- Daylight saving time around the world
legend|#c00000|Areas that never had DST
Daylight saving timearound the world, showing usage and a short history by location in alphabetic order.
The only African countries which use daylight saving time are:
Canary IslandsFrom last Sunday in March to Last Sunday in October and UTC. [Although the Canary Islands politically belong to Spain, Europe, they are geographically in Africa. They have DST schedules according to EU rules.]
EgyptFrom last Friday in April to Last Thursday in September and UTC+3.
MauritiusFrom November 1 to March 31 and UTC+5.
MoroccoFrom June 1 to september 28 and UTC+1.
NamibiaFrom first Sunday in September to First Sunday in April and UTC+2.
TunisiaFrom last Sunday in March to Last Sunday in October and UTC+2.
The British first instituted DST in
Egyptduring the Second World War, specifically between 1940 and 1945. The practice was stopped after the war, but resumed 12 years later, in 1957. Egyptnormally observes DST between the last Thursday in April and the last Thursday in September when the clocks are three hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time ( UTC+3). The change is at midnight (local time); i.e. on the last Thursday of April, one second after 23:59:59 becomes 1:00:00 on Friday. DST ends on the last Thursday of September; on that Thursday, one second after 23:59:59 becomes 23:00:00. The date does not change when the first 00:00 midnight occurs; for all practical purposes, midnight does not occur until after the "second" 23:59:59. An exception is made for Ramadan; in 2006 the end of DST took place one week earlier, on September 21, 2006, to take place before the start of the Ramadanholiday [cite news
title = Clocks to turn back Friday
pages = 1
publisher = The Egyptian Gazette
url = http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
accessdate = 2007-07-03] , while in 2007 DST ended on September 7, 2007.
To experiment to save energy, Mauritius starts DST in October 26 and it will finish on March 31.
For the year 2008, DST began on June 1, and will end on September 28. 2008 is the first time Morocco has used daylight saving time since 1978, and it has not been decided whether to use it in future years. [ [http://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/morocco-daylight-saving.html Morocco revives daylight saving schedule in 2008 ] ]
DST begins on the first Sunday in September, and ends on the first Sunday in April.
Tunisia adopted daylight saving time for the first time in 2005 starting
1 May 2005and following EU time schedules thereafter. This comes as a move by the government to try and promote saving of energy in the wake of the ever-rising cost of fuel in the world market.
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of Chinaexperimented with DST from 1986, but abandoned DST from 1992 onwards. The PRC now uses one time zone (UTC+8) for the whole country.
Hong Kong used DST beginning in 1948, but abandoned it from 1980 onwards [ [http://www.weather.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm Hong Kong Observatory: Hong Kong Summer Time] ] .
Indiaused DST briefly during war times. Currently, India does not observe DST.
Before 1979, DST was observed in Iran. Thereafter it was abandoned until 1989, when it started on the first day of Farvardin (21-22 March) in the
Iranian calendarand ended on the first day of Mehr (23-24 September). In the Spring of 2006, the government of Iran ceased observing DST. [ [http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm Elham: Cabinet nullifies the decision on daylight saving time] ] In September 2007, however, the Majlis (Iranian parliament) passed a law restoring daylight saving time beginning from the spring of 2008, despite opposition by the Ahmadinejad government.
Iraqobserved DST from the first Friday in April to the last Friday in October. Before 2003, DST was observed from the last Thursday in April to the last Thursday in October.
