Ngurah Rai International Airport

Ngurah Rai International Airport
Ngurah Rai International Airport
Bandar Udara Internasional Ngurah Rai
Denpasar map.jpg
DPS is located in Indonesia Bali
Location of airport in Bali
Airport type Public
Operator PT Angkasa Pura I
Location Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 14 ft / 4 m
Coordinates 8°44′53″S 115°10′3″E / 8.74806°S 115.1675°E / -8.74806; 115.1675Coordinates: 8°44′53″S 115°10′3″E / 8.74806°S 115.1675°E / -8.74806; 115.1675
Direction Length Surface
ft m
09/27 9,842 3,000 Asphalt

Ngurah Rai International Airport (IATA: DPSICAO: WADD), also known as Denpasar International Airport, is located in southern Bali, 13 km south of Denpasar. It is named after I Gusti Ngurah Rai, an Indonesian National Hero an Indonesian republican who died on 20 November 1946 in a puputan (fight to the death) against the Dutch at Marga in Tabanan where the Dutch defeated them with the aid of aircraft, killing Rai and 95 others during the Indonesian Revolution in 1946.[1] Ngurah Rai is Indonesia's third-busiest international airport, after Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta International Airport and Surabaya's Juanda International Airport, but currently (before new terminals accomplished) is the second most crowded airport in the country after Soekarno-Hatta International Airport.[2]



The airport is located in Tuban on the Island of Bali between Kuta and Jimbaran and is close to the tourist locations of southern Bali; the resort center of Kuta is 2.5 km north of the airport. The capital of Bali Denpasar is located nearby.


A Dutch DC-3 Dakota at Kuta airfield in 1949

The Pelabuhan Udara Tuban, or Tuban airfield, was established in 1931 at the narrowest point on the southern coast of Bali. The airport was originally built as a simple 700-meter-long airstrip by the Dutch Colonial administration’s Voor Verkeer en Waterstaats public works office.[3] When first established the site only had a few huts and a short grass runway. The northern end lay in the Tuban village graveyard and in the south it occupied previously vacant land. The location in this area of the island has subsequently facilitated arrivals and departures over the ocean with minimal noise and overflights intruding upon populated areas. The current airport has an east-west aligned runway and associated taxiway, with over 1000 metres of that runway's length projecting westward into the sea.

In 1942 the airstrip was in use to stage fighter and bomber operations and received bombing damage from Japanese forces. It was repaired using PSP pierced steel planking. The Japanese armed forces occupied Bali during the Second World War seizing the airport on 19 February 1942.[4] A poorly motivated garrison of 600 Dutch led Balinese militia deserted almost immediately as the Japanese invaded the island. Their Dutch commander was to learn that through a misunderstanding of his orders, Tuban airfield had not been destroyed by explosives as he had ordered. Apparently his order not to delay the demolition was misread by the demolition engineers at the airstrip who thought instead that he wanted the operation delayed. This confusion allowed the Japanese to take the airfield completely intact.[5] During the occupation period the Japanese made improvements to the runway at the airport. In the five years from 1942 to 1947 the length of the runway was extended to 1200 meters from the original 700 metres.[4] Many Balinese identified the Japanese invaders as being potential liberators from the Dutch colonial authorities who were unpopular on the island. There was never a significant Japanese fighter squadron stationed in Denpasar although it was within the field of tactical air operations conducted from both Surabaya and Allied airbases in northern Australia. More so the taking of Tuban airfield and the island of Bali deprived the allied forces of a fighter staging field on route from Australia to defend Java. At the time the airport was still called Tuban Airfield, named after the local fishing village.

