:"For the 12th century astronomer, see
Jabir ibn Aflah. For the anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist, see Pseudo-Geber. For the crater, see Geber (crater)."
Infobox Muslim scholars
notability = Muslim scientist
Islamic Golden Age
color = #cef2e0
image_caption = 15th-century European portrait of "Geber", Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence
name = "Jabir ibn Hayyan"
title = "Geber"
birth = 721 CE
death = c. 815 CE
Shia[cite book |last=Henderson |first=Joseph L. |coauthors=Dyane N. Sherwood |editor= |title=Transformation of the Psyche: The Symbolic Alchemy of the Splendor Solis |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=NOcY_p6bz_0C&printsec=frontcover#PPA11,M1 |edition= |year=2003 |publisher=Psychology Press |location=East Sussex, UK |isbn=1-583-91950-3 |pages=p. 11 |quote= ] Jafari, Turkish
school tradition =
notable idea =
main interests = Alchemy and Chemistry, Astronomy, Astrology, Medicine and Pharmacy, Philosophy, Physics
Alchemy, Harbi al-Himyari, Ja'far al-Sadiq
works = "
Kitab al-Kimya", " Kitab al-Sab'een", " Book of the Kingdom", " Book of the Balances" , " Book of Eastern Mercury", etc...
Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān (Arabic: جابر ابن حيان) (c. 721–c. 815), known also by his Latinised name Geber, was a prominent
Muslim polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geologist, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. He is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry".citation|first=Zygmunt S.|last=Derewenda|year=2007|title=On wine, chirality and crystallography|journal=Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations of Crystallography|volume=64|pages=246-258  ] His ethnic background is not clear; [SN Nasr, "Life Sciences, Alchemy and Medicine", The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge, Volume 4, 1975, p. 412:"Jabir is entitled in the traditional sources as al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi, al-Sufi. There is a debate as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan or a Persian from Khorasan who later went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and later lived in Persia and Iraq"] although some sources state that he was an Arab, [History of Analytical Chemistry By Ferenc Szabadváry,P 11,ISBN 2881245692.] [The Historical Background of Chemistry By Henry Marshall Leicester,P 63.] [Alchemy,Eric John Holmyard, P 68.] [Dragon's Brain Perfume an Historical Geography of Camphor, Robin Arthur Donkin, P 137.] [The Grand Contraption The World as Myth, Number, and Chance, David Allen Park, P 229.] [Cosmology in Gauge Field Theory and String Theory, By David Bailin, Alexander Love, P 181.] [The New Book of Knowledge, ISBN 0717205177, Page 446.] [The Biology of Alcoholism, By Benjamin Kissin, Henri Begleiter,P 576.] [Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine,By Thomas F. Glick, Steven John Livesey,Faith Wallis, ISBN 0415969301, P 280] [A History of Chemistry By Forris Jewett Moore, P 15.] [E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 By M. Th. Houtsma, E. van Donzel, ISBN 9004082654, P 989.] [In Old Paris, by Robert W. Berger, P 164, ISBN 0934977666.] [Chemical Essays By Richard Watson, P 68] [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0825780.html Jabir] , " Columbia Encyclopedia", Sixth Edition, 2007.] Ahmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2010.htm Arabic Alchemy] ] other sources introduce him as Persian. [A Dictionary of the History of Science by Anton Sebastian - p. 241 ] [The Alchemical Body By David Gordon - p. 366 ] [The Structure and Properties of Matter by Herman Thompson Briscoe - p. 10 ] [The Tincal Trail: A History of Borax by Edward John Cocks, Norman J. Travis - p. 4] [William Royall Newman, "Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution", Harvard University Press, 1994. pg 94: "According to traditional bio-bibliography of Muslims, Jabir ibn Hayyan was a Persian alchemist who lived at some time in the eight century and wrote a wealth of books on virtually every aspect of natural philosophy"] [William R. Newman, "The Occult and Manifest Among the Alchemist", in F. J. Ragep, Sally P Ragep, Steven John Livesey, "Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on pre-Modern science held at University of Oklahoma", Brill,1996/1997, pg 178:"This language of extracting the hidden nature formed an important lemma for the extensive corpus associated with the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan"] [ Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy", Translated