Iraq will not observe DST in 2008. [cite news |title= Cabinet cancels DST |url= http://www.iraqupdates.com/p_articles.php/article/28189 |format= |publisher= Iraq Updates |date= 2008-03-05 |accessdate= 2008-03-16 |quote= The Iraqi cabinet decided on Tuesday to cancel daylight saving time (DST) as of this year, the advisor for the prime minister for media affairs said. ‘The cabinet decided during its session today to cancel DST without mentioning the reasons behind the decision,’ Yassin Majid told Aswat al-Iraq - Voices of Iraq - (VOI). ]
Israelobserves DST starting on the last Friday before April 2and ending at 2 AM on the Sunday between Rosh Hashanahand Yom Kippur. Until 2005, the schedule was variable: the only requirement was that there be at least 150 days per year of DST, and was set out each year by the Ministry of the Interior. [ [http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html#i Daylight Saving Time in Middle East] ]
In territories controlled by the
Palestinian National Authority, DST ends later, which can lead to some confusion. On September 5, 1999, terrorists were transporting a bomb that they mistakenly thought was set to go off at 5:30 PM Israel Standard Time; it was actually set for 5:30 PM Palestinian Daylight Time, which was an hour ahead. As a result, the bomb went off while the bomb was still being transported, killing the terrorists (and earning them a Darwin Award). [ [http://darwinawards.com/darwin/darwin1999-38.html Living on Zionist Time — 1999 Darwin Awards] ]
:main|Japan Standard Time
From 1948 to 1951,
Japanobserved DST between May and September every year under an initiative of the U.S.-led occupation army. The unpopularity of DST, for which people complained about sleep disruption and longer daytime labor (some workers had to work from early morning till dusk), caused Japan to abandon DST in 1952, shortly after its sovereignty was restored upon the coming into effect of the San Francisco Peace Treaty. Since then, DST has never been officially implemented nationwide in Japan.
Starting in the late 1990s, a movement to re-install DST in Japan gained some popularity, aiming at saving energy and increasing recreational time. The
Hokkaidōregion is particularly in favor of this movement because daylight starts as early as 3:30 am (in standard time) there in summer due to its high latitude and its location near the eastern edge of the time zone. In the early 2000s, a few local governments and commerce departments promoted unmandated hour-earlier work schedule experiments during summer time without officially resetting clocks.
The Council on Economic and Fiscal Policy is expected to propose that the Japanese government begin studying DST in an attempt to help combat
global warming. The former Japanese PM Shinzo Abeis reportedly gravely concerned about global warming, and his government is determined to introduce DST. [cite news|title=Panel to call for daylight saving time|work=Yomiuri Shimbun|date=2007-06-02|url=http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/20070602TDY01005.htm|accessdate=2007-06-02] However, it is not clear that DST would conserve energy in Japan. A 2007 simulation estimated that introducing DST to Japan would increase energy use in Osakaresidences by 0.13%, with a 0.02% savings due to lighting more than outweighed by a 0.15% increase due to cooling costs; the simulation did not examine non-residential buildings. [cite journal |journal=Energy |year=2007 |volume=32 |issue=9 |pages=1617–1633 |title= Evaluation of city-scale impact of residential energy conservation measures using the detailed end-use simulation model |author= Yoshiyuki Shimoda |coauthors= Takahiro Asahia; Ayako Taniguchia; Minoru Mizuno |doi=10.1016/j.energy.2007.01.007]
JordanUTC+2 observes daylight saving time from the end of March to the end of October.
Kazakhstanmade a decision to stop observing DST in 2005, citing health complications as well as lowered productivity and a lack of economic benefits. [cite web|url=http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm|title=Kazakhstan abolishes daylight saving time|date=2005-03-21|accessdate=2007-03-28|publisher=Kazakhstan Society in the UK]
Kyrgyzstanvoted to stop observing DST in 2005 by remaining on UTC+6 as Standard Time (which used to be Kyrgyzstan Summer Time) to still save energy.
Lebanon has the same rules as the European Countries.
Pakistanexperimented with DST in 2002, going from +5:00 to +6:00 on the first Sunday in April at 00:00 to the first Sunday in October at 00:00. Pakistan has implemented DST again from June 1, 2008 to August 31, 2008, to meet the annual shortfall of 4 gigawatts of electricity instead of enforcing daily power cuts in households and factories. [ [http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jun/02pak1.htm DST helps poor country cut energy bills] ] The government later announced to extend the DST Schedule till Oct 31st, which also includes the holy month of Ramadan which is scheduled to begin in early September.
Philippinesexperimented with DST for shorter periods during the presidencies of Corazon Aquino(1986 to 1992) and Fidel Ramos (1992 to 1998). DST was primarily intended to help deal with the country's energy crisis by minimizing the number of hours where electric lighting was to be used. On April 2006, the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry again proposed that DST be implemented to help deal with rising oil prices. [cite web
url = http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/?page=politics02_april26_2006
title = DST in the works
accessdate = 2006-09-10
author = Elaine Ruzul S. Ramos
date = 2006-04-26
publisher = Manila Standard Today
archivedate =] [cite web
url = http://money.inq7.net/topstories/view_topstories.php?yyyy=2006&mon=04&dd=26&file=11
title = NPCC: Don't hike prices on account of oil
accessdate = 2006-09-10
author = Ronnell W. Domingo
date = 2006-04-25
publisher = Philippine Daily Inquirer
South Koreaobserved DST from 1948 to 1951, from 1955 to 1960, and from 1987 to 1988. South Korea does not currently observe DST.