In 1949 a Terminal building and other aviation facilities were constructed and a simple wooden flight control tower was erected. Aviation communication was by morse code tranceiver.[4] In 1959 president Sukarno sought to further develop the airstrip. The new facilities were built as part of a $13 million (Rp 35 billion in 1959) renovation project.[6]

To allow jet aircraft such as the Douglas DC8 and the Boeing 707 to operate from Bali, it was necessary to extend the runway westward into the sea as any potential eastern extension of the runway was by now blocked by the expansion of the local fishing village. The International Airport Tuban was developed with the decision by the Indonesia government to further develop and rebuild the terminal building and extend the existing airport runway westward by 1200 meters to a length of 2700 meters with two 100 metre overruns. The project, which lasted from 1963 to 1969 was named Project Tuban Airport and was for preparation of Tuban Airport for international operations. Land reclamation to project the runway and the two overruns by 1500 metres was achieved by taking material from the limestone rocks at Ungasan and sand from the river Antosari–Tabanan. With the completion of the temporary terminal and runway project at the Tuban Airport, the government inaugurated international air service on August 10, 1966.[7]

To meet the ever increasing number of passengers the terminal buildings were extended with construction of an International Terminal building undertaken from 1965 to 1969. This added international facilities to the existing domestic passenger terminal. The new Ngurah Rai International Airport was inaugurated the on 1 August 1968 by the then Indonesian President Suharto as Pelabuhan Udara Internasional Ngurah Rai, or Ngurah Rai International Airport. The name came from I Gusti Ngurah Rai who was a significant national republican figure during the struggle for independence in Indonesia.[8] Extension of the runway has since caused disruption of natural sand flow along the coast.[citation needed] The anticipated rise in passenger volumes saw works commence on a new international passenger terminal in 1975 with completion in 1978. The old International Terminal was then converted into the now Domestic Terminal and the old Domestic Terminal was converted to use as the Cargo and Catering facilities building.

On 1 October 1980 based on the Government Decree No.26 of the year 1980, the management of Ngurah Rai International Airport was passed over from the Directorate of Air Transportation to Perum Angkasa Pura. Since then the aviation facilities including the apron, the terminal and other buildings buildings have been further developed by Perum Angkasa Pura. In 1986 by national government decree No. 25 Perum Angkasa Pura changed name to become Perum Angkasa Pura I. The Indonesian term Pelabuhan Udara was changed into Bandara Udara based on the Transportations Ministerial Decision No.213/HK.207/Phb-85 on 1 September 1985. Commencing 1 October 1989 until 31 August 1992 further major airport improvement works were undertaken including a landing strip extension to 3,000 meters, taxiway relocations, apron expansion, passenger and cargo building expansions and the further development of air navigational and aircraft fueling facilities. With the issuing of the Governmental Decree No.5 year 1992 then Perum Angkasa Pura I was converted into a PT. (Persero) Angkasa Pura 1. Company activities include aviation facilities provisions and airport services. Project Phase II was carried out 10 February 1998 with planned completion June 2000.[9]


In 2005 the Transportation Security Administration of the United States of America determined that the airport was not meeting the security standards of the International Civil Aviation Administration,[10] however this warning was lifted on 2007-10-11.[11] Currently around 800 of the total employees at Ngurah Rai are security personnel.[3]