by Joseph H. Rowe,North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 45: "The Nisba al-Azdin certainly does not necessarily indicate Arab origin. Jabir seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe established in Kufa] [Tamara M. Green, "The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World) ", Brill, 1992. pg 177: "His most famous student was the Persian Jabir ibn Hayyan (b. circa 721 C.E.), under whose name the vast corpus of alchemical writing circulated in the medieval period in both the east and west, although many of the works attributed to Jabir have been demonstrated to be likely product of later Ismaili' tradition."] [David Gordon White, "The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India", University of Chicago Press, 1996. pg 447] [William R. Newman, "Promethean Ambitions: Alchemy and the Quest to Perfect Nature", University of ChicagoPress, 2004. pg 181: "The corpus ascribed to the eight-century Persian sage Jabir ibn Hayyan.."] [Wilbur Applebaum, "The Scientific revolution and the foundation of modern science", Greenwood Press, 1995. pg 44: "The chief source of Arabic alchemy was associated with the name, in its Latinized form, of Geber, an eighth-century Persian. "] [Neil Kamil,"Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots New World, 1517-1751 (Early America: History, Context, Culture)", JHU Press, 2005. pg 182: "The ninth-century Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hay- yan, also known as Geber, isaccurately called pseudo-Geber since most of the works published under this name in the West were forgeries"]
Jabir Ibn Hayyan is widely credited with the introduction of the experimental method in alchemy, and with the invention of numerous important processes still used in modern
chemistrytoday, such as the syntheses of hydrochloric and nitric acids, distillation, and crystallisation. His original works are highly esotericand probably coded, though nobody today knows what the code is. On the surface, his alchemical career revolved around an elaborate chemical numerologybased on consonants in the Arabic names of substances and the concept of " takwin", the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory. Research has also established that oldest text of Jabiran corpus must have originated in the scientific culture of northeastern Persia. [ Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy", Translated by Joseph H. Rowe,North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 46:"This thesis is supposed by the Pahlavi and Persian terms used in the technical vocabulary."] This thesis is supported by the Persian languageand Middle Persian terms used in the technical vocabulary. [ Henry Corbin, "The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy", Translated by Joseph H. Rowe,North Atlantic Books, 1998. pg 46:"This thesis is supposed by the Pahlavi and Persian terms used in the technical vocabulary."]
Jabir was born in
Tus, Khorasan, in Iran[cite web
title= "Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan"
publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica Online
accessdate=2008-02-11] , then ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate; the date of his birth is disputed, but most sources give 721 or 722. The information on his life and background is sketchy. In some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a
pharmacistof the Arabian Azdtribe who emigrated from Yemento Kufa(in present-day Iraq) during the Umayyad Caliphate.cite book
author = Holmyard, E.J.
coauthors = Russell, R.
year = 1997
title = The Works of Geber
publisher = Kessinger Publishing
isbn = 0-7661-0015-4] Hayyan had supported the
Abbasidrevolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan(in present Iran) to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Ummayads and executed. His family fled back to Yemen, E. J. Holmyard(ed.) "The Arabic Works of Jabir ibn Hayyan", translated by Richard Russellin 1678. New York, E. P. Dutton (1928); Also Paris, P. Geuther.] where Jabir grew up and studied the Koran, mathematics and other subjects under a scholar named Harbi al-Himyari. After the Abbasids took power, Jabir went back to Kufa, where he spent most of his career.
Jabir's father's profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in
alchemy. In Kufa he became a student of the celebrated Islamic teacher and sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. He began his career practising medicine, under the patronage of the Barmakid Vizirof Caliph Haroun al-Rashid. It is known that in 776 he was engaged in alchemy in Kufa.