Syriaobserved DST at UTC+3, in 2006 from 30 March until 21 September (a change from 30 September).
Taiwanimplemented DST from 1945 to 1961, revoked DST from 1962 to 1973, reinstated DST from 1974 to 1975, and abandoned DST from 1976 onwards.
These countries or regions do not use daylight saving time:
Papua New Guinea
Australia, the decision to implement daylight saving time is left up to each state or territory. Some states and territories implement it and some do not. New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territoryand South Australiaapply DST on a yearly basis, from the first Sunday of October to the first Sunday of April. Originally Tasmaniaalone commenced daylight saving on the first Sunday in October, while the other states began on the last Sunday in October and finished on the last Sunday in March, until 2008.From 2008/09 daylight saving has been extended another four weeks in NSW, Victoria, SA and the ACT, in addition to Tasmania, from the first Sunday in October to the first Sunday in April.
Daylight saving was first used in Australia during
World War I, which applied to all states. It was also used again during the Second World War. A drought in Tasmania in 1967 led to the re-introduction of daylight saving in that state during the summer, and subsequently every summer since then. A trial season of daylight saving commenced in 1971 for New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria. In 1972 NSW, SA and Vic. joined Tasmania in regular daylight saving. Queensland had daylight savings from 1989 to 1992. [cite web |last=Douma |first=Michael |url=http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html |title=Daylight Saving Time - When is Daylight Saving Time worldwide? |author=curator |date=2008 |accessdate=2008-09-03 |publisher= Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement]
In 2006, the
Parliament of Western Australiaapproved a three-year daylight saving trial to be followed by a referendumto decide whether DST should be put in place permanently. However, public opposition mounted during the first year of the trial, [cite news|title=Daylight saving support sinks|url=http://www.thewest.com.au/default.aspx?ContentID=24298|date=2007-03-24|author=Jessica Strutt|work=The West Australian] and the WA Nationals announced a public campaign to bring the referendum forward to 2007 before 2009. [cite web|url=http://www.nationalswa.com/pdf/070227%20the%20nationals%20give%20parliament%20notice%20of%20daylight%20saving%20bill.pdf|title=The Nationals give Parliament notice of daylight saving Bill|date= 27 February 2007|author=Brendon Grylls|accessdate=2007-03-03] Three previous referendums, in 1975, 1984 and 1992, rejected DST. [cite web|url=http://www.waec.wa.gov.au/state/factSheet18.htm|title=Referendums/Referendum Results|author=Western Australian Electoral Commission|year=2005|accessdate=2007-03-03] Western Australia maintained DST in 2007 and 2008, and has not amended its start and finish dates to stay in-line with the eastern states. The Northern Territoryand Queenslanddo not officially have DST. Queensland experimented with DST in the early 1970s, and again in the early 1990s, but it was abandoned after a majority of residents voted against it in a 1992 referendum. It continues to be a source of controversy. The Northern Territory experimented with daylight saving in the early part of the 20th century. It was last used in 1944.
From 30 April 2007, DST begins at 2 a.m. NZST on the last Sunday in September each year, and ends at 3 a.m. NZDT (or 2 a.m. NZST as defined in the Time Act 1974) on the first Sunday in April.
New Zealand time, including DST, is used by several
Antarcticbases that are supplied from New Zealand. This results in the oddity that the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Stationsets its clocks an hour further ahead during the southern summer, when the sun is constantly above the horizon, than in the southern winter, when the sun is constantly below the horizon. The extreme geographic position of the base means that there is no possible adjustment of the daily activity cycle that can have any effect on the amount of sunlight received during those activities. However, the arrangement presumably makes real time communications with New Zealand more practical, particularly in dealing with offices.