Proposed change

In 2000, the airport recorded 43,797 domestic and international flights, carrying 4,443,856 passengers.[6] By the end of April 2011, the airport's terminals handled 11.1 million passengers a year (yoy), exceeding its capacity of 8 million. PT Angkasa Pura I will relocate 35 guest houses to accommodate the expansion, whch is expected to occupy up to 265.5 hectares of land for a new access road to the airport and a new airport building, the construction of a new flyover, enlarge airport terminal and improve luggage handling system.[12] There have been several plans made seeking a solution to the expansion problems at Ngurah Rai International airport. There have been proposals to develop a north south runway[citation needed] however existing land use in the areas adjacent to the airport makes this idea unrealisable due to the considerable land purchase costs involved. A completely new airport was proposed to replace Ngurah Rai airport in Jembrana regency in western Bali. The area surrounding the existing airport has no obvious long-term large expansion options. The construction of a new airport at Jembrana was presented as offering the requirements suitable for an international airport that Ngurah Rai was unable to provide due to restrictions on land availability and limitations on expansion at the Tuban site. The plans called for the airport to be built on 600 hectares of land in the Pekutatan plantation area. The proposals outlined a 3,600-meter-long runway, far more than Ngurah Rai’s current 3,000 meters, with plans to extend it a further 600 meters into mangrove swamp areas that would be reclaimed. Construction of a toll road was planned to provide surface transportation links to the new airport site.[13] Forecasts at the time predicted eleven million passenger arrivals for the year 2010. Against this background, the operating company adopted a master plan. A program was announced for works at the existing Tuban site for commencement in 2009-2011 including a new international terminal of 100,000 m2 to be built at the Ngurah Rai International airport with the existing international terminal of 56.000 m2 to be renovated for use as a new domestic terminal.[14] This provided for the establishment of a new horseshoe shaped building for 17 passenger aircraft in the east of the airport. The plan also incorporated a runway extension to 3,600 metres. Currently heavy wide bodied aircraft such as the Boeing 747 cannot take off with a full complement of fuel as the present runway length is insufficient for maximum takeoff weight. An easterly extension has been rejected as a road tunnel would be necessary.


The master plan was originally proposed prior to the tourism downturn in Bali following the two bombing incidents. The airport and Bali's economy, which are almost exclusively dependent on tourism suffered considerably from the decline in tourists. Since these proposals were originally made the tourism sector has experienced a gradual recovery and a new international airport has been built on the nearby island of Lombok to the east of Bali. The new Lombok International Airport was first announced in 2005. The Island of Lombok is to the immediate east of Bali. A stage one completed runway of 2,750 m opened on 1 October 2011 and a proposed stage 2 development of 4,000 m is planned for the new facility. It is anticipated that some of the requirement for expansion of Bali's Ngurah Rai International Airport will be mitigated with the opening of the new facility in Lombok. Lombok is approximately 25 mins away by air from Ngurah Rai International Airport. [15]

Plans to expand the international and domestic terminals at Ngurah Rai International Airport were announced in September 2008 with estimated costs of up to Rp 1 trillion (US$110.10 million) and a 2011 planned completion date. The total area of the domestic and international terminals was to be increased from 83,000 m2 to about 200,000 m2, with 130,000 m2 provided for the international terminal and 70,000sq m for the domestic terminal.[16] In December 2008, the operating company announced that the expansion works at Tuban would begin in early 2009.

Airport Facilities Development and Flight Safety (FBUKP) Phase III for Ngurah Rai International Airport includes the terminal building, a multi story car parking building, and apron. The plan involves developing the site of the current domestic terminal which will be used as a new 120,000 m2 international terminal with the existing international terminal being converted into the new domestic terminal. It is projected that subsequent to these plans being completed Ngurah Rai International Airport will be able to accommodate up to 25 million passengers per annum.[14]

In October 2010 former vice president Jusuf Kalla proposed a massive overhaul of the airport’s facilities. Heru Legowo, general manager of Perusahaan Angkasa Pura 1 the state-owned airport management company that owns and operates Ngurah Rai airport, described a detailed renovation plan, which includes expanding the domestic and international terminals and renovating the airport’s interior and exterior.

The project planned to expand the international terminal to 120,000 m2 and the domestic terminal to 65,000 m2. The cargo terminal was to be expanded to 5,000 square meters and the airport management planned to build a three-story, 1,500 vehicle parking lot on a 39,000 sq m plot. The domestic apron was to be increased to 314,000 m2 from 214,500 m2 to accommodate more wide bodied larger aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and Airbus A330. Apparently the increasing number of flights forced the company to make plans to improve the airport’s facilities. Renovation and expansion programs were to be limited to the existing airport land envelope and the new projects were to absorb the company’s surrounding residential, office and school complexes. Land in the prime tourism location surrounding the airport, now home to luxury hotels and restaurants, averages around Rp 1 billion for 100 m2. The planned airport buildings were described as a blend contemporary and Balinese traditional architectural elements as required by provincial bylaw No 5/2005 on building designs.

