Origin theories of Christopher Columbus

Origin theories of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus depicted in The Virgin of the Navigators by Alejo Fernández, 1531–36.

The exact origin of Christopher Columbus (his national or ethnic background) has been a source of speculation since the 19th century.[1] However, it is generally agreed upon by historians that Columbus' family was from Liguria, that he spent his boyhood and early youth in Genoa, in Vico Diritto, and that he subsequently lived in Savona, where his father Domenico moved in 1470. Much of this evidence derives from data concerning Columbus' immediate family connections in Genoa and opinions voiced by contemporaries concerning his Genoese origins, which few dispute.


Genoese origin


In a 1498 deed of primogeniture, Columbus writes:

Siendo yo nacido en Genova... de ella salí y en ella naci...[2][nb 1]
As I was born in Genoa... came from it and was born there...

Many historians, including a distinguished Spanish scholar, Altolaguirre, affirm the document's authenticity; others believe it apocryphal.[nb 2] The fact that it was produced in court, during a lawsuit among the heirs of Columbus, in 1578, does not strengthen the case for its being genuine.[4]

A letter from Columbus, dated 2 April 1502, to the Bank of Saint George, the oldest and most reputable of Genoa's financial institutions, begins with the words:

Bien que el coerpo ande aca el coracon esta ali de continuo...[5]
Though my body is here, my heart is constantly there...

Although a few people consider this letter suspect, the vast majority of scholars believe it genuine. The most scrupulous examination by graphologists testifies in favour of authenticity. The letter is one of a group of documents entrusted by Columbus to a Genoese friend, after the bitter experiences of his third voyage, before setting out on his fourth.

In the spring of 1502, the Admiral collected notarized copies of all the writings concerned with his rights to the discovery of new lands. He sent these documents to Nicolo Oderico, ambassador of the Republic of Genoa. To this same Oderico he handed over the letter to the Bank of Saint George, in which he announced that he was leaving the bank one-tenth of his income, with a recommendation for his son Diego. Oderico returned to Genoa and delivered the letter to the bank, which replied, on 8 December 1502 lauding the gesture of their "renowned fellow-citizen" towards his "native land" (hardly surprising in view of the bequest). The reply, unfortunately, never reached its destination; the Admiral, back in Castile after his fourth voyage, complained about this in another letter to Ambassador Oderico, dated 27 December 1504, and promptly annulled the bequest.

So we have four documents: the first preserved in the archives of the Bank of Saint George until, when it was taken over by the municipality of Genoa, the other three in the Oderico family archives until 1670, then donated to the Republic of Genoa. After the fall of the Republic, they passed to the library of one of its last senators, Michele Cambiaso, and in they were finally acquired by the city of Genoa. The documents are so obviously linked that it is absurd to suppose they are faked. In any case, as mentioned, handwriting experts have contradicted this theory.

Even more important and definitive are the public and notarial acts (more than a hundred) — original copies of which are conserved in the archives of Genoa and Savona — regarding Columbus's father, Columbus himself, his grandfather, and his relatives.[nb 3]

Another doubt remains to be settled: can we be sure that all of the documents cited concern the Christopher Columbus who was later to become Cristóbal Colón, admiral of the Ocean Sea in Spanish territory? The list of contemporary historians and ambassadors unanimous in the belief that Columbus was Genoese could suffice as proof, but there is something more. The documents reveal this other information. One of them has been: the document dated 22 September 1470 in which the criminal judge convicts Domenico Colombo. The conviction is tied to the debt of Domenico — together with his son Christopher (explicitly stated in the document) — toward a certain Girolamo del Porto. In the will dictated by Admiral Christopher Columbus in Valladolid before he died, the authentic and indisputable document of which we have today, the dying navigator remembers this old debt, which had evidently not been paid. There is, in addition, the act drawn in Genoa on 25 August 1479 by a notary, Girolamo Ventimiglia.[6] This act is known as the assereto document, after the scholar who found it in the State Archives in Genoa in 1904. It involves a lawsuit over a sugar transaction on the Atlantic island of Madeira. In it young Christopher swore that he was a 27-year-old Genoese citizen resident in Portugal and had been hired to represent the Genoese merchants in that transaction. Here was proof that he had relocated to Portugal. It is important to bear in mind that at the time when Assereto traced the document, it would have been impossible to make an acceptable facsimile. Nowadays, with modern chemical processes, a document can be "manufactured", made to look centuries old if need be, with such skill that it is hard to prove it is a fake. Fifty years ago this was still impossible.[7][nb 4]