Hawaii's tropical latitude, there is not a large variation in daylight length between winter and summer. Due to the location of Hawaiian archipelago, advancing the clock in Hawaii would have made sunrise times close to 7:00 A.M. even in June. [http://aa.usno.navy.mil] (Most of the inhabited islands are located close to the west end of the Hawaii-Aleutian time zone, but Oahu, Kauaiand Niihauare located more than 7 1/2 degrees west of the Hawaii-Aleutian time zone's meridian and should, ideally, be located in the next time zoneto the west.) Hawaii did experiment with DST for three weeks between April 30 1933and May 21, 1933; there is no record as to why it was implemented or ultimately discontinued. [ [http://www.hawaiianswers.com/index.php?page=index_v2&id=25&c=19 HawaiiAnswers.com: Has Hawaii ever been on daylight saving time, even for a very short time? If yes, when?] The page cites "The American Atlas", 5th ed., by Thomas Shanks. It is also worth noting that at one time Hawaii Standard Time was UTC-10:30.] Hawaii has never observed daylight saving time under the Uniform Time Act, having opted out of the Act's provisions in 1967. [ [http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/hrscurrent/Vol01_Ch0001-0042F/HRS0001/HRS_0001-0031.HTM Hawaii Revised Statutes, §1-31] ]
United States Territories
All U.S. insular territories with civilian government in Oceania,
American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islandsdo not observe DST. They all lie in the tropics.
All countries in
Europeexcept Icelandobserve DST and most change on the same date and time, starting on the last Sunday in March and ending on the last Sunday in October. Before 1996, DST ended on the last Sunday in September in most European countries; in the British Isles though, DST then ended on the fourth (which some years isn't the last) Sunday in October. In the West European (UTC), Central European (CET, UTC+1), and East European (UTC+2) time zones the change is simultaneous: on both dates the clocks are changed everywhere at 01:00 UTC, i.e. from local times of 01:00/02:00/03:00 to 02:00/03:00/04:00 in March, and vice versa in October. [cite web
title=Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of
19 January 2001on summer-time arrangements
accessdate=2006-03-27] See also:
European Summer Timeand British Summer Timewhich includes description of "Double Summer Time".
Although DST has been observed in Denmark for the past few decades and its observance will continue in accordance with EU orders, a national association against DST (Landsforeningen mod Sommertid) still exists. [cite web|url=http://ikkesommertid.info/|title=Landsforeningen mod Sommertid|accessdate=2007-10-27|language=Danish]
Icelandobserving UTC all year round despite being at a longitude which would indicate UTC-1, the country may be thought of as being on continuous DST.
In Norway, DST (locally known by the expression "summer-time") was introduced in 1916, 1940-45, and 1959-65. The arrangement was controversial, and in 1965 the Norwegian parliament (Stortinget) voted to discontinue the practice.However, in 1980 DST was re-introduced, and at present (2007) Norway follows the European Union in this matter. [cite web|url=http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2002/oktober/1035454427.68|title=Hva er sommertid?|work=Forskning.no|accessdate=2007-10-27|language=Norwegian]
Russia, daylight saving time was originally introduced on July 1 1917by a decree of the Russian Provisional Governmentwhere clocks were moved one hour forwards. It was subsequently abandoned by a Decree of the Soviet government five months later, clocks being moved one hour back again on December 27.
Daylight saving time was reintroduced in the
USSR( Moscow Summer Time) on April 1, 1981, by a decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In Russiait was not abandoned after the breakup of the USSR. The changeover dates in Russiaare the same as for other European countries, but clocks are moved forward or back at 02:00 local time in all zones. Thus in Moscow (local time = UTC+3 in winter, UTC+4 in summer), DST commences at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in March, and ends at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in October (note that "day before last Sunday" is not the same as "last Saturday" in a month where the last day is a Saturday).
Swedendaylight saving time was originally introduced on May 15 1916. It proved unpopular at the time, and on Sept 30in the same year, Sweden returned to year-round standard time. This situation continued for more than half a century.
April 6, 1980, Sweden again introduced daylight saving time, and since then DST has been observed every summer in Sweden. Except from the introduction year 1980, daylight saving time has always started on the last Sunday in March. It ended on the last Sunday in September during the years 1980-1995, and on the last Sunday in October from 1996 onwards, following a unification of start/end dates of DST within the EUas well as in several European countries then outside the EU.