In October 2010 the Jakarta Post reported that Ardita, deputy director of Ngurah Rai airport’s Extension and Renovation Project had made an announcement that the new airport will be able to handle 17 million passengers a year by 2020 and 25 million passengers per year by 2035.[17]

in November 2010 the government allocated Rp 1.9 trillion to realise the terminal improvement plan. Plans are for the work to be completed prior to the expected demands of the APEC Summit which will begin on the island in 2013. Rp 3.5 trillion funding was announced for the combined airport and the previously planned connecting toll road projects, with Rp 1.9 trillion allocated to the airport. May 2013 was set as the deadline for both projects.[18]

Angkasa Pura I planned to demolish 143 houses in the complex currently occupied by Angkasa Pura employees by February 2011. Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC) the toll road project was going to require the reclamation of around 100 m2 of existing mangrove forest.[19]

Plans are for the work to be completed prior to the expected demands of the APEC Summit which will begin on the island in 2013. Rp 3.5 trillion funding was announced for the combined airport and connecting toll road projects, with Rp 1.9 trillion allocated to the airport. May 2013 was set as the deadline for both projects.[3] The first construction stage will initial on September 1, 2011 which enable the airport to accommodate up to 25 millon passengers a year or twice its current capacity. The project will also add Visa on Arrival counters from the existing 7 to 35 and Immigration counters from the present 12 to 20. The airport will also use a state-of-the-art security and baggage handling system as the first airport in Indonesia use it.[20]

Terminals, airlines and destinations

The International Terminal is located in the newer L shaped terminal whilst the Domestic Terminal is located in the older adjacent building a short distance to the south east of the international terminal. The airport has 17 gates: 3 in the Domestic terminal, and 14 in the International terminal. The two terminals are separated by the Festival Plaza.

The International terminal has a Balinese architectural theme and has separate departure and arrival halls. It's capacity is up to 4,938,840 passengers a year. The departures area has 62 check-in counters that are equipped with electronic scales and luggage conveyors. Eight of the international gates have aerobridges and automated aircraft parking systems. The international departure lounge areas have a total capacity of 3,175 passengers.[21]

The Domestic Terminal has 28 check in counters with electronic scales and a luggage conveyor system provided. The boarding hall has a capacity of up to 2,118 people. The Luggage claim area has 2 L type baggage carousel units.[21]

The airport operates a fleet of buses to ferry passengers to and from aircraft as the domestic terminal has and insufficient number of gates to accommodate aircraft. Domestic travellers are often ferried to aircraft parked on the apron in between the domestic terminal and the cargo terminal to the east of the International and domestic terminals using these buses.

The terminal also has prayer rooms, showers and massage service. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas and movie lounge, broadcasting movie and sport channels such as HBO Asia, MAX Asia, STAR Movies, STAR Sports, ESPN Asia, CNN International Asia Pacific, BBC World News, TV5MONDE Asie and Australia Network.