His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end. When that family fell from grace in 803, Jabir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death. The date of his death is given as c.815 by the "
Encyclopædia Britannica", but as 808 by other sources.
Jabir is mostly renowned for his contributions to
chemistry. He emphasised systematic experimentation, and did much to free alchemy from superstitionand turn it into a science. He is credited with the invention of over twenty types of now-basic chemical laboratoryequipment, such as the alembic Will Durant(1980). "The Age of Faith ( The Story of Civilization, Volume 4)", p. 162-186. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671012002.] and retort, [ [http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0031708.html Distillation] , " Hutchinson Encyclopedia", 2007.] and with the discovery and description of many now-commonplace chemical substances and processes – such as the hydrochloric and nitric acids, distillation, and crystallisation– that have become the foundation of today's chemistryand chemical engineering.
He also paved the way for most of the later Islamic alchemists, including
al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Tughraiand al-Iraqi, who lived in the 9th-13th centuries. His books strongly influenced the medieval European alchemists and justified their search for the philosopher's stone. [citation|title=The Philosopher's Stone: Alchemy and Chemistry|first=Jehane|last=Ragai|journal=Journal of Comparative Poetics|volume=12|issue=Metaphor and Allegory in the Middle Ages|year=1992|pages=58-77] [citation|title=Maslama al-Majriti and the Rutbatu'l-Hakim|first=E. J.|last=Holmyard|journal=Isis|volume=6|issue=3|year=1924|pages=293-305]
He clearly recognized and proclaimed the importance of experimentation. "The first essential in chemistry", he declared, "is that you should perform practical work and conduct experiments, for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain the least degree of mastery."citation|title=Polymer Phase Diagrams: A Textbook|first1=Ronald|last1=Koningsveld|first2=Walter H.|last2=Stockmayer|first3=Erik|last3-Nies|year=2001|publisher=
Oxford University Press|isbn=0198556349|pages=xii-xiii]
Jabir is also credited with the invention and development of a number of
chemical substances and instruments that are still used today. He discovered sulfuric acid, and by distilling it together with various salts, Jabir discovered hydrochloric acid(from salt) and nitric acid(from saltpeter). By combining the two, he invented aqua regia, one of the few substances that can dissolve gold.cite web |url= http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm |title=Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries |accessdate=2008-03-29 |last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam ] Besides its obvious applications to gold extraction and purification, this discovery would fuel the dreams and despair of alchemists for the next thousand years. He is also credited with the discovery of citric acid(the sour component of lemonsand other unripe fruits), acetic acid(from vinegar), [Olga Pikovskaya, [http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2005/tc20050329_3316.htm Repaying the West's Debt to Islam] , " BusinessWeek", March 29, 2005.] and tartaric acid(from wine-making residues). Jabir also discovered and isolated several chemical elements, such as arsenic, antimonyand bismuth.citation|title=Electrocyclic reactions: from fundamentals to research|first1=Farzana Latif|last1=Ansari|first2=Rumana|last2=Qureshi|first3=Masood Latif|last3=Qureshi|year=1998|publisher=Wiley-VCH|isbn=3527297553|page=2] [citation|title=The History of Chemistry|first=Thomas|last=Thomson|publisher=Colburn and Bentley|year=1830|pages=129-30] He was also the first to classify sulfur(‘the stone which burns’ that characterized the principle of combustibility) and mercury (which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties) as 'elements'.Strathern, Paul. (2000). Mendeleyev’s Dream – the Quest for the Elements. New York: Berkley Books.] He was also the first to purify and isolate sulfurcite web |url= http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2072.htm |title=Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part III: Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries |accessdate=2008-03-29 |last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam ] Strathern, Paul (2000), "Mendeleyev’s Dream – the Quest for the Elements", New York: Berkley Books] and mercuryGeorge Rafael, [http://archive.salon.com/books/feature/2002/01/08/alphabet/index.html A is for Arabs] , " Salon.com", January 8, 2002] as pure elements.