Five days before the reintroduction of DST in 1980, a major Swedish newspaper took the opportunity to publish an
April fool's joke on April 1 1980. The joke claims that DST had been introduced almost in secret with nearly no public information, that everybody was late everywhere, that hardly anyone really knew what the time was, and that there was chaos everywhere.
North Americagenerally follows the same procedure, with each time zone switching at 2:00 a.m. LST (local standard time) to 3:00 LDT (local daylight time) on the second Sunday in March, and again from 2:00 a.m. LDT to 1:00 LST on the first Sunday in November since 2007. Previously, daylight saving time was four to five weeks shorter (see below).
The Canadian province of
Newfoundland and Labradoris an exception in that the time changes take place at 00:01 local standard time and 00:01 local daylight time respectively. [http://www.hoa.gov.nl.ca/hoa/bills/Bill0634.htm Newfoundland and Labrador Amendment to the Standard Time Act] , passed November 20, 2006] Also, in 1988, they experimented with Double Daylight Time, when the clocks went ahead by two hours, instead of the usual one hour.Fact|date=August 2007
Canada, time is under provincial and territorial jurisdiction, not federal. The governments of Ontario, Manitoba, Nunavut, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Alberta, the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Nova Scotiaand Yukon Territoryhave so far pledged to change their DST rules to match the new U.S. rules. Newfoundland and Labrador followed by also adopting legislation to implement the change. In 2007, their DST started on the second Sunday in March, and returned to standard time on the first Sunday of November, to coincide with the U.S. dates. [ [http://www.justice.gov.ab.ca/law/default.aspx?id=4318 When do I change my clocks this year? - Law & legislation - Subject index - Alberta Justice] ] [ [http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/news/2005/20051020-dst.asp Ontario to Change Daylight Savings Time in 2007] ] As noted below, most of Saskatchewan does not technically observe DST but rather observes a skewed 'standard time' that has been advanced one hour forward permanently (i.e. observe what is sometimes known as 'year-round DST').
British Columbia(BC) is on Pacific Time and observes DST. However there are two main exceptions:
Part of the
Peace River Regional Districtof BC (including the communities of Chetwynd, Dawson Creek, Hudson's Hope, Fort St. John, Taylor and Tumbler Ridge) is on Mountain Timeand does not observe DST. This means that in winter the region is on the same time as Edmonton, Alberta, and in summer is on the same time as Vancouver, BC.
East Kootenayregion of south-eastern BC (including the communities of Cranbrook, Fernie, Golden and Invermere) is on Mountain Timeand observes DST. This means that the region is always on the same time as Calgary, Alberta.
While the rest of
Nunavutobserves DST, Southampton Islandincluding Coral Harbour remain on Eastern Standard Time throughout the year.
Most of Ontario uses DST with a few exceptions. Pickle Lake and New Osnaburgh in
northwestern Ontariouse Central Standard Time but do not observe DST. Atikokan, also in northwestern Ontario uses Eastern Standard Time but also does not observe DST. The remainder of Ontario however, does observe DST.
The eastern reaches of
Quebec's North Shore, east of 63° West longitude, are in the Atlantic Time Zone, but do not observe DST (see exception, below). The effect is that in summer, their clocks match those of the rest of the province, which observes Eastern Daylight Time. In October, their clocks are rejoined by their Atlantic Standard Time neighbors. Although places east of 63° West are officially on Atlantic Time, local custom is to use Eastern Time as far east as the Natashquan River. Those communities observe DST, including all of Anticosti Island, which is bisected by the 63rd meridian.
Officially, the province is part of the Central time zone (
UTC-6. This time zone designation was implemented in 1966, when the Saskatchewan Time Act was passed in order to standardize time province-wide. This creates a situation in which Saskatchewan is effectively on DST year round. The Mountain Standard Time line is actually centred in Saskatchewan and the entire province is within the MST ( UTC-7) zone.
The charter of the city of
Lloydminster, which is bisected by the Saskatchewan– Albertaboundary, gives it a special exemption. Lloydminster and the immediately surrounding region in Saskatchewan observe the same time as Alberta: Mountain Standard Time with officially sanctioned seasonal daylight saving. [ (which in the summer, puts it in sync with the rest of Saskatchewan). [http://www.municipal.gov.sk.ca/mrd/mrdpubtimesys.shtml Time System in Saskatchewan] ] Along the Manitobaborder, the small, remote Saskatchewanian towns of Denare Beach and Creighton unofficially observe DST in the central time zone, thereby keeping the same time as larger neighboring Manitoba communities.
