- Fire (classical element)
Fire" has been an important part of many cultures and religions, from pre-history to modern day, and was vital to the development of civilization. It has been regarded in many different fashions throughout history.
Greek and Roman Tradition
"Fire" is one of the four
classical elements in ancient Greek philosophyand science. It was commonly associated with the qualities of energy, assertiveness, and passion. In one Greek myth, Prometheusstole "fire" from the gods to protect the otherwise helpless humans, but was punished for this kindness. The ancient Greeks distinguished the destructive ("aidelon") fire, associated with Hades, from the creative fire, associated with Hephaistos.cite web|url=http://www.cs.utk.edu/~Mclennan/BA/AGEDE/Fire.html|title= The Elements: Fire|author= |accessdate=2007-10-18] Goddess Hekatewas called "Pyrphoros" (Fire-bearing), "Pyripnon" (Fire-breather), "Daidoukhos" (Torch-bearer) and "Phosphoros" (Light-bearer).
"Fire" was one of many "archai" proposed by the Pre-socratics, most of whom tried to reduce all things to a single substance. However,
Empedoclesof Acragas (c. 495-c. 435 BCE) selected four "archai" for his four roots: air, "fire", water, and earth. Empedocles’ roots became the four classical elements of Greek philosophy. Plato(427-347 BCE) took over the four elements of Empedocles. In the "Timaeus", his major cosmological dialogue, the Platonic solidassociated with "fire" is the tetrahedronwhich is formed from four equilateral triangles. This makes "fire" the element with the smallest number of sides, which Plato regarded as appropriate as the heat of fire feels sharp and stabbing (like little tetrahedra). [Plato, "Timaeus", chap. 22-23; Gregory Vlastos, "Plato’s Universe", pp. 66-82.]
Aristotle(384-322 BCE) developed a different explanation for the elements based on pairs of qualities. The four elements were arranged concentrically around the center of the universe to form the sublunary sphere. According to Aristotle, "fire" is both hot and dry, and occupies a place between earth and air among the elemental spheres. [ G. E. R. Lloyd, "Aristotle", chapters 7-8.] In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humoursbecame associated with an element. Yellow bilewas the humor identified with "fire", since both were hot and dry. Other things associated with "fire" and yellow bile in ancient and medieval medicineincluded the season of summer, since it increased the qualities of heat and aridity; the choleric temperament (of a person dominated by the yellow bile humour); the masculine; and the eastern point of the compass.
alchemy, the chemical elementof sulfurwas often associated with "fire" and its alchemical symboland its symbol was an upward-pointing triangle. In alchemic tradition, metals are incubated by fire in the womb of the Earth and alchemists only accelerate their development.
Chinese philosophy, Fire is classified as one of the Wu xing(zh-cp|c=五行|p=wǔxíng), or the Five Elements, also translated as five phases, five movements or five steps, by which all natural phenomena can be explained. The system of five elements was used for describing interactions and relationships between phenomena. It was employed in many fields of early Chinese thought, including seemingly disparate fields such as geomancy and Feng shui, astrology, traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese alchemy, music, military strategyand martial arts. The original foundation for the idea is based on the concept of the Five Cardinal Points.
yangor masculine in character, its motion is upward and its energy is expansive. It is associated with the planet Mars, summer, south, daylight and heat and the color red. (Red is associated with extreme luck). It is also believed to govern the heart, tongue, and pulse. Its negative emotion is hate, while its positive emotion is joy. The Primal Spirit of fire is represented by the Red Pheasant or Phoenix.
In Chinese thought "Fire" is associated with the qualities of dynamism, strength and persistence; however, it is also connected to restlessness. The fire element provides, warmth, enthusiasm and creativity, however an excess of it can bring aggression, impatience and impulsive behavior. In the same way, fire provides heat and warmth, however an excess can also burn. In the conquest cycle, "fire" overcomes metal, and in turn is overcome by water. In the birth and nurturing cycle, "fire" burns to earth, and is sparked by wood igniting.
The element plays an important role in
Chinese Astrologyand feng shui. In Chinese astrology fire is included in the 10 heavenly stems(the five elements in their yin and yang forms), which combine with the 12 earthly branches(or Chinese signs of the zodiac), to form the 60 year cycle. Yangfire years end in 6 (eg 1976), while Yinyears end in 7 (eg 1977). Fire governs the Chinese zodiac signs Snake, Horse and Sheep.