In addition to the two documents cited, there are others that confirm the identification of the Genoese Christopher Columbus, son of Domenico, with the admiral of Spain. An act dated 11 October 1496 says:[8]

Giovanni Colombo of Quinto, Matteo Colombo and Amighetto Colombo, brothers of the late Antonio, in full understanding and knowledge that said Giovanni must go to Spain to see M. Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the King of Spain, and that any expenses that said Giovanni must make in order to see said M. Christopher must be paid by all three of the aforementioned brothers, each one to pay a third ... and to this they hereby agree.

In a fourth notarial act, drawn in Savona on 8 April 1500, Sebastiano Cuneo, heir by half to his father Corrado, requested that Christopher and Giacomo (called Diego), the sons and heirs of Domenico Colombo, be summoned to court and sentenced to pay the price for two lands located in Legine. This document confirms Christoforo and Diego's absence from the Republic of Genoa with these exact words: "dicti conventi sunt absentes ultra Pisas et Niciam."[nb 5]

A fifth notarial act, drawn in Savona on 26 January 1501, is more explicit. A group of Genoese citizens, under oath, said and say, together and separately and in every more valid manner and guise, that the Christopher, Bartholomew and Giacomo Columbus, sons and heirs of the aforementioned Domenico, their father, have for a long time been absent from the city and the jurisdiction of Savona, as well as Pisa and Nice in Provence, and that they reside in the area of Spain, as was and is well known.

Finally, there is a very important sixth document from the notary of Bartolomeo Oddino, drawn in Savona on 30 March 1515. With this notarial act, Leon Pancaldo, the well-known Savonese who would become one of the pilots for Magellan's voyage, sends his own father-in-law in his place as procurator for Diego Colón, son of Admiral Christopher Columbus. The document demonstrates how the ties, in part economic, of the discoverer's family with Savona survived even his death.

The Life of Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand

A biography written by Columbus's son Ferdinand (in Spanish and translated to Italian), Historie del S. D. Fernando Colombo; nelle quali s'ha particolare, & vera relatione della vita, & de fatti dell'Ammiraglio D. Cristoforo Colombo, suo padre: Et dello scoprimento ch'egli fece dell'Indie Occidentali, dette Mondo Nuovo (The life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand), exists.[9][10] In it Ferdinand claimed that his father was of Italian aristocracy. He describes Columbus to be a descendant of a Count Columbo of the Castle Cuccaro (Montferrat). Columbo was in turn said to be descended from a legendary Roman General Colonius. It is now widely believed that Christopher Columbus used this persona to ingratiate himself to the good graces of the aristocracy, an elaborate illusion to mask a humble merchant background.[11] Ferdinand dismissed the fanciful story that the Admiral descended from the Colonus mentioned by Tacitus. However, he refers to "those two illustrious Coloni, his relatives". According to Note 1, on page 287, these two "were corsairs not related to each other or to Christopher Columbus, one being Guillame de Casenove, nicknamed Colombo, Admiral of France in the reign of Louis XI". At the top of page 4, Ferdinand listed Nervi, Cogoleto, Bogliasco, Savona, Genoa and Piacenza (all inside the former Republic of Genoa)[nb 6] as possible places of origin. He also stated:

Colombo ... was really the name of his ancestors. But he changed it in order to make it conform to the language of the country in which he came to reside and raise a new estate.

In chapter ii, Ferdinand accuses Giustiniani[nb 7] of telling lies about the discoverer:

Thus this Giustiniani proves himself to be an inaccurate historian and exposes himself as an inconsiderate or prejudiced and malicious compatriot, because in writing about an exceptional person who brought so much honor to the country ...

In chapter v, writes:

And because it was not far from Lisbon, where he knew there were many Genoese his countrymen, he went away thither as fast as he could ...