Jabir applied his chemical knowledge to the improvement of many manufacturing processes, such as making
steeland other metals, preventing rust, engraving gold, dyeing and waterproofing cloth, tanning leather, and the chemical analysis of pigments and other substances. He developed the use of manganese dioxidein glassmaking, to counteract the green tinge produced by iron— a process that is still used today. He noted that boiling winereleased a flammable vapor, thus paving the way for the discovery of ethanol( alcohol) by Al-Kindiand Al-Razi.cite web |url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Notes/Notes%207.htm |title=Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources |accessdate=2008-03-29 |last=Hassan |first=Ahmad Y |authorlink=Ahmad Y Hassan |work=History of Science and Technology in Islam] According to Ismail al-Faruqiand Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, "In response to Jafar al-Sadik's wishes, [Jabir ibn Hayyan] invented a kind of paperthat resisted fire, and an inkthat could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an ironsurface, inhabited rustand when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent." [ Ismail al-Faruqiand Lois Lamya al-Faruqi(1986), "The Cultural Atlas of Islam", p. 328, New York]
The seeds of the modern classification of elements into
metalsand non-metals could be seen in his chemical nomenclature. He proposed three categories: [Georges C. Anawati, "Arabic alchemy", in R. Rashed (1996), "The Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science", Vol. 3, p. 853-902  .]
*"Spirits" which vaporise on heating, like
arsenic( realgar, orpiment), camphor, mercury, sulfur, sal ammoniac, and ammonium chloride.
gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, iron, and "khar-sini";
*Non-malleable substances, that can be converted into powders, such as stones.
The origins of the idea of chemical equivalents can also be traced back to Jabir, who was the first to recognize that "a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount of base." According to Jabir, the
metals differ because of "different proportions of sulfur and mercury in them." [citation|title=Equivalent Weights from Bergman's Data on Phlogiston Content of Metals|first1=J. A.|last1=Schufle|first2=George|last2=Thomas|journal=Isis|volume=62|issue=4|date=Winter 1971|pages=499-506  ]
Middle Ages, Jabir's treatises on alchemy were translated into Latin and became standard texts for European alchemists. These include the "Kitab al-Kimya" (titled "Book of the Composition of Alchemy" in Europe), translated by Robert of Chester(1144); and the "Kitab al-Sab'een" by Gerard of Cremona(before 1187). Marcelin Berthelottranslated some of his books under the fanciful titles "Book of the Kingdom", "Book of the Balances", and "Book of Eastern Mercury". Several technical Arabic terms introduced by Jabir, such as " alkali", have found their way into various European languages and have become part of scientific vocabulary.
Jabir became an alchemist at the court of
Caliph Harun al-Rashid, for whom he wrote the "Kitab al-Zuhra" ("The Book of Venus", on "the noble art of alchemy").
Jabir states in his "
Book of Stones" (4:12) that "The purpose is to baffle and lead into error everyone except those whom God loves and provides for". His works seem to have been deliberately written in highly esoteric code (see steganography), so that only those who had been initiated into his alchemical school could understand them. It is therefore difficult at best for the modern reader to discern which aspects of Jabir's work are to be read as symbols (and what those symbols mean), and what is to be taken literally. Because his works rarely made overt sense, the term gibberishis believed to have originally referred to his writings (Hauck, p. 19).
Jabir's alchemical investigations ostensibly revolved around the ultimate goal of "
takwin" — the artificial creation of life. The "Book of Stones" includes several recipes for creating creatures such as scorpions, snakes, and even humans in a laboratory environment, which are subject to the control of their creator. What Jabir meant by these recipes is today unknown.
Jabir's interest in alchemy was probably inspired by his teacher
Ja'far al-Sadiq. Rumours of him being a Sufi is mostly fabricated for the main reason that no such school (i.e., Sufism) existed during that era of Islamic history. Ibn Hayyan was deeply religious, and repeatedly emphasizes in his works that alchemy is possible only by subjugating oneself completely to the will of Allahand becoming a literal instrument of Allah on Earth, since the manipulation of reality is possible only for Allah. The "Book of Stones" prescribes long and elaborate sequences of specific prayers that must be performed without error alone in the desert before one can even consider alchemical experimentation.
