- Christian churches and churches of Christ
Christian churches and churches of Christ Classification Christian, Restoration Movement Orientation New Testament, Restorationism Polity Congregationalist Separations Churches of Christ, Disciples of Christ Members 1,071,616 in the United States
These churches are best defined as those in the Restoration Movement who have chosen on the one hand not to be identified with the denomination known as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). On the other hand, the obvious difference from the Churches of Christ is the use of instrumental music in worship. The instrumental Christian Churches and the a cappella Churches of Christ are otherwise very similar.
Churches in this tradition have no formal denominational ties, and thus there are no official statistical data, but the 2006 Directory of the Ministry documents some 5,500 congregations. Many estimate the number to be over 6,000.
The churches are independent congregations and typically go by the name "Christian Church", but often use the name "church of Christ" as well. Though isolated exceptions may occur, it is generally agreed within the movement that no personal or family names should be attached to a congregation which Christ purchased and established with his own blood, though geographical labels are acceptable. Thus, it is common for a congregation to be known as "[City Name] Christian Church,"  but in some areas they may be known as "[The/First] Christian Church [of/at] [City, Community, or Other Location Name]." In recent history, individual congregations have made the decision to change their formal name to break with traditional nomenclature and to adopt more generic names like "Christ's Church [of/at] [City Name]", "[City Name] Community Christian Church", or "[City Name] Community Fellowship". The tendency in Restoration churches to choose names such as "Christian Church" and "Church of Christ" can cause difficulties in identifying the affiliation (if any) of an individual church based solely on its name. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for churches outside of the Restoration Movement to use similar names (see Church of Christ (disambiguation)).
Separation from the Disciples of Christ
The separation of the independent Christian churches and churches of Christ from the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (DoC) occurred over an extended period of time.:185 The roots of the separation date back to a polarization that occurred during the early twentieth century as the result of three significant controversies.:185 These controversies surrounded theological modernism, the impact of the ecumenical movement, and open membership (recognizing as full members individuals who had not been baptized by immersion).:185 Theological modernism and ecumenism led to the development of a denominational structure within the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The split occurred as local congregations refused to take part in rapidly developing extra-congregational organizations that eventually evolved into a General Assembly. They were also disturbed by what they saw as liberal influences within the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) concerning Biblical criticism and social justice.
The official separation between the independent Christian churches and churches of Christ and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) is difficult to date.:407 Suggestions range from 1926 to 1971 based on the events outlined below:
- 1926: The first North American Christian Convention (NACC) in 1927:407 was the result of disillusionment at the DoC Memphis Convention.
- 1930s - 1940s: Symbolic differences and disagreements flourished.
- 1944: International Convention of Disciples elects as president a proponent of open membership:408
- 1948: The Commission on Restudy, appointed to help avoid a split, disbands:409
- 1955: The Directory of the Ministry was first published listing only the "Independents" on a voluntary basis.:408
- 1968: Final redaction of the Disciples Year Book removing Independent churches:408
- 1971: Independent churches listed separately in the Yearbook of American Churches.:408
Because of this separation, many independent Christian churches and churches of Christ are not only non-denominational, they can be anti-denominational, avoiding even the appearance or language associated with denominationalism holding true to their Restoration roots and firm conviction that Christ has founded only one church which is his body.
Because the Christian churches and churches of Christ are independent congregations there is no set creed, but The Directory of the Ministry contains the following general description:
"Members of Christian Churches and churches of Christ believe in the deity and Lordship of Jesus Christ, the inspiration of the Bible, and the autonomy of local congregations. Following the basic principles of the 'Restoration Movement', they accept and teach regenerative baptism by immersion into Christ for the forgiveness of sins; they assemble for worship on the first day of the week, making the observance of the Lord's Supper a focal point in such worship. They seek the unity of all believers on the basis of faith in and obedience to Christ as the divine Son of God and the acceptance of the Bible particularly the New Testament as their all-sufficient rule of faith and practice."
Of the principles cited above, one characteristic marks most Christian Churches and Churches of Christ as distinctly different from other modern evangelical Christian groups today. That is the teaching that a person is ultimately regenerated by the Holy Spirit, and receives the remission of sins, during his baptism.  Baptism is:
- by immersion [Rom 6:4],
- for publicly confessing believers in Jesus Christ [Acts 8:37],
- a work of God's grace, not a work of man [Col 2:12],
- a promise received through obedient submission [Acts 2:40, 41],
- necessarily accompanied with confession of sinfulness and repentance [Acts 2:38; Acts 3:19; Rom 10:9,10],
- the occasion when one receives God's forgiveness for their sins [Acts 2:36-37; Acts 2:40-41],
- the occasion when one calls on His name for salvation [Acts 22:16],
- the occasion when the equipping, indwelling Holy Spirit is received as a seal and promise of heaven [Acts 2:38; Titus 3:5],
- a "circumcision" or transformation of the believer's heart by the hands of Christ himself [Col 2:11,12],
- foreshadowed in the Old Testament ceremonial washings, now fulfilled in a believer's shared experience with Christ [Heb 10:22],
- symbolic of the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ [Rom 6:4], and the only assurance of the hope of the resurrection from the dead [Rom 6:5-7],
- specifically emphasized and commanded by Christ in his brief closing remarks ("The Great Commission") before ascending into heaven,
- not only an outward sign of an inward change, but is both simultaneously [e.g. "born again" John 3:4, 5],
- one baptism indeed, both physically in water and spiritually in the blood of Jesus [Eph 4:5; John 3:5],
- entry into the body of Christ at large, and hence, the only viable entry into the membership of a local congregation of the Independent Christian Churches and Churches of Christ (as in the Church of Christ (non-instrumental), a candidate for membership is not usually required to be re-baptized if they have previously been "baptized into Christ"in accordance with the above general understanding and/or guidelines) [Eph 4:5].