Greenland(excluding two minor areas at Danmarkshavnand Pituffik) observes DST and uses the European convention (DST begins 01:00 UTC last Sunday in March and ends 01:00 UTC last Sunday in October). Most of the country is in the UTC-3 zone in the winter (UTC-2 in the summer).
Mexicoadopted DST nationwide in 1996, even in its tropical regions, because of its increasing economic ties to the United States. Although the United Stateshas changed the schedule for DST beginning in 2007, Mexicowill not be going along with it. DST has often been a contentious issue in Mexico and is not likely to be extended.
The state of
Baja Californiahas observed daylight saving time from several decades ago and until 1996 was the only Mexican state to observe it. Its neighbor, the US state of Californiaobserves DST a few weeks earlier, complicating economic ties between border cities.
The state of
Sonorahas not observed DST since 1998 because of the non-observance of DST by its neighbor Arizonaand its important economic ties with the US state. [Miriam de Regil. [http://www.conae.gob.mx/wb/CONAE/CONA_horario_de_verano_financiero Inicia el domingo el Horario de Verano] . "El Financiero", Viernes, 31 de marzo de 2006.]
Marías Islandsand the Revillagigedo Archipelagodo not observe DST. the westernmost island of the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Clarion Islanduses the UTC-8 (PST) all the time, that's why during the DST, Mexico has 4 different time zones.
Since 2007, daylight saving time starts on the second Sunday of March and ends on the first Sunday of November, with all time changes taking place at 2:00 a.m. local time. (From 1987 through 2006, DST began on the first Sunday of April and ended on the last Sunday of October.) Under Section 110 of the
Energy Policy Act of 2005, the U.S. Department of Energyis required to study the impact of 2007's DST extension no later than nine months after the change took effect. Congress has retained the right to revert to the DST schedule set in 1986. One potential issue is that some northern regions on the western edges of time zones are, for the first time since the 1974-75 "almost year round" DST experiment, experiencing sunrise times that occur later than 8am.
Many computers are affected by this change; see
From 1987 through 2006
The schedule through 2006 in the
United Stateswas that DST began on the first Sunday in April ( April 2, 2006), and changed back to standard time on the last Sunday in October ( October 29, 2006). The time is adjusted at 2 AM local time.
From 2007 on
In 2007, daylight saving time (DST) was extended in the United States. DST started on the second Sunday of March, which was three weeks earlier than in the past, and it ended on the first Sunday of November, one week later than in years past. This change resulted in a new DST period that was four weeks (and sometimes five weeks, as in 2008 or whenever March has five Sundays) longer than in previous years.cite web |last=Douma |first=Michael |url=http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/b.html |title=Daylight Saving Time - When do we change our clocks? |author=curator |date=2008 |accessdate=2008-03-08 |publisher=
Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement]
One bill that had been pushed for the past several years, especially by Wyoming Senator
Michael Enzi, was the HalloweenSafety Act to extend DST by one week to end on the first Sunday of November instead of the last Sunday in October. The idea was to allow children to go trick-or-treatingin more daylight. This extension was finally achieved with the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Alaskacurrently observes DST, but there is a statewide move to abolish it. As of July 24, 2006, Alaska's lieutenant governor Loren Lemanapproved a petition to collect signatures to put the initiativemeasure on the ballot by 2008. Due to its high latitude, Alaska has nearly round-the-clock daylight during summer and DST is seen by some Alaskans as unnecessary and a nuisance. Another issue is that the Alaskan mainland's single time zoneis too wide and there is a large disparity between civil timeand solar timewith solar noonoccurring as late as 3:00 P.M. by the clock in places like Nome, Alaska. Others argue that ending daylight saving time will place Alaska as much as five hours from Eastern Daylight Time, making coordination of travel and phone conversations more difficult.