China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, Cathay Pacific and Transaero aircraft parked at the airport
International terminal opened in 1978
Airport from the air (looking: Southwest)
Domestic Terminal
International terminal
Singapore Airlines In Bali
Airlines Destinations Terminal
Aeroflot Seasonal: Moscow-Sheremetyevo International
AirAsia Kuala Lumpur International
Air Australia Brisbane International
Batavia Air Balikpapan, Ende, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kupang, Labuan Bajo, Makassar, Maumere, Surabaya, Waingapu Domestic
Batavia Air Dili International
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong International
China Airlines Taipei-Taoyuan
Seasonal: Kaohsiung
China Eastern Airlines Shanghai-Pudong International
Citilink operated by Garuda Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Surabaya Domestic
EVA Air Taipei-Taoyuan International
Garuda Indonesia Ambon, Batam, Bandung, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Biak, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jayapura, Kendari, Mataram, Manado, Medan, Palangkaraya, Surabaya, Timika, Ujung Pandang (Makassar), Yogyakarta, Kupang Domestic
Garuda Indonesia Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Melbourne, Nagoya-Centair, Osaka-Kansai, Perth, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo-Narita International
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong International
Indonesia AirAsia Bandung, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Surabaya (begin 23 December 2011)[22] Domestic
Indonesia AirAsia Darwin, Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Perth, Singapore. International
IAT (Indonesia Air Transport) Mataram Domestic
Jetstar Airways Brisbane, Darwin, Melbourne, Perth, Singapore, Sydney International
Jetstar Asia operated by Valuair Singapore International
KLM Amsterdam, Singapore International
Korean Air Seoul-Incheon International
Lion Air Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Batam, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Makassar, Manado, Medan Surabaya, Tarakan, Yogyakarta,Maumere,Tambolaka,Ende,Kupang Domestic
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur International
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Bandung, Bima, Ende, Jakarta-Halim, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kupang, Labuan Bajo,Makassar, Mataram, Maumere, Surabaya, Tambolaka, Waingapu Domestic
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Dili International
Pelita Air Service Bima, Eende, Labuan Bajo, Maumere, Tambolaka Domestic
Qatar Airways Doha, Singapore International
Shanghai Airlines Shanghai-Pudong International
Shenzhen Airlines Guangzhou International
Singapore Airlines Singapore International
Sky Aviation Banywangi Domestic
Skywest Port Hedland
Seasonal: Broome
Sriwijaya Air Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Surabaya Domestic
Thai Airways International Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi International
Transaero Moscow-Domodedovo International
TransNusa Bima, Ende, Kupang, Labuan Bajo, Mataram, Ruteng, Sumbawa, Tambolaka Domestic
Trigana Air Mataram Domestic
Uni Air Kaohsiung International
Virgin Australia operated by Pacific Blue Airlines Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney International
Vladivostok Air Scheduled Charter: Khabarovsk, Vladivostok[23] International
Wings Air Bima, Kupang, Labuhanbajo, Mataram, Maumere, Semarang, Surabaya, Tambolaka Domestic

Ground transportation

  • Taxis
  • Rental cars
  • Charter buses

Airport facilities

Facilities CIQ

  • Customs and Excise
  • Immigration including VOA
  • Quarantine: Health, Animals, Plants & Fish

Facilities public

  • Banks and money changers
  • Post office and public telephones
  • Private lounges, restaurants and cafes
  • Drug store/apotik
  • Duty free shopping

Facilities other

  • VIP services 2 terminals
  • Administration
  • Prayer rooms and Mosque

In-flight catering

  • PT. Angkasa Citra Sarana / ACS || 5.720 m2
  • In-flight catering II || 3.040 m2
  • 10,000 meals a day, managed by Aerowisata Catering Service.
  • Wastewater treatment facility

Vehicle parking

  • Area : 61,376 m2
  • Capacity : 1,002 sedan
  • Buses : 48
  • Motorbikes : 711

Security facilities

  • Baggage X-Ray
  • Walk trough metal detector
  • Explosive Detector,
  • Hand wand metal detector
  • CCTV


  • 750 telephone lines available for internal communications from within and outside the Airport.

Fuel supplies

  • Aircraft Refueling Depot capacity 6,540 kiloliters
  • Operated by Pertamina providing hydrants and mobile tanks
  • Avtur and avigas fuel types.

PT. Jasapura Angkasa Boga-Aircraft Refueling Capacity PT. Pertamina Persero

  • 3 concealed tanks : 6.481.000 liter
  • 3 concealed tanks : 13.528.000 liter[24]

Meteorological services

  • Observation : ADA
  • Forecast : ADA

Power supply

  • Grid power : PLN : 34.620 KVA
  • On-site genset : 11.018 KVA
  • Water supply
  • Drill wells with mediate depths and total capacity of 200 cubic meters/hour.