The teaching that "salvation coming by grace through faith at immersion into Christ" is the only New Testament example for Christians to follow today is viewed by many groups, particularly those of Calvinist persuasion, as too similar to a salvation by works rather than a salvation by faith alone. Christian Churches and Churches of Christ contend that true faith is not mere belief, but no less than a believing, trusting, and repentant obedience, that baptism is always mentioned in the passive verbal forms in the New Testament (i.e. "be baptized [at the hands of another]", as opposed to Old Testament-styled active commands), because it is a work of God, not man [Col 2:12]. In that respect, (being a work of God) baptism may be considered similar to belief [John 6:28, 29]. The assertion follows that it is Christ's redemptive work one trusts in as they, by faith, accept his free offer of grace. Finally, a life of trusting faithfulness until death is seen to demonstrate the authenticity of one's faith, and further makes his or her calling and election sure.
The Christian Churches/churches of Christ support a variety of Bible colleges and seminaries. Because there is no official "denominational" structure in the movement, the local colleges often serve as information centers and allow the local churches to maintain connections with each other.
Colleges and seminaries Location Date Founded Alberta Bible College Calgary, Alberta 1932 Maritime Christian College Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island 1960
Colleges and seminaries Location Date Founded Atlanta Christian College East Point, Georgia 1937 Boise Bible College Boise, Idaho 1945 Carolina Christian College Winston-Salem, NC 1945 Central Christian College of the Bible Moberly, Missouri 1957 Cincinnati Christian University Cincinnati, Ohio 1924 Colegio Biblico Eagle Pass, Texas 1945 Crossroads College Rochester, Minnesota 1913 Dallas Christian College Dallas, Texas 1950 Emmanuel School of Religion Johnson City, Tennessee 1965 Florida Christian College Kissimmee, Florida 1976 Great Lakes Christian College Delta Township, Michigan 1949 Hope International University Fullerton, California 1928 Johnson University Knoxville, Tennessee 1893 Kentucky Christian University Grayson, Kentucky 1919 Lincoln Christian University Lincoln, Illinois 1944 Louisville Bible College Louisville, Kentucky 1948 Manhattan Christian College Manhattan, Kansas 1927 Mid-Atlantic Christian University Elizabeth City, North Carolina 1948 Mid-South Christian College Memphis, Tennessee 1959 Milligan College Milligan College, Tennessee 1866 Nebraska Christian College Papillion, Nebraska 1945 Northwest Christian University Eugene, Oregon 1895 Ozark Christian College Joplin, Missouri 1942 Saint Louis Christian College Florissant, Missouri 1956 Summit Christian College Scottsbluff, Nebraska 1951 Summit Theological Seminary Peru, Indiana 1974 William Jessup University Rocklin, California 1939
Puget Sound Christian College, opened in 1950 but closed down in 2007
A number of slogans have been used in the Restoration Movement to express some of the distinctive themes of the Movement.:688 These include:
- "Where the Scriptures speak, we speak; where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent.":688
- "The church of Jesus Christ on earth is essentially, intentionally, and constitutionally one.":688
- "We are Christians only, but not the only Christians.":688
- "In essentials, unity; in opinions, liberty; in all things love.":688
- "No creed but Christ, no book but the Bible, no law but love, no name but the divine.":688
- "Call Bible things by Bible names.":688
- ^ a b Directory of the Ministry
- ^ The naming practice is taken as applied doctrine from Paul's use of city names in writing epistles to "the church which is at Corinth" or "the church at Thessalonica" etc.
- ^ a b c Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Christian Churches/Churches of Christ
- ^ a b c d e f g Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 0-89900-909-3, 9780899009094, 573 pages
- ^ Baptism & the Great Commission, pg. 11
- ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
- ^ Colegio Biblico
- ^ Louisville Bible College
- ^ Mid-South Christian College
- ^ Puget Sound Christian College
- ^ a b c d e f g Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Slogans
- Baptism: A Biblical Study; Dr. Jack Cottrell; College Press, Joplin, MO: 1989; ISBN 0-89900-341-9.
- Union in Truth: An Interpretive History of the Restoration Movement; James B. North; Standard Publishing; Cincinnati, OH: 1994; ISBN 0-7847-0197-0.
Restoration Movement Predecessor Movements Early Leaders U.S. BranchesChristian churches and churches of ChristThe churches of Christ (non-institutional) · Sponsoring churchInternational Christian Churches Non-U.S. BranchesIndependent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ in Canada · Churches of Christ in Canada · Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in Canada · Churches of Christ in Australia · Restorationism
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