He also says (chapter xi), that his father, before he was declared admiral, used to sign himself "Columbus de Terra rubra," that is to say, Columbus of Terrarossa, a village or hamlet near Genoa. The publication of Historie has been used by historians as providing indirect evidence about the Genoese origin of Columbus.

The testimony of the ambassadors

It is significant that no one protested at the court of Spain when in April 1501, in the feverish atmosphere of the great discovery, Nicolò Oderico, ambassador of the Genoese Republic, after praising the Catholic Sovereigns, went on to say that they "discovered with great expenditure hidden and inaccessible places under the command of Columbus, our fellow-citizen, and having tamed wild barbarians and unknown peoples, they educated them in religion, manners and laws". Furthermore, two diplomats from Venice — no great friend of Genoa, indeed, a jealous rival — added the appellation "Genoese" to Columbus's name: the first, Angelo Trevisan, in 1501,[nb 8] the second, Gaspare Contarini, in 1525.[nb 9] In 1498, Pedro de Ayala, Spanish ambassador to the English court, mentioned John Cabot, "the discoverer, another Genoese, like Columbus".[13] All these references were published, along with reproductions of some of the original documents, in the City of Genoa volume of 1931.

Confirmation of the Genoese origin from contemporary European writers

Bartolomé de las Casas, whose father traveled with Columbus on his second journey and who personally knew Columbus' sons, writes in chapter 2 of his Historia de las Indias:[14]

This distinguished man was from the Genoese nation, from some place in the province of Genoa; who he was, where he was born or what name he had in that place we do not know in truth, except that before he reached the Nation in which he arrived, he used to call himself Cristóbal Colombo de Terrarubia.

In 1535, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, writes that Domenico Colombo was the Admiral's father;[15] and in chapter 2, book 3:[16]

Christopher Columbus, according to what I have learned from men of his nation, was originally from the province of Liguria, which is in Italy, where the city and the Seignory of Genoa stands: some say that he was from Savona, others that he was from a small place or village called Nervi, which is on the eastern seashore two leagues from the self same city of Genoa; but it is held to be more certain that he may have been originally from Cugurreo (Cogoleto) near the city of Genoa.

Every other contemporary writer, without exception, agrees that the discoverer was Genoese:[17][18]