  • Available : CAT-VI,[25] (category 9 of ICAO standards)[24]
  • Foam Tender 6 unit
  • Nurse tender : 2 unit
  • Rescue tender : 2 unit
  • Command car : 2 unit
  • Utility car : 1 unit
  • Ambulance : 4 units
  • Rescue Boat : 2 units
  • Inflatable boat : 2 units
  • Salvage : 1 unit

Airfield lighting

  • Approach Light Runway Light
  • PAPI (Precision Approach Path Indicator), REILS (Runway End Identification Light)
  • SQFL
  • Taxiway Light,
  • Flood Light Apron
  • Rotating Beacon, Signal Areas
  • Precision Approach Path Indicator). Approach lamp and SFL.

Flight telecommunications

  • ADC
  • AMSC, Recording system, facsimile, HT, Mobile radio[citation needed]

Flight service facilities Area Control Centre (ACC) Bali is divided into 3 sectors

  • Bali West Control, covers position 1140 E - Semarang at altitude 18.000 feet - 46.000 feet fully controlled by radar and non radar, communications radio frequency 123,9 MHZ, with transmitter located in Surabaya.
  • Bali Centre Control, position1140 E altitude 18.000 feet 46.000 feet . Frequency 120.7 MHZ.
  • Bali East Control, position 1140 E - Indonesia and Australia border at altitude 18.000 feet - 46.000 feet controlled by radar and non radar ( procedure ) frequency 128.3 MHZ, with its transmitter located in Kintamani and Waingapu.

Approach Control Office (APP) Conducts area control at radius 10 - 60 NM with altitude 2,500 to 19,000 feet. Air traffic control by means of full object radar detection.

Aerodrome Control Tower (ADC) Comprises a control radius of 0 - 5 NM (DVOR - BALI as point 0) at altitude of 0 - 2.500 feet. Air control is carried out by means of visual object sightings.

Communications facilities. There are 3 aviation communication facilities at the airport

  • Aeronautical Fixed Services (AFS)
  • Aeronautical Mobile Services (AMS)
  • Automatic Terminal Information Services (ATIS )
Please note these details were current at October 2010 [21][25][26]

Arrival and departure routes

In order to get the maximum number of takeoffs and landings per hour, aircraft are set up by air traffic control to approach from the west and depart to the east. Departing aircraft with destinations to the west of Bali will normally turn south after departure before resuming course.

Accidents and incidents

  • April 22, 1974: Pan Am Flight 812, a Boeing 707, crashed into a mountain while preparing for final approach. All 107 passengers and crew were killed.[27]
  • 5 October 1978, Douglas C-47A PK-NDI of Merpati Nusantara Airlines caught fire whilst parked and was destroyed.[28]
  • February 16, 1998: China Airlines Flight 676 took off from Ngurah Rai. Upon approach to Chiang Kai-shek International Airport in Taipei, Taiwan the aircraft crashed, killing everyone on board.
  • March 12, 2009: Batavia Air serving the Surabaya-Kupang route had a minor engine problem. Ten passengers were injured after jumping out of the plane assuming that it was having engine trouble.[29]
  • The airport won a Zero Accident Award from the Department of Workforce & Transmigration for its Work Health and Hazard Prevention Program in the year 2008.[30]

Airport statistics

In 2007 Ngurah Rai International Airport recorded 19,099 international and 43.475 domestic flights.[31]