Arizonadid observe DST in 1967 under the Uniform Time Act because the state legislature did not enact an exemption statutethat year. In March 1968, the DST exemption statutewas enacted and the state of Arizona has not observed DST since 1967 (however, the large Navajo Indian Reservation, which extends from Arizona into two adjacent states, does). This is in large part due to energy conservation since the temperature in and around Phoenix and Tucson is hotter than any other large U.S. metropolitan area during the summer, resulting in more power usage from air conditioning units and evaporative coolers in homes and businesses. An extra hour of sunlight while people are active would cause people to run their cooling systems longer, thereby using more energy. Fact|date=August 2008 Local residents remember the summer of 1967, the one year DST was observed. The State Senate Majority leader at the time owned drive-in movie theaters and was nearly bankrupted by the practice. Movies could not start until 10 PM at the height of summer and this is well past normal hours for most Arizona residents. It was his blight that got the exemption law passed.Fact|date=September 2008 There has never been any serious consideration of reversing the exemption.
At the end of the 20th century, Colorado Springs Gazette columnist Ralph Routon wrote a series of columns supporting the idea of placing all of
Coloradoon year-round DST in order to save state residents the "aggravation of resetting their clocks every six months." [Routon mentions in his original column, [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4191/is_19991023/ai_n9962293 "Let's Make Daylight Time Year-Round" "Gazette, The (Colorado Springs)", 23 October 1999] , several other beneficial effects, at least to himself] The idea gathered noticeable popular support within Colorado Springs, and attention of the state's larger newspapers, [said attention being negative, as Ed Quillen savaged the plan in his article [http://www.custerguide.com/quillen/eqcols/1999B073.htm|The Plot to Eliminate the Mountain Time Zone] , "Denver Post", 7 November 1999,] but when then state Senator MaryAnne Tebedoattempted to present the idea to the state legislature, her research uncovered Federal laws forbidding the state-initiated extension of daylight saving time. Still determined to relieve Coloradans of the need to change their clocks, Tebedo introduced the only bill legally permitted to her: a proposal to exempt the state of Colorado from DST. The bill failed to escape committee during the 2000 legislative session. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4191/is_20000129/ai_n9967552 "Year-round Daylight Time is Not an Option" "Gazette, The (Colorado Springs)", 29 January, 2000] : Routon mentions Tebedo's intent to introduce the bill]
In March 2008, Florida state senator
Bill Poseyintroduced a bill in the Florida legislatureto abolish daylight time in the state and keep Florida on year-round standard time. [http://www.miamiherald.com/458/story/473060.html]
From 1970 until 2006, most of
Indianain the Eastern Time Zone did not observe daylight saving time, but the entire state started to do so in April 2006 after eight counties in western Indiana were shifted from the Eastern Time Zone to the Central Time Zone. [ [http://dmses.dot.gov/docimages/pdf95/382609_web.pdf Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of Indiana] (a 139 KB PDF file)] One of the goals for observing DST was to get more Indiana counties observing the same timezone; formerly, 77 counties observed EST, 5 observed EST/EDT, and 10 observed CST/CDT. At present Indiana has 12 counties observing Central Daylight Time while the remaining 80 counties observe Eastern Daylight Time.
In 1967 the
Michigan Legislatureadopted a statute, Act 6 of the Public Acts of 1967, exempting the state from the observance of DST. The exemption statute was suspended on June 14, 1967, however, when the referendumwas invoked. From June 14, 1967, until the last Sunday in October, 1967, Michiganobserved DST, and did so in 1968 as well. The exemption statute was submitted to the voters at the General Election held in November, 1968, and, in a very close vote, the exemption statute was sustained. As a result, Michigandid not observe DST in 1969, 1970, 1971, or 1972. In November, 1972, an initiative measure, repealing the exemption statute, was approved by the voters. Michiganhas observed DST in 1973 and all subsequent years.
Nevada AssemblyBill 18 would have exempted Nevadafrom daylight saving time. The bill's author, Assemblyman Bob McCleary, D-North Las Vegas, argued that because of southern Nevada's desert climate, it would reduce power usage during the peak summer months by reducing the time that people would operate their home air conditioners. The result of not observing DST, however, would place the state in an odd time configuration relative to neighboring states. Because it is on the eastern edge of the Pacific Time Zone, Nevada (PST) would be two hours behind Utah (MDT), its eastern neighbor, and one hour behind California (PDT), its western neighbor. In the summer, it would therefore be the same time in Nevada (PST) as it would be in the majority of Alaska (AKDT). The bill died without a vote. [" Las Vegas Review-Journal" (Ed Vogel) [http://www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2005/Apr-05-Tue-2005/news/26220543.html Assembly panel likely to let daylight saving time bill die] 05 April 2005]
United States of America Territories
All U.S. insular territories with civilian government in North America,
Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islandsdo not observe DST.