  • The Portuguese Rui de Pina wrote two works, Chronica d'El Rey, dom Affonso and Chronica d'El Rey, dom João II. It has been ascertained that the manuscripts had been completed before 1504, although they were published in the Eighteenth century. Chapter 66 in the second manuscript, "Descubrimiento das Ilhas de Castella per Collombo," explicitly states, "Christovan Colombo italiano."
  • In the 1513 edition of the Map of the New World from Ptolemy,[19] it says: "This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by the Genoese Columbus, sent by the King of Castile."
  • The Turkish geographer Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as Piri Reis, in his map of 1513, writes: "These coasts are called the coasts of the Antilles. They were discovered in the year 896 of the Arabic calendar. It is said that a Genoese infidel, Columbus by name, discovered the place."[nb 10]
  • Hernando Alonso de Herrera, in his anti-Aristotelian dissertation, completed in Salamanca in 1516, and published in Latin and Spanish, wrote: "Xristoval Colon ginoves."
  • In a Portuguese map of 1520,[nb 11] it is said: "Land of the Antipodes of the King of Castile, discovered by Christopher Columbus Genoese."
  • The German Peter von Bennewitz writes, in 1520, in the Typus Orbis Universalis:[20] "In the year 1497 (sic) this land (America) with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus, a Genoese by mandate of the King of Castile."
  • The German Johannes Schöner states in the Globus of 1520:[21] "This (island) produces gold, mastic, aloes, porcelain, etc. and ginger — Latitude of the island 440 miles — Longitude 880 — discovered by Christopher Columbus Genoese, captain of the King of Castile in the year of Our Lord 1492."
  • The Spaniard Francisco López de Gómara writes:[22] "Christopher Columbus was originally from Cogurreo or Nervi, a village of Genoa, a very famous Italian city."
  • The Portuguese Garcia de Resende, poet and editor, writes:[23] "Christouao Colombo, italiano."
  • The Swiss Heinrich Glarean (Loriti) writes:[24] "To the west there is a land they call America. Two islands, Hispaniola and Isabella: which regions were travelled, along the coast, by the Spaniards, by the Genoese Columbus and by Amerigo Vespuzio."
  • The Spaniard Hieronymo Girava, who lived in the first half of the 16th century, writes:[25] "Christoval Colon Genoese, great seaman and mediocre cosmographer."
  • The Portuguese João de Barros writes: "As all men declare, Christovão Colom was of Genoese nation, a man expert, eloquent and good Latinist, and very boastful in his affairs";[nb 12] and: "As in this kingdom came Christopher Columbus Genoese, who had just discovered the western islands that now we call Antilles."[27]
  • The German known as Giovanni Boemo Aubano, of the first half of the 16th century, writes:[28] "Christoforo Palombo, Genoese, the year 1492."
  • The Flemish Abraham Ortelius, writes:[29] "It seems to surpass the bounds of human wonder that all this hemisphere (that today is called America and, because of its immense extent, the New World) remained unknown to the ancients until the Christian year 1492, in which it was first discovered by Christopher Columbus, Genoese."
  • The Portuguese Damião de Góis, writes:[nb 13] "The Genoese Columbus, a man expert in nautical arts" ; and, in the index: "Columbi genuen- sis, alias Coloni commendatio."[31]
  • The Spaniard Nicolás Monardes, writes:[32] "In the year 1492 our Spaniards were led by don Christoval Colon, native of Genoa, to discover the West Indies."
  • The German Laurentius Surius, writes:[33] "There was at the court of the King of Spain a certain Christopher Columbus whose homeland was Genoa."
  • In 1579, for the Cristoph Pantin's edition, the yearbooks of the Genoese Senate were published, in Antwerp, edited by Petro Bizaro: Senatus Populique Genuensis rerum domi forisque gestarum historiae atque annales. Among what is written to celebrate many industrious Genoese men, you can read that: "cum Christophoro Columbo navalis scientiae absolutissima peritia apud omnem venturam posteritatem, juro optima aliqua ex parte conferri vel comparari possit."
  • The Portuguese Fernão Vaz Dourado in the Atlante of 1580,[34] notes: "Land of the Antipodes of the King of Castile discovered by Christopher Columbus Genoese."
  • The Spaniard Alvaro Gomez, writes:[35] "Thanks to the eager industry of Christopher Columbus Genoese, word was brought to our Sovereigns of an unknown world."
  • The Frenchman Gilbert Génebrard, writes:[36] "Ferdinand, at the urging of his wife Isabella, Queen of Castile, Leòn and Aragon, sent Christopher Columbus Genoese to seek new land."
  • The Swiss Theodor Zwinger, who died in 1588, was the author of the Theatrum Humanae Vitae, Basle 1604. In the index we read: "Cristoforo Colono, or Colombo Genoese."
  • On an unspecified date, certainly prior to 1591, the Turk Basmagi Ibrahim published a book, written by a Turkish author who has remained anonymous, entitled Turich-i-Hind-i garbi iachod hadis-i-nev (History of the West Indies, in other words the New Story). The third chapter of this book dedicated to the discoverer of the "New World or New Land," states: "From the village of Nervi, which is among the Genoese possessions, a man who was born who had the name Christopher and the surname Columbus. Since he had completed journeys by land and by sea [...] he stayed on an island by the name of Madeira [...] under the domain of the wretched (sic) Portugal."
  • The Flemish Theodor De Bry, writes:[37] "From everything it can be stated with certainty that it was first discovered by Christopher Columbus Genoese."
  • The Portuguese Gaspar Frutuoso, in a sixteenth century manuscript entitled As Saudades da terra, printed by Alvaro Rodriguez Azevedo in 1873 in Funchal (Madeira), writes in the Anales of Porto Santo: "On this island the great Christovao Colombo, the Genoese, resided for some time."
  • The German David Chytraeus writes:[38] "Primum Novum Orbem in occidente, omnibus antea ignotum et inaccessam... pervestigare et aperire... Christophorus Columbus Genesis, admirand ad omnen posteritatem ausu et industria coeperat."
  • In the volume published by the City of Genoa the testimony is cited of the historian Andres Bernaldez, who died in 1513. He was the author of a Historia de los Reyes Catolicos don Fernando y dona Isabel. In this work, belatedly published in Seville in 1869, it is written:[39] "In the name of Almighty God, a man of the land of Genoa, a merchant of printed books who was called Christopher Columbus." Actually, in the original text of Bernaldez, it says "land of Milan". However, this is merely lack of precision. In the 15th century, the Republic of Genoa was alternately fully and legally dependent on the Duchy of Milan and the latter's satellite. The editor rightly interpreted the Milanese reference in the sense of Genoese origin.