In his writings, Jabir pays tribute to Egyptian and Greek alchemists
Hermes Trismegistus, Agathodaimon, Pythagoras, and Socrates. He emphasises the long history of alchemy, "whose origin is Arius ... the first man who applied the "first" experiment on the [philosopher's] stone... and he declares that man possesses the ability to imitate the workings of Nature" (Nasr, Seyyed Hussein, "Science and Civilization of Islam").
Jabir's alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded in an elaborate
numerologyrelated to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems. The nature and properties of elements was defined through numeric values assigned the Arabic consonants present in their name, ultimately culminating in the number 17.
Aristotelian physics, Jabir added the four properties of hotness, coldness, dryness, and moistness (Burkhardt, p. 29). Each Aristotelian element was characterised by these qualities: Fire was both hot and dry, earth cold and dry, water cold and moist, and air hot and moist. This came from the elementary qualities which are theoretical in nature plus substance. In metals two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jabir theorised, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, based on their sulfur/mercury content, a different metal would result. (Burckhardt, p. 29) This theory appears to have originated the search for "al-iksir", the elusive elixirthat would make this transformation possible — which in European alchemy became known as the philosopher's stone.
The elemental system used in medieval
alchemywas developed by Jabir. His original system consisted of seven elements, which included the five classical elements found in the ancient Greek and Indian traditions ( aether, air, earth, fire and water), in addition to two chemical elements representing the metals: sulphur, ‘the stone which burns’, which characterized the principle of combustibility, and mercury, which contained the idealized principle of metallic properties. Shortly thereafter, this evolved into eight elements, with the Arabic concept of the three metallic principles: sulphur giving flammability or combustion, mercury giving volatility and stability, and salt giving solidity.Strathern, Paul. (2000), "Mendeleyev’s Dream – the Quest for the Elements", New York: Berkley Books]
Jabir also made important contributions to
medicine, astronomy/astrology, and other sciences. Only a few of his books have been edited and published, and fewer still are available in translation. The Geber crater, located on the Moon, is named after him.
Max Meyerhoffstates the following on Jabir ibn Hayyan: "His influence may be traced throughout the whole historic course of European alchemy and chemistry."Ḥusain, Muẓaffar. "Islam's Contribution to Science." Page 94.]
The historian of chemistry Erick John Holmyard gives credit to Jabir for developing alchemy into an experimental science and he writes that Jabir's importance to the
history of chemistryis equal to that of Robert Boyleand Antoine Lavoisier. [cite web|author= Ahmad Y Hassan|title=Arabic Alchemy|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%2010.htm|accessdate=2008-08-17]
The historian Paul Kraus, who had studied most of Jabir's extant works in Arabic and Latin, summarized the importance of Jabir ibn Hayyan to the history of chemistry by comparing his experimental and systematic works in chemistry with that of the allegorical and unintelligble works of the
ancient Greekalchemists:Kraus, Paul, Jâbir ibn Hayyân, "Contribution à l'histoire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam. I. Le corpus des écrits jâbiriens. II. Jâbir et la science grecque,". Cairo (1942-1943). Repr. By Fuat Sezgin, (Natural Sciences in Islam. 67-68), Frankfurt. 2002 ( cf.cite web|author= Ahmad Y Hassan|title=A Critical Reassessment of the Geber Problem: Part Three|url=http://www.history-science-technology.com/Geber/Geber%203.htm|accessdate=2008-08-09)]
gibberishis theorized to be derived from Jabir's name, [ [http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Grose-VulgarTongue/g/gibberish.html gibberish] , "Grose 1811 Dictionary"] in reference to the incomprehensible technical jargonoften used by alchemists, the most famous of whom was Jabir. [citation|first=Glenn T.|last=Seaborg|title=Our heritage of the elements|journal=Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B|publisher=Springer Boston|volume=11|issue=1|date=March 1980|pages=5-19] Other sources such as the Oxford English Dictionarysuggest the term stems from gibber; however, the first known recorded use of the term "gibberish" was before the first known recorded use of the word "gibber" (see Gibberish).
