- Lynn, Massachusetts
official_name = Lynn, Massachusetts
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in Essex County in Massachusetts
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Essex
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1629
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date2 = 1850
government_type = Mayor-council city
leader_name = Chip Clancy
area_total_km2 = 34.9
area_total_sq_mi = 13.5
area_land_km2 = 28.0
area_land_sq_mi = 10.8
area_water_km2 = 6.9
area_water_sq_mi = 2.7
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 87,122
population_density_km2 = 3,111.5
population_density_sq_mi = 8,066.9
elevation_m = 9
elevation_ft = 30
timezone = Eastern
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = Eastern
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 42 |latm = 28 |lats = 00 |latNS = N
longd = 70 |longm = 57 |longs = 00 |longEW = W
website = http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 01901-01905
area_code = 339 / 781
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 25-37490
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0613376
Lynn is a city in Essex County,
Massachusetts, United States. The population was 89,050 at the 2000 census. An older industrial center, Lynn is home to "Lynn Beach" and "Lynn Heritage State Park". Currently, Edward "Chip" Clancy, Jr. is serving his second term as Mayor.
The area known as Lynn was first settled in 1629 by
Edmund Ingalls(d. 1647 and incorporated in 1631 as Saugus, the Nipmuckname for the area.Herbert, George. [http://www.usigs.org/library/books/ma/Lynn1890/index.html History of Lynn... 1629-1864] , 1890. ] The name Lynn was given to the area after King's Lynn, Norfolk, England, in honor of Samuel Whiting. [http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/Public_Documents/0008DBA7-70E903AC About the City of Lynn, MA] at City of Lynn website]
After Lynn's re-settlement many parts of the town were set off as independent towns. Reading was created in 1644, Lynnfield in 1782, Saugus in 1815, Swampscott in 1852, and Nahant in 1853. Lynn incorporated as a city in 1850.
Colonial Lynn was a major part of the regional tannery and shoe-making industries that began in 1635. The boots worn by
Continental Armysoldiers during the Revolutionary War were made in Lynn. The shoe-making industry drove urban growth in Lynn into the early nineteenth century. This historic theme is reflected in the city seal, which features a colonial boot. [http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/ City of Lynn] official website]
In 1816 a mail stage coach was operating through Lynn. By 1836, 23 stage coaches left the Lynn Hotel for Boston each day. The Eastern Railroad Line between Salem and East Boston opened on August 28, 1838. This was later merged with the
Boston and MaineRailroad and called the Eastern Division. In 1847 telegraph wires passed through Lynn, but no telegraph service station was built till 1858. [http://www.usigs.org/library/books/ma/Lynn1890/lynn02Ch2-1814.txt] History of Lynn Ch2-1814-1864 pub1890.]
Lynn Shoe manufacturers, lead by
Charles A. Coffinand Silas Abbott Barton, invested in the early electric industry. Specifically in 1883 with Elihu Thomsonand his Thomson-Houston Electric Company. That company merged with Edison Electric Companyforming General Electricin 1892. Charles A. Coffinserved as the first president of General Electric. Elihu Thomsonlater served as acting president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technologyfrom 1920 to 1923. [http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/t/thomson.htm] Elihu Thomson Papers at the American Philosophical Society]
Initially the GE Electric plant specialized in arc lights, electric motors, and meters. Later they specialized in aircraft electrical systems and components, and aircraft engines were built in Lynn during WWII. That engine plant evolved into the current jet engine plant during WWII [http://www.massmoments.org/moment.cfm?mid=117] MassMoments GE Jet Engine Tests in Lynn] because of research contacts at MIT in Cambridge.
Gerhard Neumannwas a key player in jet engine group at GE in Lynn.. The continuous interaction of material science research at MIT and the resulting improvements in jet engine efficiency and power has kept the jet engine plant in Lynn ever since.
Like many industrialized urban areas, Lynn began a decline in the 1950s with
Suburbanization. Lynn's population peaked at 99,000 in 1950. Lynn was too far away from Route 128 to benefit significantly from the 128 technology companies.
Lynn suffered several large
firesin the late 1970s and early 1980s, including a devastating inferno among former shoe factories at Broad and Washington Streets on November 28, 1981. The blaze destroyed 17 downtown buildings undergoing redevelopment, with property losses totaling in the tens of millions of dollars. The site has since been largely redeveloped into a satellite campus of North Shore Community College.