Columbus's Genoese birth is also confirmed by the works of the English Hakluyt (1601), of the Spaniard Antonio de Herrera (1612), the great Spanish dramatist Lope de Vega (1614), a paper manuscript dated 1626, conserved in Madrid's National Library, the works of the German Filioop Cluwer (1677), the German Giovanni Enrico Alsted (1649), the French Dionisio Petau (1724), and the Spaniard Luigi de Marmol (1667). This list represents the early writings of non-Italians. There were sixty-two Italian testimonies between 1502 and 1600. Of these fourteen are from Ligurian writers.[nb 14] It may be obvious, but not useless, to underline that the Venetians' (e.g. Trevisan's and Ramusio's) recognition of Columbus's Genoese birth constitutes a testimony as impartial as that of the Spaniards, French, and Portuguese.

Conformable to the testament in Seville (3 July 1539) is the evidence of Ferdinand Columbus, who states that his father was conterraneo (of the same country) with Mons. Agostino Giustiniani, who was, beyond all doubt,[41][42] born at Genoa:

Hijo de don Cristóbal Colón, genovés, primero almirante que descubrió las Indias ...[43]
Son of Christopher Columbus, Genoese, admiral who first discovered the Indies ...

Other information

Other testimony of contemporary or succeeding authors include:

  • The historian Peter Martyr d'Anghiera, was the earliest of Columbus's chroniclers and was in Barcelona when Columbus returned from his first voyage. In his letter of May 14, 1493, addressed to Giovanni Borromeo, he referred to Columbus as Ligurian,[nb 15] Liguria being the Region where Genoa is located.[nb 16]
  • A reference, dated 1492 by a court scribe Galindez, referred to Columbus as Cristóbal Colón, genovés.[44]
  • Michele da Cuneo from Savona, a friend of Columbus' (possibly from childhood),[45] sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral."[46]
  • Battista Fregoso, a former doge of Genoa, noted in his Chronicle of Memorable Words and Deeds for 1493 that Christophorus Columbus natione Genuensis had safely returned from India, having reached it in 31 days from Cadiz, as he proposed to do.[47]
  • Portuguese chroniclers, from eyewitness Rui de Pina on, all call Columbus "Italian" or "Genoese."[48]
  • The testimony of Pedro de Arana, brother of Beatriz Enríquez, the mother of Ferdinand and intimate friend of the Admiral, that "... he had heard Columbus say he was a Genoese ..."[49]
  • In 1507 Martin Waldseemüller published a world map, Universalis Cosmographia, which was the first to show North and South America as separate from Asia and surrounded by water. Below the island of Hispaniola, near the coast of Paria (Central America) he inserted the words: "Iste insule per Columbum genuensem almirantem ex ma[n]dato regis Castelle invent[a]e sunt" or "these islands have been discovered by the Genoese admiral Columbus by order of the king of Castile."[50]
  • Jerónimo Zurita y Castro, historian of the kingdom of Aragon, writes: "Christopher Columbus, man, as he said, whose company had always been for the sea and its predecessors, so that was foreign born and raised in poverty and the banks of Genoa."[51]
  • The historian António Galvão in his The Discoveries of the World from Their First Original Unto the Year of Our Lord, first published in 1563, writes: "In the yeere 1492, in the time of Don Ferdinando king of Castile, he being at the siege of Granada, dispatched one Christopher Columbus a Genoway with three ships to goe and discouer Noua Spagna."[52]
  • Other works that confirm Columbus's Genoese origin are those of the Portuguese Gaspar Barreiros,[nb 17] of the historian Jerónimo Osório[nb 18] and of the cartographer Jorge Reinel.[nb 19][53]

A legend marking the approximate site of his landfall in 1498 declares:

Columbum genuensem almirantem ex mandato regis Castelle inuente sunt.[54]
These islands were discovered by the Genoese Admiral Columbus by command of the King of Castile.