*Geber is mentioned in
Paulo Coelho's 1993 bestseller, "The Alchemist". [Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist. ISBN 006112416, p. 82.]
*There is a villain in the Japanese
mangaand animeseries " Bio Booster Armor Guyver" by the name of Jearvill bun Hiyern (translated in various ways), who is most likely named after ibn Hayyan.
*Jabbir is said to be the creator of a (fictional) mystical chess set in
Katherine Neville's novels "The Eight" and "The Fire"
*"My wealth let sons and brethren part. Some things they cannot share: my work well done, my noble heart — these are mine own to wear."Holmyard, Eric John. "Alchemy". Page 82]
Writings by Jabir
The writings of Jabir Ibn Hayyan can be divided into four categories:
*The 112 Books dedicated to the
Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. This group includes the Arabic version of the " Emerald Tablet", an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin ("Tabula Smaragdina") and widely diffused among European alchemists.
*The Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages. This group includes the "Kitab al-Zuhra" ("Book of Venus") and the "Kitab Al-Ahjar" ("Book of Stones").
*The Ten Books on Rectification, containing descriptions of "alchemists" such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
*The Books on Balance; this group includes his most famous 'Theory of the balance in Nature'.
In total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. [citation|title=Medieval Islamic Civilization|last=Josef W. Meri|first=Jere L. Bacharach|publisher=
Taylor and Francis|year=2006|isbn=0415966914|page=25] Following the pioneering work of Paul Kraus, who demonstrated that a corpus of some several hundred works ascribed to Jabir were probably a medley from different hands, mostly dating to the late ninth and early tenth centuries, many scholars believe that many of these works consist of commentaries and additions by his followers, particularly of a Shiite persuasion. [Paul Kraus, "Jabir ibn Hayyan: Contribution à l'histoire des idées scientifiques dans l'Islam", cited Robert Irwin, 'The long siesta' in Times Literary Supllement, 25/1/2008 p.8]
Translations of Jabir
E. J. Holmyard(ed.) "The Arabic Works of Jabir ibn Hayyan", translated by Richard Russel in 1678. New York, E. P. Dutton (1928); Also Paris, P. Geuther.
Syed Nomanul Haq, "Names, Natures and Things": "The Alchemists Jabir ibn Hayyan and his Kitab al-Ahjar" (Book of Stones), [Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science p. 158] (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994).
Donald R. Hill, 'The Literature of Arabic Alchemy' in "Religion": "Learning and Science in the Abbasid Period", ed. by M.J.L. Young, J.D. Latham and R.B. Serjeant (Cambridge University Press, 1990) pp. 328-341, esp. pp 333-5.
*William Newman, "New Light on the Identity of Geber", Sudhoffs Archiv, 1985, Vol.69, pp. 76-90.
Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam
List of Arab scientists and scholars
List of Iranian scientists and scholars
Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi
Science in medieval Islam
* [http://wwwa.britannica.com/ebc/article-9036278 Britannica]
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761556842/Geber.html Encarta Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.bartleby.com Columbia Encyclopedia]
* [http://www.chemheritage.org/explore/ancients-hayyan.html Chemical Heritage]
* [http://www.islamonline.com/news/newsfull.php?newid=910 Article at Islam Online]
* [http://www.famousmuslims.com/Jabir%20Ibn%20Haiyan.htm Article at Famous Muslims]
* [http://www.islamonline.com/cgi-bin/news_service/profile_story.asp?service_id=910 Article at Islam Online]
* [http://www.alshindagah.com/septoct2004/jabir.html Article at Al Shindagah] (includes an extract of Jabir's "The Discovery of secrets")
* [http://www.alchemywebsite.com/islam12.html The Time of Jabir ibn Haiyan] section from "History of Islamic Science"
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