Lynn remains home to some of the
jet enginedivision of General Electric, a major employer, as well as West Lynn Creamery (now part of Dean Foods's Garelick Farms unit) and Durkee-Mower, makers of "Marshmallow Fluff."
Famously known as, "Lynn, Lynn: the city of sin. You never come out, the way you went in," the city of Lynn created an advertising campaign in the early 1990s, to improve the city's image, and help rid the town of that negative slogan. This was the "City Of Firsts" campaign, which boasted that Lynn had the:
* First fire engine (1654)
* First American
* First woman in
advertising& mass-marketing-- Lydia Pinkham
* First baseball game under artificial light
danceacademy in the U.S.
* First tannery in the U.S.
air maildelivery in the U.S.
Later, some of these claims were found to be inaccurate or unprovable. For example, the first air mail delivery in the U.S. occurred on
Long Island, and the first baseball game under artificial light seems to have actually occurred in Indiana. While the jet engine claim is legitimate, the engine was heavily based on a prior British design.Facts|date=September 2008
The twenty-first century
In the early 2000s, a number of new development projects have contributed to what officials hope will be the city's renaissance. Industrial buildings that were formerly vacant have been converted into
loftspaces by real estate developers, and bought by young home-buyers who seek the urban lifestyle of Boston proper, but can't afford the higher prices of Boston's South End and similar neighborhoodsFact|date=June 2007. Encouraged by local developer Tom Kennedy, renowned New Urbanistarchitect Robert Orrproposed a series of charettes for the redevelopment of Lynn's waterfront in conjunction with Lynnfield Engineering. City Hall is encouraging the community's resurgence, with new antique-style lighting, signage, brickwork, and a multipurpose municipal football stadium. The North Shore Spirit, a professional baseball club, played in Lynn at renovated Fraser Fieldthrough the 2007 season. Lynn has also become home to one of the largest Russian communities in the North Shore. The first wave of immigration began in the early 1990s when Jewish people in Russia were granted refugee status by the American government.Fact|date=June 2007 The Great Stew ChaseRoad Race is a 15K (9.3 mile) event held in early February. It is the 3rd oldest 15K race in the United States.
In December 2007, the Massachusetts Seaport Advisory Council approved $750,000 in funding at City Hall, paving the way for a commuter ferry from Lynn to Boston.
Lynn is located at coor dms|42|28|26|N|70|57|20|W|city (42.473996, -70.955583).GR|1
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.5 square miles (34.9 km²), of which, 10.8 square miles (28.0 km²) of it is land and 2.7 square miles (6.9 km²) of it (19.87%) is water. Lynn is located beside Massachusetts Bayand the Atlantic Ocean.
Lynn is loosely segmented into the following neighborhoods:
** Business District / Downtown
** Central Sq.
* WEST LYNN
** Veterans Village
** Pine Hill
** McDonough Sq / Barry Park
** Tower Hill / Austin Sq - Saugus River Banks
** The Brickyard
** Walnut St./ Lynnhurst
** The Common
* EAST LYNN
** Diamond District/ Lynn Shore
** Wyoma Sq.
** The Highlands
** The Fay Estate
** Ward 1/ Lynnfield St.
** Goldfish Pond
** The Meadow / Keaney Park
estimate=87122As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 89,050 people, 33,511 households, and 21,044 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 8,233.7 people per square mile (3,177.7/km²). There were 34,637 housing units at an average density of 3,202.6/sq mi (1,236.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67.89% White, 10.55% African American, 0.37% Native American, 6.43% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 9.82% from other races, and 4.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.40% of the population.
There were 33,511 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.2% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.31.
In the city the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 31.0% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,364, and the median income for a family was $45,295. Males had a median income of $34,284 versus $27,871 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $17,492. About 13.2% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over.
Lynn is served by the
Newburyport/Rockport Lineof the MBTA commuter rail, and several bus routes that connect it with Bostonand nearby communities like Revere. There are ongoing studies on the feasibility of extending the Blue Line subway to the city.