Scholars from all over the world agree that Columbus was Genoese.[nb 20]

Historian Samuel Eliot Morison, in his book Christopher Columbus: Admiral of the Ocean Sea, notes that many existing legal documents demonstrate the Genoese origin of Columbus, his father Domenico, and his brothers Bartolomeo and Giacomo (Diego). These documents, written in Latin by notaries, were legally valid in Genoese courts. The documents, uncovered in the 19th century when Italian historians examined the Genoese archives, form part of the Raccolta Colombiana. On page 14, Morison writes:

Besides these documents from which we may glean facts about Christopher's early life, there are others which identify the Discoverer as the son of Domenico the wool weaver, beyond the possibility of doubt. For instance, Domenico had a brother Antonio, like him a respectable member of the lower middle class in Genoa. Antonio had three sons: Matteo, Amigeto and Giovanni, who was generally known as Giannetto (the Genoese equivalent of "Johnny"). Giannetto, like Christopher, gave up a humdrum occupation to follow the sea. In 1496 the three brothers met in a notary's office at Genoa and agreed that Johnny should go to Spain and seek out his first cousin "Don Cristoforo de Colombo, Admiral of the King of Spain," each contributing one third of the traveling expenses. This quest for a job was highly successful. The Admiral gave Johnny command of a caravel on the Third Voyage to America, and entrusted him with confidential matters as well.

On the topic of Columbus' being born somewhere besides Genoa, Morison states "Every contemporary Spaniard or Portuguese who wrote about Columbus and his discoveries calls him Genoese. Three contemporary Genoese chroniclers claim him as a compatriot. Every early map on which his nationality is recorded describes him as Genoese. Nobody in the Admiral's lifetime, or for three centuries after, had any doubt about his birthplace" and that "There is no more reason to doubt that Christopher Columbus was a Genoese-born Catholic Christian, steadfast in his faith and proud of his native city, than to doubt that George Washington was a Virginia-born Anglican of English race, proud of being an American."

Paolo Emilio Taviani, in his book Cristoforo Colombo: Genius of the Sea discusses "the public and notarial acts - original copies of which are conserved in the archives of Genoa and Savona - regarding Columbus's father, Columbus himself, his grandfather, and his relatives." In Columbus the Great Adventure he further claims that Columbus named the small island of Saona "to honor Michele da Cuneo, his friend from Savona."[57]

The evidence supporting the Genoese origin of Columbus is also discussed by Miles H. Davidson. In his book Columbus Then and Now: A Life Reexamined, he writes:[58]

Diego Mendez, one of his captains, in testimony given in the Pleitos, he said that Columbus was "Genoese, a native of Savona which is a town near Genoa." Those who reject this and the more than ample other contemporary evidence, given by both Italian and Spanish sources as well as by witnesses at these court hearings, are simply flying in the face of overwhelming evidence. [...] What is the reason behind so much futile speculation? It can be mostly attributed to parochialism. Each of the nations and cities mentioned wants to claim him for its own. Since no effort was made to locate the supporting data until the early nineteenth century, and since at that time not all of the archives had been adequately researched, there was, initially, justification for those early efforts to establish who he was and where he came from. To do so today is to fulfill Montaigne's maxim, "No one is exempt from talking non-sense; the misfortune is to do it solemnly."


Although Columbus wrote almost exclusively in Spanish, there is a small handwritten Genoese gloss in an 1498 Italian (from Venice) edition of Pliny's Natural History that he read after his second voyage to America: this shows Columbus was able to write in Italian and understand it.[59] There is also a note in Italian in his own Book of Prophecies exhibiting, according to historian August Kling, "characteristics of northern Italian humanism in its calligraphy, syntax, and spelling". Phillips and Phillips point out that 500 years ago, the Latinate languages had not distanced themselves to the degree they have today.

