres UANL and C.F. Monterrey. During the half time, the players were taking longer than expected to return to the field, the crowd grew anxious, and the organizers were trying to entertain the crowd and throwing match balls as presents. People were getting more and more creative with their cheer, and thus created "la ola" (the wind wave), which after a few attempts made its way all the way around the stadium.

In Mexico, the Mexican wave was popularized through a show called "Siempre en Domingo" (always on Sunday) by Raul Velazco.

Vancouver, Canada

August 16, 2011 was the first known occurrence of the so-called "Zombie Wave." Coordinated by a particularly zealous fan wearing a Joe Carter Toronto Blue Jays jersey, midway through a minor league baseball game between the Vancouver Canadians and the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes. After repeated standard waves, fast waves, and slow waves, spectators in Section 10 of the Scotiabank Field at Nat Bailey Stadium developed an apparently new variation of the wave. The term "Zombie Wave" was coined by a local sports fan named Sean Sanderson, who at the sight of the slow moving wave shouted out, "Zombie Wave". This was picked up by the wave coordinator and disseminated to the rest of the crowd who then followed suit by rising in a protracted manner with crooked arms and postures, swaying and bumping into each other at random, all while producing zombie-like groans and facial expressions. The zombie wave was then repeated several times, with participation from the other sections of the stadium, and was momentarily noted by players on the field.

Global broadcasts

The 1984 Rose Bowl was broadcast outside North America on January 2, 1984, introducing other countries to the wave as UCLA and Illinois fans kept it going around the Rose Bowl Stadium.

The wave got its first real taste of international exposure during the 1984 Olympic football final between Brazil and France on August 11, when it was done among the 100,000 in attendance at the Rose Bowl, Pasadena.[10]

The 1986 FIFA World Cup in Mexico was broadcast to a global audience, and the wave was popularized world-wide after featuring during the tournament.[8][9] The finals in Mexico was the first time that many people living outside North America had seen the phenomenon, and as a result it was named the "Mexican wave".[8][9] In Brazil, Germany, Italy, and other countries the wave is called "la ola" (or simply ola) from the Spanish word for "wave".[11]

Current appearances

Today, the wave is often seen during FIFA World Cup events when the spectators want to show appreciation for the match or during a lull in the action on the sports field to amuse themselves. There is some controversy as to when the wave is appropriate to perform during a sporting event.[12] Some feel that the wave can be performed at any time, and is often done so.

In Melbourne, Australia, waves commonly travel in a counterclockwise direction[citation needed]. Prior to the redevelopment of the Melbourne Cricket Ground between 2002 and 2006, spectators seated in the Members' Stand (reserved for members of the Melbourne Cricket Club) would not participate in a Mexican wave, and would be booed by other spectators at the ground, before the wave would resume on the other side of the stand.[13] Sociologist John Carroll described the practice of "booing the Members" as dismissive of any claim to authority or superior social status on the members' part, although good-natured and based on the egalitarian nature of watching sports.[14] (As a postscript to the "booing the Members" phenomenon, even when the Members stand was closed due to the reconstruction work, the crowd would still boo, despite the Members' stand being completely empty. When the Mexican Wave was banned large sections of the Members participated in the protest waves). Such a feature is also observed at Lords, where the Members in the pavilion rarely participate to the boos of the crowd.


In 2002, Tamás Vicsek of the Eötvös Loránd University, Hungary along with his colleagues analyzed videos of 14 waves at large Mexican football stadiums, developing a standard model of wave behavior (published in the September 12 issue of Nature). He found that it takes only the actions of a few dozen fans to trigger a wave. Once started, it usually rolls in a clockwise direction at a rate of about 12 m/s (40 ft/s), or about 22 seats per second. At any given time the wave is about 15 seats wide. These observations appear to be applicable across different cultures and sports, though details vary in individual cases.[15]

Size records

At the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Sharpie 500, held at Bristol Motor Speedway, Bristol, Tennessee on August 23, 2008, 168,000 people performed the wave to set a new Guinness World Record.

At the 1986 Indianapolis 500, spectators performed a massive wave around nearly half the 2.5-mile oval, which holds approximately 250,000 seats.

At the Sydney Olympic Games in 2000 110,000 people made an inverse wave and two simultaneous opposite direction waves.

At the Olympic Stadium of Helsinki on September 10, 2011, the crowd broke the world record with 31 rounds. The former record was 18 rounds.

During the 2010 Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear about 210,000 people participated in an experiment by MythBusters hosts Jamie Hyneman and Adam Savage.[16]


Cricket Australia has banned the wave from all international grounds due to objects being, either unintentionally or deliberately, thrown into the air at the same time. These include plastic cups containing beer, hot food items, or even urine[citation needed], which affects the other spectators around the person who threw it. Anyone who attempts to start a wave will be ejected from the ground.[17][18] The banning of the wave has been met with a mostly negative response from Australia's sports-going public.[citation needed]


