- Acre (state)
:"For other meanings of the word Acre, see also:
Acre (disambiguation)"Infobox Brazilian State
name = State of Acre
latd= |latm= |latNS= |longd= |longm= |longEW=
demonym = Acreano
Binho MarquesWorkers' Party
leader_name2 = Carlos César Messias
area = 152.581
area_magnitude = 1 E11
area_rank = 16th
population_estimate = 686,652
population_estimate_rank = 25th
population_estimate_year = 2006
population_census = 646,962
population_census_year = 2005
population_density = 4.5
population_density_rank = 23th
GDP = R$ 4,482,000,000
GDP_rank = 25th
GDP_year = 2005
GDP_per_capita = R$ 6,792
GDP_per_capita_rank = 18th
HDI = 0.751
HDI_rank = 16th
HDI_year = 2005
abbreviation = BR-AC
time_zone = BRT
utc_offset = -4
time_zone_DST = NO OFFSET
Acre (pronounced|ˈakɾi [In
Brazilian Portuguese. The European Portuguesepronunciation is IPA| [ˈakɾɨ] .] ) is a state of Brazil, located in the north-western part of the country. To the north is the state of Amazonas, to the east is a short border with the state of Rondônia, to the south is Boliviaand to the west is the Ucayali Regionof Peru. Today, only a small part of the inhabitants make a living from the extration of latex. Other products of the forest have gained fame: açaíis very appreciated in the center-south of Brazil, the "folha de pimenta longa", long pepper leaf, used to manufacture natural perfumes and hair products, natural food and medicines.
Acre is covered mostly by the jungle of the
Amazon Rainforest. The state is a well-known producer and exporter of rubber. The Acre Riverruns along the southern boundary of the state, forming the border with Bolivia.
equatorial climateis a type of tropical climatein which there is no dry season– all months have mean precipitationvalues of at least 60mm. It is usually found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator– which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The equatorial climate is denoted "Af" in the Köppen climate classification. Tropical rainforestis the natural vegetation in equatorial regions.
The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining
rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforestin the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americasare consistently more species-rich than the wet forests in Africaand Asia.Turner, I.M. 2001. "The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest. [ [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/amazon/index.cfm Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals] ]
República Velha", 1892. Note the different from current western borders in the areas of Pantanaland Amazonia— including the lack of the Acre, then still part of Bolivia] The territory was assigned to Bolivia in 1867 by the Treaty of Ayacuchowith Brazil. In 1899-1900, the Spanish journalist and former diplomat Luiz Galvez Rodrigues de Aria led an expedition that sought to seize control of what is now Acre from Bolivia. The expedition was secretly financed by the Amazonas state government and aimed to incorporate Acre into Brazil after its independence from Bolivia. Galvez declared himself president of the first Republic of Acreon July 14, 1899. That first republic lasted until March 1900, when the Brazilian government sent troops to arrest Galvez and give Acre back to Bolivia. Galvez was deported to Spainand the inhabitants of Acre found themselves up against both Bolivia and Brazil. In spite of a second attempt at creating an Acre Republic (November 1900 - December 24, 1900), Acre remained part of Boliviauntil 1903.
After the failure of the second attempt of Acre to secede from Bolivia, a veteran soldier from
Rio Grande do Sulwho had fought in the Federalist Revolution of 1893, José Plácido de Castro, was approached by the Acrean Revolution leaders and offered the opportunity to lead the independence movement against the Bolivians. Plácido, who had been working in Acre since 1899 as a chief surveyor of a surveying expedition and was about to go back to Rio de Janeiro, accepted the offer. He imposed strict military discipline and reorganized the revolutionary army, which reached 30,000 men.