Catalan hypothesis

Since the early 20th century, researchers have attempted to connect Columbus to the Catalan-speaking areas of Europe, usually based on linguistic evidence. The first of them was Luis Ulloa, a historian from Peru who wrote a book in 1927, originally in French, defending the Catalan origin of Columbus.[60][nb 21] Some more recent studies also state Columbus had Catalan origins,[64] based on his handwriting, though these have been disputed.[65]

Throughout Columbus's life, he referred to himself as Christobal Colom; his contemporaries and family also referred to him as such. It is possible that Colom is the shortened form of Columbus used for the Italian surname Colombo (which means "dove"). Colom can also be a Portuguese, French, or Catalan name. There was a wealthy mercenary and merchant noble named Joan Colom i Bertran living in Barcelona in the 15th century, who has been proposed as the real Christopher Columbus.

According to Charles J. Merrill, a Doctor in medieval literature and associate professor of foreign languages, the analysis of Columbus's handwriting indicates that it is typical of someone who would be a native Catalan, and Columbus's phonetic mistakes in Castilian are "most likely" those of a Catalan, with examples such as “a todo arreo” (a tot arreu), “todo de un golpe” (tot d'un cop), “setcentas” (set-centes), “nombre” (instead of número), “al sol puesto” (el sol post).[66] Merrill states that the Genoese Cristoforo Colombo was a modest wool carder and cheese merchant with no maritime training and whose age does not match the one of Columbus.[66] Merrill's book Colom of Catalonia was published in 2008.[67]

Also, that he married a Portuguese noblewoman can be presented as evidence that his origin was of nobility rather than the Italian merchant class, since it was uncommon during his time for nobility to marry outside their class.[68] This same theory suggests he was the illegitimate son of a prominent Catalan sea-faring family, which had served as mercenaries in a sea battle against Castilian forces.[68] Fighting against Ferdinand and being illegitimate were two reasons for hiding his origins.[68] Furthermore, the disinterment of his brother's body shows him to be a different age, by nearly 10 years, than the "Bartolome Colombo" of the Genoese family.[68]

However, Samuel Eliot Morison has cast no doubts regarding Columbus's marriage to the Portuguese noblewoman Filipa Perestrello.[69]

Greek hypothesis

In 1943, Seraphim G. Canoutas (1874-1944), a lawyer and independent scholar, proposed that Columbus was a Byzantine nobleman.[70] The hypothesis rested mainly (but by no means exclusively) on statements attributed to the Admiral by his first biographer (son Ferdinando), particularly that the Admiral had sailed for many years with Colombo the Younger, a famous seaman “of his name and family.”[71] Canoutas pointed out that other scholars (particularly Harrisse, Salvagnini, Vignaud, and Gonzales de la Rosa[72]) had convincingly identified Colombo the Younger as Georges Paléologue de Bissipat (also known as Georges le Grec), an exiled Byzantine nobleman who by 1460 was living in France and rendering valuable service to the French king. But these scholars rejected Columbus’s claim of kinship with de Bissipat.

Accepting the kinship claim as true, Canoutas established (through references in works by Du Cange[73] and Renet[74]) that Georges de Bissipat was in fact Georgios Palaiologos Dishypatos, scion of an ancient and illustrious Byzantine noble family,[75] who fled to France sometime after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and, until his death in 1496, rendered important service to French kings Louis XI (1423-1483) and Charles VIII (1470-1498), including as vice-admiral. According to Canoutas, accepting that Dishypatos and Columbus were noble kinsmen and longtime sailing companions helped explain the many anomalies that either had to be ignored or attributed at best to error and at worst to imposture in order to square Cristoforo Colombo the wool-worker with Cristóbal Colón the Admiral.

Canoutas did not identify Columbus’s parents or place of birth. Nor did he explicate Columbus’s claimed kinship bond with Dishypatos. But Canoutas observed that the Byzantine imperial house of Palaiologos, to which Dishypatos was related on his mother’s side, was closely connected by blood or marriage to the ruling families of Italy, including those of Genoa and Montferrat, such as the Doria, Spinola, Centurione, and Gattelusio families.[76] This connection, he argued, might explain why Columbus’s contemporaries and others considered him to be Genoese or Ligurian.[77]

Spanish-Jewish hypothesis

Some researchers have postulated that Columbus was of Iberian Jewish origins. The linguist Estelle Irizarry, in addition to arguing that Columbus was Catalan, also claims that Columbus tried to conceal a Jewish heritage.[78] In "Three Sources of Textual Evidence of Columbus, Crypto Jew,"[79] Irizarry notes that Columbus always wrote in Spanish, and occasionally included Hebrew in his writing, and referenced the Jewish High Holidays in his journal during the first voyage.