A main commercial thoroughfare through southern Lynn is "The Lynnway", which carries Route 1A. Minor state routes include Route 129 (mostly Eastern Ave. and Lynnfield St.) and Route 107 (mostly Western Ave.).
Points of interest
* [http://www.lynn-nahantbeach.org Lynn Beach]
* [http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/Public_Documents/LynnMA_Resources/woods Lynn Woods,] the largest municipal park in New England, as well as the second largest in the country at 2200 acres, is host to local historical sites such as Stone Tower, Steel Tower, the Wolf Pits, and Dungeon Rock, believed to be the site of still-unrecovered pirate treasure. Visit the [http://www.flw.org/ Friends of Lynn Woods] for more information. Also were many schools have cross country track meets.
* [http://www.essexheritage.org/sites/lynn_heritage.shtml Lynn Heritage State Park] (and new home of the Lynn Museum)
* [http://myweb.northshore.edu/users/ccarlsen/poetry/lynn/highrockhistory.html High Rock Tower,] a stone observation tower with a great view of Nahant, Boston, Downtown Lynn, Egg Rock, and the ocean
* [http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/Public_Documents/LynnMA_DPW/cemetery Pine Grove Cemetery,] , one of the largest cemeteries in the country which some locals claim has the "second longest wall in the world."
* [http://www.ballparkwatch.com/visits/fraser_field.htm Fraser Field,] This municipal baseball stadium constructed in the 1940s under the WPA. It has housed many minor league baseball teams and a few major league exhibition games for the Boston Red Sox. Now it is used by the city's four high schools and was home to the independent baseball team called the
North Shore Spirit, which has moved on as of 2007. For 2008, it will be the home of the North Shore Navigatorsof the New England Collegiate Baseball League (NECBL).
* [http://www.lynnclassical.org/Manning%20Bowl%20Stories.htm Manning Field,] The municipal football stadium. It is the former site of Manning Bowl (circa 1936- August 2005). Manning Field has just recently completed its first season accommodating several high school football games, all of which occurred during construction.
* [http://www.lynnauditorium.com/ Lynn Memorial Auditorium] This recently renovated auditorium has recently housed such acts as the
Boston Pops Orchestra, and upcoming acts such as the off-broadway hit I Love You, You're Perfect, Now Change, and children entertainment phenomenon The Doodlebops, and singer Lloyd is scheduled to perform here.
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/pwwmh/ma53.htm Mary Baker Eddy House]
* [http://www.lynnmuseum.org/ Lynn Museum & Historical Society]
Lynn has three public high schools ( [http://www.lynnenglish.org/ Lynn English] , [http://www.lynnclassical.org/ Lynn Classical] , Lynn Vocational Technical Institute ["Lynn Tech"] ), four
junior high schools, two alternative schools, and, as of Autumn 2008, 16 elementary schools (two were closed over the summer because of city budgetary constraints).cite web|url=http://www.lynnschools.org/school_profiles.htm|title=School Profiles|author=Lynn Public Schools|accessdate=2007-08-02] They are served by the [http://www.lynnschools.org/ Lynn Public Schools] district. There is also an independent Catholic high school, [http://www.smhlynn.org/ St. Mary's High School] , and three religious K-8 elementary schools, and one interdenominational Christian.cite web|url=http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/home.asp?mode=so&view=&mcasyear=2006&ot=5&o=947&so=0|title=Lynn - Directory Information|author=Massachusetts Department of Education|accessdate=2007-08-02]
operates the [http://www.kipplynn.org/ KIPP Academy Lynn] , a 5-8 charter middle school, in Lynn.
* Bill Adams, former American football
offensive guardfor the Buffalo Bills.
John G. B. Adams(1841-1900), Medal of Honorrecipient and Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic
Harry Agganis(1929-1955), American athlete
Mabel Albertson, Actress (Bewitched, et al.)
Jack Albertson, Actor (Chico and the Man, et al.)
Frank G. Allen(1874-1950), governor
Ernie Anderson, Television voice announcer and actor
Stan Andrews, catcher for the Boston Bees, Brooklyn Dodgersand Philadelphia Philliesfrom 1939-1945
F. Lee Bailey, defense lawyer of both Albert DeSalvo and O.J. Simpson
Les Burke, second baseman for the Detroit Tigersfrom 1923-1926
Verna Bloom, Actress (High Plains Drifter, Animal House, et al.)