Airfield system[32]
Airport classification Class 1A
Airport reference code 4E
Runway operation category Cat-I
Airfield area 296 Ha
Elevation 4.27m, 14 ft
Runway length 3,000m
Runway width 45m
Runway construction solidified concrete and asphalt, PCN 83/F/C/X/T[31]
Taxiway area 214.637 m2
Taxiway, rapid exit - 23 m
Taxiway, perpendicular exit - (T/W) 30 m
Aircraft parking Areas
Aircraft apron Area 215.457 m2
Aircraft parking wide body large (747) Alt.1-10, Alt.2-7
Aircraft parking wide body (A-300) Alt.1-3, Alt.2-6
Aircraft parking narrow body (737) Alt.1-25, Alt.2-25
Helipad 3 675 m2[31]
Terminal international 63,246m2
International capacity 7.4 million PAX/annum
Terminal domestic 11,255 m2
Domestic capacity 1.5 million PAX/annum
Terminal cargo international 3,708 m2
Terminal cargo domestic 2,574 m2
Air cargo traffic 2007- 61,088,409 kg.
VIP terminal 1 633 m2
VIP terminal 2 480 m2
Cold storage one unit
Unoccupied areas 24,597 m2
Navigational aids
Air navigation NDB, DVOR, DME, ILS, ATIS
PSR (Primary Surveillance Radar, SSR (Secondary Surveillance Radar), Ext. Radar - Waingapu, RDPS, DISPLAY RADAR
  • Please note these details were current at October 2010 [21][25][26]


  1. ^ Pringle, p 161
  2. ^‘support’-tourism-beyond-bali.html
  3. ^ a b c Ngurah Rai airport to get multi-million-dollar face-lift Wasti Atmodjo and Rita A.Widiadana, The Jakarta Post, Denpasar Mon, 09/06/2010, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  4. ^ a b c Airport history, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  5. ^ Fire in the Night:The loss of Bali and Timor, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  6. ^ a b Ngurah Rai airport to get multi-million-dollar face-lift, Wasti Atmodjo and Rita A.Widiadana, The Jakarta Post, Denpasar Mon, 09/06/2010, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  7. ^ Airport history, 1930-2010, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  8. ^ Airport history, 1930-2010, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  9. ^ Bali Tourism Board, Aircraft service facilities - Landing Strip, accessed Oct 2010
  10. ^ "TSA Finds Security at Bandara Ngurah Rai International Airport Does Not Meet International Standards" (Press release). Transportation Security Administration. 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2007-07-10. "The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) today announced that the Bandara Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali, Indonesia does not meet international security standards, and the department is taking action to warn travelers of this security deficiency." 
  11. ^ Template:Reuters
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b Airport Facilities Development and Flight Safety (FBUKP) Phase III, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  15. ^
  16. ^ Ni Komang Erviani (09/09/2008). "Ngurah Rai airport to be expanded". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 12/02/2011. 
  17. ^ Ngurah Rai airport to get multi-million-dollar face-lift Wasti Atmodjo and Rita A.Widiadana, The Jakarta Post, Denpasar Mon, 09/06/2010, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  18. ^ Mariel Grazella (11 Jan 2011). "Ngurah Rai renovation to cost Rp 1.9 trillion". The Jakarta Post, Jakarta. Retrieved 12 Feb 2011. 
  19. ^ "Airport expansion to affect residential sites". The Jakarta Post. 1 Dec 2010. Retrieved 12 Feb 2011. 
  20. ^ "Ngurah Rai airport kicks off massive expansion project". August 22, 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d Bali tourism board Aircraft service facilities at DPS
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ a b Bali Tourism Board, accessed 11 Oct 2010
  25. ^ a b c Spesifikasi Bandar Udara Ngurah Rai
  26. ^ a b Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Ministry of Transportation, Republic of Indonesia
  27. ^ "Pan Am Flight 812." Retrieved: January 17, 2010.
  28. ^ "PK-NDI Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 1 August 2010. 
  29. ^ The Jakarta Post , Jakarta
  30. ^ Bali Tourism Board, Airport operations-Awards, accessed Oct 2010
  31. ^ a b c Bali Tourism Board, History of Ngurah Rai Airport, accessed Oct 2010
  32. ^


  • Pringle, Robert (2004). Bali: Indonesia's Hindu Realm; A short history of. Short History of Asia Series. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-863-3. 

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