Agni is a
Hinduand Vedic deity. The word "agni" is Sanskritfor "fire" (noun), cognate with Latin"ignis" (the root of English "ignite"), Russian "ogon" (fire), pronounced "agon", and "ogni", pronounced "agni" (fires). Agni has three forms: fire, lightning and the sun.
Agni is one of the most important of the Vedic gods. He is the god of fire and the acceptor of sacrifices. The sacrifices made to Agni go to the deities because Agni is a messenger from and to the other gods. He is ever-young, because the fire is re-lit every day, yet he is also immortal. In Indian tradition Fire is also linked to
Suryaor the Sun and Mangalaor Mars, and with the south-east direction.
In modern magic
"Fire" and the other Greek classical elements were incorporated into the Golden Dawn system despite being considered obsolete by modern science. Philosophus (1=10) is the elemental grade attributed to fire; this grade is also attributed to the Qabalistic sphere Netzach and the planet Venus. [Israel Regardie, "The Golden Dawn", pp. 154-65.] The elemental weapon of fire is the Wand. [Regardie, "Golden Dawn", p.322; Kraig, "Modern Magick", pp. 149-53.] Each of the elements has several associated spiritual beings. The archangel of fire is Michael, the angel is Aral, the ruler is Seraph, the king is Djin, and the fire
elementals (following Paracelsus) are called salamanders. [Regardie, "Golden Dawn", p. 80.] Fire is considered to be active; it is represented by the symbol for Leo, and it is referred to the lower right point of the pentagram in the Supreme Invoking Ritual of the Pentagram. [Regardie, "Golden Dawn", pp. 280-286; Kraig, "Modern Magick", pp. 206-209.] Many of these associations have since spread throughout the occult community.
Wiccan traditions, "fire" is associated with:
* The South,
* The Summer
* The color red on the physical plane.
athameor ceremonial dagger.
* In covens that use the sword, it is often associated with this element.
Other correspondences include blood, candles, the guitar, rubies and incense. "Fire" represents energy, inspiration, passion and masculinity. It is sometimes represented in writing by a red upwards triangle.
In rituals, fire is represented in the forms of burning objects, love spells, baking and lighting candles or fires.
The manifestations of the element are found in the sun, lightning, "fire", volcanoes and lava, and all forms of light. Cats of all types, especially the
lionand tiger, are also thought to personify the element of "fire", as are all predatory creatures, such as the fox.
Fire's place on the pentagram is the lower right point.
Fire belongs to the suit of Wands in occult or divinatory
tarot, although some Wiccans associate it with the suit of Swords because the athame (ritual knife) is often associated with fire. Fire is associated with warm colours, like red, orange and yellow, but also colours like black.
People born under the astrological signs of Aries, Leo and Sagittarius are thought to have dominant fire personalities. Fire personalities are believed to have good leading qualities, and also tend to be extroverted, rebellious, passionate and enthusiastic; however, they can also be moody, hot-tempered, snappy, uncontrollable and angry.
"Fire" represents the creativity and passion that all intellectual and emotional beings have. It is an active force that has the passion to create and animate things. The element is also very rational and quick to "flare up" as is the personality of many "fire-children."
"Fire" in many ancient cultures and myths has been known to purify the land with the flames of destruction; however, it is also capable of the renewal of life through the warmth and comfort of those very same flames.
The element of "fire" shows up in mythological stories all across the world, often in stories related to the Sun.
East Asia"fire" is represented by the Vermilion Bird, known as 朱雀 ("Zhū Què") in Chinese, "Suzaku" in Japanese and Ju-jak (주작, Hanja:朱雀) in Korean. "Fire" is represented in the Aztecreligion by a flint; to the Native Americans, a mouse; to the Hinduand Islamic faiths, a lightning bolt; to the Scythians, an axe, to the Greeks, an apple-bough; and in Christian iconography, a lion.
*Frazer, Sir James George, "Myths of the Origin of Fire", London: Macmillan, 1930.
* [http://www.friesian.com/elements.htm Different versions of the classical elements]
* [http://www.healthspace.eu/health/regular/healthspace.php Overview the 5 elements]
* [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khin/wheel231.html Section on 4 elements in Buddhism]
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