Walter Brennan, actor
Freddy Cannon, rock and roll singer.
Thomas Champigny, Professionally awesome
William F. Connell(1938-2001) CEO,Philanthropist,
Francis Joseph "Boley" Danciewicz, QB/DB Boston Yanks 1946-1948.
Sean Deveney, NBA analyst for The Sporting News.
Frederick Douglass, African American Abolitionist
Mary Baker Eddy(1821-1910), religious leader
Biff Elliot, Actor.
Josh Fogg, Major League Baseball Pitcher
Bernie Friberg, baseball player for the Chicago Cubs(1919-20, 1922-25), Philadelphia Phillies(1925-32) and Boston Red Sox(1933).
Barney Gilligan, catcher for the Brooklyn Atlantics, Cleveland Blues, Providence Grays, Washington Nationals, and Detroit Wolverinesfrom 1875-1888.
Sam Gilman, Actor.
Bump Hadley, pitcher for the Washington Senators (1926-31 and 1935), Chicago White Sox(1932), St. Louis Browns (1932-34), New York Yankees(1936-40), New York Giants (1941), and Philadelphia Athletics(1941).
* Neil Hamilton, Actor (Best known as Commissioner Gordon of 1960's Batman TV Series).
Jim Hegan, Major League Baseball catcher (1941-42, 1946-1960).
Ken Hill (baseball), Major League Baseball pitcher
* Chris Howard, relief pitcher for the Chicago White Sox (1993),
Boston Red Sox(1994) and Texas Rangers (1995).
Louise Kirtland, Broadway actress
Lyndon LaRoucheConspiracy theorist, political leader
Alonzo Lewis(1794 - 1861), teacher, surveyor, poet, writer, author, historian, publisher
Jan Matzeliger, inventor of shoe lasting
Linda McCarriston, poet
Maria Mitchell(1818-1889), astronomer
Joe Paru, Politician and cartoonist
Mike Ness, Musician, Lead singer and guitarist of Social Distortion.
Jack Noseworthy, Actor
Glenn Ordway, Sports Broadcaster, talk show host
William Dudley Pelley(1890-1965), leader of Silver Legion
Daniel Pinkham(1923-2006), composer
Lydia Pinkham(1819-1873), businesswoman
Larry Pleau, senior vice president and general manager of the St. Louis Bluesand former NHL player and head coach.
William B. Poole(1833-1904), Medal of Honorrecipient
* Tom Rowe,
ice hockeyplayer and coach.
Blondy Ryan, shortstopfor the Chicago White Sox (1930), New York Giants (1933-1934, 1937-1938), Philadelphia Phillies (1935), and New York Yankees (1935)
Susan Stafford, Original hostess of The Wheel of Fortune 1975-1982.
Kevin Trudeau, TV Infomercial
Lou Tsioropoulos, Basketball player, for the Kentucky Wildcatsand Boston Celtics
Al Weston, professional baseball player and Boston College quarterback.
*Lewis, Alonzo and James Robinson Newhall. [http://books.google.com/books?id=RQx39omkfOYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=History+of+Essex+County History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts: Including Lynnfield, Saugus, Swampscott and Nahant] . Published 1865 by John L. Shorey 13 Washington St. Lynn. Full copy at books.google.
*Needham, Daniel. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=LYNN.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1795&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1795&pageprefix= 1795 Map of Lynn] .
*Lewis, Alonzo. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=LYNN.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1830&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1830&pageprefix= 1829 Map of Lynn] . Click on each map at Salemdeeds website for a VERY large 300 d.p.i. image.
*Dutton, E.P. [http://maps.bpl.org/id/06_01_002671/ Chart of Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay with Map of Adjacent Country.] Published 1867. A good map of roads and rail lines from Lynn to Boston and surrounding area at the BPL.