  1. ^ How To Do the Wave at Michigan Stadium
  2. ^ Somebody’s GOTTA Do It: Celebrating the Bay Area’s Under-appreciated Jobs, Jimmy Christopher, The Wave Magazine (retrieved 22 August 2010 at Internet Archive Wayback Machine)
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ "On This Day: Krazy George Henderson Leads First Crowd Wave". Findingdulcinea.com. http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/September-October-08/On-this-Day--Krazy-George-Leads-First-Crowd-Wave.html. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  5. ^ "University of Washington - Official Athletic Site :: Traditions". Gohuskies.collegesports.com. 1981-10-31. http://gohuskies.collegesports.com/trads/020498aad.html. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  6. ^ "The Purple Haze". Static.espn.go.com. http://static.espn.go.com/ncf/bowls01/s/holiday_uwhistory.html. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  7. ^ "Don't Take My Wave Away". The New York Times: p. Late City Final Edition, Section 5, Page 2, Column 5. 1984-07-08. 
  8. ^ a b c d Andy Jackson (Jun 11 2010) ...Fan Crazes Australian Four Four Two. Retrieved 25 August 2011
  9. ^ a b c d The 100 greatest World Cup moments: 94. THE MEXICAN WAVE The Independent. Retrieved 25 August 2011
  10. ^ José Touré: "It was at the Olympic Games that I realised I was an athlete" FIFA.com. Retrieved 25 August 2011
  11. ^ Mexican Wave secrets revealed BBC News. Retrieved 25 August 2011
  12. ^ "Daily Nebraskan - Wave goodbye to stadium fad". Media.www.dailynebraskan.com. http://media.www.dailynebraskan.com/media/storage/paper857/news/2002/09/12/SportssportsOpinion/Wave-Goodbye.To.Stadium.Fad-1724487.shtml. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  13. ^ "AM - Waugh set for last stand at MCG". Abc.net.au. 2003-12-26. http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2003/s1016484.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  14. ^ "Sports Factor - 14/09/01: Sports Sacred Sites". Ausport.gov.au. http://www.ausport.gov.au/fulltext/2001/sportsf/s366728.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  15. ^ I. Farkas, D. Helbing, T. Vicsek (12 September 2002). "Mexican waves in an excitable medium" (PDF). Nature 419 (6903): 131–2. doi:10.1038/419131a. PMID 12226653. ISSN 0028-0836. http://angel.elte.hu/wave/download/article/MexWave.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-10.  Details of the research are at Mexican wave (La Ola) A quantitative analysis of the propagating human wave
  16. ^ http://www.necn.com/10/30/10/Mythbusters-try-giant-wave-at-DC-rally/landing_scitech.html?blockID=342215&feedID=4213
  17. ^ "Australian cricket bans Mexican wave". Australian Associated Press. 2007-02-01. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/4/story.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=10421982. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 
  18. ^ "Authorities call for Melbourne cricket fans to stick to measures" (Press release). Cricket Australia. 2007-02-01. http://www.cricket.com.au/default.aspx?s=mediareleasedisplay&id=38777. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Audience theory — is an element of thinking that developed within academic literary theory and cultural studies. With a specific focus on rhetoric, some, such as Walter Ong, have suggested that the audience is a construct made up by the rhetoric and the rhetorical …   Wikipedia

  • Wave-Gotik-Treffen — (ger. das Treffen means the meeting ) is an annual festival for music and arts in Leipzig, Germany. 150+ bands and artists from various backgrounds (Gothic rock, EBM, Noise, Darkwave, Neofolk, Neoclassical, Symphonic metal, Medieval Music,… …   Wikipedia

  • Wave-Aid — est un concert de charité qui a eu lieu le samedi 29 janvier 2005 en tant que moyen de collecte de fonds pour les victimes du tremblement de terre de l océan Indien du 29 décembre 2004, connu sous le nom de Boxing Day Tsunami. Il a eu lieu au… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wave Aid — est un concert de charité qui a eu lieu le samedi 29 janvier 2005 en tant que moyen de collecte de fonds pour les victimes du tremblement de terre de l océan Indien du 29 décembre 2004, connu sous le nom de Boxing Day Tsunami. Il a eu lieu au… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Audience wave — The wave ( British English: Mexican wave ; also stadium wave), is achieved in a packed stadium when successive groups of spectators briefly stand and raise their arms. Each spectator is required to rise at the same time as those straight in front …   Wikipedia

  • Audience scanning — An audience watches a laser light show during the SIB trade fair in Rimini, Italy in 2002. Audience scanning (sometimes called crowd scanning ) occurs when a laser beam is directed toward the people observing a laser show or display. Although… …   Wikipedia

  • Wave 105 — Infobox Radio Station name = Wave 105 owner= Bauer Radio area = Dorset, Hampshire, Isle of Wight and part of West Sussex slogan = The South s Best Variety of Hits airdate = June 14 1998 frequency = 105.2 MHz and 105.8 MHz FM share = 11% share as… …   Wikipedia

  • Wave — A wave is a disturbance that propagates through space and time, usually with transference of energy. While a mechanical wave exists in a medium (which on deformation is capable of producing elastic restoring forces), waves of electromagnetic… …   Wikipedia

  • Audience screen — Media planning is a science and one that has seen growth and increased discipline over the last few years through the introduction of new technology. These technologies have morphed from audience segmentation to audience profiling, but the most… …   Wikipedia

  • Wave (disambiguation) — A wave is a disturbance that propagates, in everyday use usually referring to ocean surface waves.Wave or waves may also refer to: * Waving, a hand gesture * WAVE or WAV, a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard * WAVE (Wireless Access in… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”