The Acrean army won battle after battle and on January 27, 1903, José Plácido de Castro declared the Third
Republic of Acre. President Rodrigues Alves of Brazil, ordered Brazilian troops into Northern Acre in order to replace Plácido as the president of Acre. Through Barão do Rio Branco's most able ministerial diplomacy, the question was settled. After negotiations a treaty was signed. The Treaty of Petrópolis, which was signed on November 11, 1903, gave Brazil Acre (191.000 km²) in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso, payment of two million pounds sterling and an undertaking to construct the Madeira-Mamoré railroad that would allow Bolivia access to the outside world. It should be noted that for forty years, since around 1860, Acre had been overrun by Brazilians, who made up 99% of the populationFact|date=November 2007. On February 25, 1904 it was officially made a federal territory of Brazil, and a federal state in 1962. Acre is best known for being the home of the rubber tapper Chico Mendes, who was murdered at the orders of powerful cattle ranchers in 1988.
According to the
IBGEof 2007, there were 664,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 4.5 inh./km². Urbanization: 69.6% (2006); Population growth: 3.3% (1991-2000); Houses: 162,000 (2006). [Source: PNAD.]
The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 441,000
Pardo(Brown) people (66.5%), 172,000 White (26.0%), 45,000 Black (6.8%), 4,000 Asian or Amerindian people (0.7%). [cite book|url=ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Indicadores_Sociais/Sintese_de_Indicadores_Sociais_2007/Tabelas|title=Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007|publisher= IBGE|location=Acre, Brazil|format=PDF|isbn=85-240-3919-1|accessdate=2007-07-18|year=2007|language=Portuguese]
service sectoris the largest component of GDPat 66%, followed by the industrial sectorat 28.1%. Agriculturerepresents 5.9%, of GDP(2004). Acre exports: wood85.6%, meatof chickenand wild turkey4.7%, products of wood1.7% (2002). Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.2% (2005).
* Universidade Federal do Acre (Ufac) (Federal University of Acre);
* Faculdade da Amazônia Ocidental (Faao) (College of Western Amazon);
* Faculdade de Ciências Jurídicas e Sociais Aplicadas Rio Branco (Firb);
* Instituto de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Vale do Juruá (Ieval);
* Instituto de Ensino Superior do Acre (Iesacre);
* União Educacional do Norte (Uninorte).
Rio BrancoRio Branco International Airport is located in a rural zone of the municipality of Rio Branco, in the state of Acre. It was opened on November 2, 1999 with a unique characteristic: it moved 22 kilometers from the previous airport site. Rio Branco Airport serves domestic and international flights (by scheduled carriers and air taxi firms) along with general and military aviation. The terminal can receive 270 thousand passengers a year and serves an average of 14 daily operations.
Cruzeiro do SulCruzeiro do Sul International Airport is locate 18 kilometers from the city center, which helps access to the Alto Juruá region. It was opened on October 28, 1970 and absorbed by Infraeroon March 31, 1980. The airport infrastructure was built in 1976 by the municipal government. In 1994 the runway was totally renovated.
* BR-364 (Rio Branco to
* BR-317 (Rio Braco to south of Acre);
* AC-040 (Rio Branco to Plácido de Castro);
* AC-401 (Plácido de Castro to Acrelândia);
* AC-010 (Rio Branco to Porto Acre).
Rio Brancoprovides visitors and residents with various sport activities.
* Arena da Floresta stadium;
* José de Melo stadium;
* Federação Acreana de Futebol stadium;
* Dom Giocondo Maria Grotti stadium;
* Adauto de Brito stadium;
* and many others.
Rio Brancois one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, which will be held in Brazil.
Acre is inhabited by various indigenous groups of the
Panoanlanguage family, including Kashinawa, Jaminawaand Xanenawa. There are also three groups of other language families, Madiha( Kulina) of the Arawanfamily as well as Yine( Manchineri) and Ashaninka(Kampa) of the Arawakanfamily.
The flag was adopted on March 15, 1921. It is a variation of the flags used by the secessionist state of Acre, with the yellow and green parts exchanged and mirrored. The yellow color symbolizes peace, green hope, and the star symbolizes the light which guided those who worked to make Acre a state of Brazil.
* [http://www.ac.gov.br Official Website]
* [http://www.braziltour.com/site/gb/home/index.php Brazilian Tourism Portal]
* [http://www.professores.uff.br/hjbortol/arquivo/2006.1/applets/acre_en.html Acre's location on a 3D globe] (Java)
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