* Various [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=LYNN&atlName=&PAGEPREFIX=&submittype= Lynn Atlases] at the Essex County Registry of Deeds in Salem. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=LYNN&atlas=LYNN%201880&atlas_desc=LYNN%201880&pageprefix= 1880] by G.M.Hopkins. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=plate_0003.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=LYNN&atlas=LYNN+1872&atlas_desc=LYNN+1872&pageprefix= 1872] Lynn City Atlas. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_results.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlas=LYNN%201897&pageprefix=&atlastown=LYNN 1887 Atlas of Lynn, Saugus, and Swampscott] Published by L.J.Richards. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_results.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlas=LYNN%201905&pageprefix=&atlastown=LYNN 1905 Atlas of Lynn] Published by L.J.Richards. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=LYNN&atlas=LYNN%201905&atlas_desc=LYNN%201905&pageprefix= 1905 City Center] . [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_results.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlas=LYNN%201924&pageprefix=&atlastown=LYNN 1924 Atlas of Lynn] Published by Richards. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_results.asp?atlastype=Atlases&atlas=LYNN%201924&pageprefix=&atlastown=LYNN 1924 Lynn City Center] .
*Beers, D G. "1872 Atlas Of Essex County Massachusetts". [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0132.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Lynn] Plate 132. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0135.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Saugus] Plate 135. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0137.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Saugus Center] Plate 137. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0109.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Lynnfield] Plate 109. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0125.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Swampscott] Plate 125. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0127.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Swampscott Center] Plate 127. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PLATE_0129.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1872&pageprefix= Nahant] Plate 129. Published 1872.
*Walker, George H. "1884 Atlas of Essex County Massachusetts". Unfortunately the 1884 Map of Lynn is missing from the copy at the Salem Essex County Registry of Deeds and Website. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0022_0023.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Lynn Common] Plate 22-23. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0085.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Pevears Morocco Factories] Plate 85. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0074_A.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Jones Shoe Factory 120 Broad St.] Plate 74A. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0056.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Stevens Block Lynn] Plate 56. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0021.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Clifton Dale Saugus] Plate 21. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0033.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Lynnfield] Plate 33. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0018.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Lynnfield Center] Plate 18. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0019.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Manfield House built 1666 Lynn, J.T.Wilson House Nahant] Plate 19. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0024.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Swampscott] Plate 24. [http://www.salemdeeds.com/atlases_pages.asp?ImageName=PAGE_0030.jpg&atlastype=Atlases&atlastown=ESSEX+COUNTY&atlas=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&atlas_desc=ESSEX+COUNTY+1884&pageprefix= Nahant East] Plate 30. Published 1884.
*Oliver, William T. [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gmd:2:./temp/~ammem_p5tv:: Market Street, Lynn, Mass., as it appeared in 1820.] at the Library of Congress.
* [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gmd:63:./temp/~ammem_N8Th:: Panoramic View of the Hutchinson Family Home on High Rock including all of Lynn, Massachusetts] published 1881 by Armstrong and Co, at the LOC website.
*D'Entremont, Jeremy. [http://lighthouse.cc/egg/history.html Egg Rock Lighthouse History.] Website.
*Carlson, W. Bernard. "Innovation as a Social Process: Elihu Thomson and the Rise of General Electric, 1870-1900" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991).
*Woodbury, David O. "Elihu Thomson, Beloved Scientist" (Boston: Museum of Science, 1944)
*Haney, John L. "The Elihu Thomson Collection" American Philosophical Society Yearbook 1944.
* United Press International. "Blaze destroys urban complex in Lynn, Mass." 'The New York Times,' November 29, 1981. Page 28.
* [http://www.ci.lynn.ma.us/ City of Lynn]
* [http://www.lynnareachamber.com Chamber of Commerce Information]
* [http://www.itemlive.com The Daily Item, Lynn's daily paper]
* [http://www.stgeorgelynn.org St. George, Greek Orthodox Church of Lynn]
* [http://www.lynncyberdistrict.com Lynn Cyber District (last updated in 2001)]
* [http://www.mass.gov/dcr/parks/metroboston/lnhp.htm Lynn Heritage State Park]
* [http://www.noblenet.org/lynn/ Lynn Public Library]
* [http://lvtiaa.com Lynn Trade, and Lynn Vocational and Technical Institute Alumni Web Site.]
* [http://www.esseximages.com/ Essex Images]
* [http://myweb.northshore.edu/users/ccarlsen/poetry/lynn/index.html Poetry of Places in Essex County] has
Alonzo Lewis's nicely formatted poem [http://myweb.northshore.edu/users/ccarlsen/poetry/lynn/lewis.html "High Rock".]
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