Guatemala has used DST from time to time due to energy problems. The last time it used DST was on
April 30, 2006, ending on October 1, 2006. The implementation of DST has saved more than eight million dollars.Fact|date=February 2007 However DST was not observed in 2007.
Honduras adopted DST once from May 1994 until September 1994 but abandoned it that same year. On
May 7, 2006it again used DST; however it ended on August 7, 2006making this the shortest use of DST in the northern hemisphere as it was only applied for 3 months. The government decided not to use DST in 2007. [cite news|title=Gobierno recapacita y suspende adelanto de hora|work=La Prensa|date=2007-03-30|url=http://www.laprensahn.com/pais_nota.php?id04962=7386|language=Spanish]
Nicaragua observed DST from
January 1, 1992until February 20, 1994but it was stopped. On April 10, 2005until October 2, 2005DST was implemented, and the following year the period was similar, beginning on April 30, 2006and ending on October 1, 2006; this measure was for energy conservation. In 2007 the government of Nicaragua decided stop observing daylight saving time.
Cuba remained on DST from April 2004 until
October 29, 2006. Cuba was on DST from 11 March2007 to 28 October2007 and restarts DST again on 16 March2008. [ [http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/2008/03/13/nacional/artic10.html Regirá el horario de verano desde el próximo domingo 16 de marzo ] ]
After a period of not observing DST, on
December 21 2007, Argentinaresumed observance of DST in an attempt to save energy. The law governing the observance of DST in Argentina is to be enforced for the first time at midnight on December 30, 2007. DST ended in Argentina on March 16, 2008.
Braziladopted DST (called "horário de verão" – "summer time" – in Portuguese) for the first time in 1931, and has used it continuously since 1985 in the southern states (south, southeast regions and the states of Goiásand Mato Grosso do Sul), and in Bahiauntil 2004. Formerly, starting and ending dates were variable, but in 2008, a decree established a permanent rule: DST starts at 00:00h on the third Sunday in October and ends at 00:00h on the third Sunday in February -- except if it falls during Carnival; in this case, DST ending is postponed one week. The next year in which DST ending will be postponed is 2012. In 2008, DST will started on October 19, 2008and it end on February 15, 2009in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, and Distrito Federal.
Chile observes DST from the second Saturday in October to the second Saturday in March, but it may vary. In 2008, for example, the time was adjusted on Sunday, March 30,at 12 midnight.
From February 1992 until March 1993,
Colombiasuffered rolling blackouts of up to 10 hours a day due to a particularly strong El Niñoseason, which dried the reservoirs in hydroelectric plants in a country deriving 70% of its energy output from hydroelectric sources; consequently, the government decided to use DST to help save electricity. The experiment failed to deliver the intended results possibly due to Colombia's low latitude; therefore, the DST experiment was discontinued. [cite web|author= |url=http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=41&syear=1990|title=Time zone changes and daylight saving time start/end dates between year 1990 and 1999 - Bogota, Colombia |publisher=timeanddate.com |accessdate=2008-05-09]
Sixto Durán Ballénimposed daylight saving time in 1992 in an energy-saving effort. It was poorly received by the populace and did not last long.
DST is observed from the first Sunday of September to the third Sunday of April. [ [http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/timezone.html?n=630&syear=2000 Time zone and daylight saving time for U.K. - Falkland Islands - Stanley between 2000 and 2009 ] ]
Paraguay observes DST. The current regulation that establishes this is decree 1867 of March 5, 2004. DST ends on the second Sunday of March and starts on the third Sunday of October.
In 2007, DST started on
October 15, 2006and ended on March 11 2007.
Since 2004, Uruguay has observed DST. Starting in 2006, DST will start on the first Sunday in October and end on the second Sunday in March of every year.
Rest of South America
These areas do not use daylight saving time:
*The following states of Brazil: Acre,
Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia, Roraima, Sergipe, and Tocantins.
* [http://www.twinsun.com/tz/tz-link.htm Sources for time zone and daylight saving time data]
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