Simon Wiesenthal postulates that Columbus was a Sephardi (Spanish Jew), careful to conceal his Judaism yet also eager to locate a place of refuge for his persecuted fellow countrymen. Wiesenthal argues that Columbus' concept of sailing west to reach the Indies was less the result of geographical theories than of his faith in certain Biblical texts—specifically the Book of Isaiah. He repeatedly cited two verses from that book: "Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them," (60:9); and "For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth" (65:17). Wiesenthal claimed that Columbus felt that his voyages had confirmed these prophecies.[80]

Jane Francis Amler argued that Columbus was a converso (a Sephardi Jew who publicly converted to Christianity). In Spain, even some converted Jews were forced to leave Spain after much persecution; it is known that many conversos were still practicing Judaism in secret.

Portuguese hypothesis

The first author who claimed Portuguese nationality for Christopher Columbus was Patrocínio Ribeiro in a 1916 text, entitled O Carácter Misterioso de Colombo e o Problema da sua Nacionalidade (The Mysterious Character of Columbus and the Problem of his Nationality). The same text with some additions was again published in 1927, after his death, with a complementary study by the medical doctor Barbosa Soeiro relating Columbus' signature with the Kabbalah.

José Mascarenhas Barreto claimed in The Portuguese Columbus: Secret Agent of King John II, published in 1988, that Columbus was a Portuguese spy charged with keeping the Spanish away from the lucrative African trade routes to Asia. Barreto, through his interpretation of the Jewish Kabbalah and other research, suggested Columbus was born in Cuba, Portugal, the son of a nobleman and related to other Portuguese navigators.[81] According to this claim, his real name was concealed, Christopher Columbus being a pseudonym, meaning Bearer of Christ and the Holy Spirit. His real name was supposedly Salvador Fernandes Zarco and he was the son of Dom Fernando, Duke of Beja, Alentejo and maternal grandson of João Gonçalves Zarco, discoverer of Madeira. This is based on interpretation of some facts and documents of his life, but mostly on an analysis of his signature under the Jewish Kabbalah, where he described his family and origin.

Portuguese genealogist Luís Paulo Manuel de Meneses de Melo Vaz de São Paio argues against the suggestion that Columbus had a noble Portuguese origin in his works Carta Aberta a um Agente Secreto and Carta Aberta a um "Curioso" da Genealogia.[82]

Other arguments used by proponents of the Portuguese hypothesis is that in a court a document mentioning Columbus a nationality, they called him "portuguese" and in another Columbus uses the word "homeland" in relation to Portugal.[83][84]

Polish hypothesis

There is also a theory that Columbus was son to the king of Poland Władysław III, who survived the battle of Warna in 1444 and later lived on Madera.[85] The hypothesis of the Polish origins of Columbus was first published in "COLÓN: La Historia Nunca Contada,"[86] published by Manuel da Silva Rosa, an information technology analyst and amateur historian.[87] In that book he claims that Columbus was the son of the exiled Polish King Władysław III, resident in the island of Madeira, and a Portuguese noblewoman. The author believes Columbus would not have been able to marry Filipa Moniz Perestrelo, a Portuguese noblewoman, if he were not of noble birth himself. The book provides several new documents that appear to put in doubt the whole Columbus history.[88] The book also suggests Columbus was a Portuguese secret agent working covertly in Spain and claims similarities exist between Columbus' coat of arms and that of the Polish king.[89][90][91][92]

Other hypotheses

Norwegian Tor Borch Sannes has speculated that Columbus was Norwegian, comparing his coat of arms to that of the Bonde family who fled Norway for Italy in the 15th century.[93]

On 10 March 2009, British newspaper The Daily Telegraph reported that Spanish engineer and amateur historian[94] Alfonso Ensenat de Villalonga claimed that Christopher Columbus was "the son of shopkeepers not weavers and he was baptised Pedro not Christopher" and "his family name was Scotto, and was not Italian but of Scottish origin".[95]


  1. ^ A copy of this document, which dates back to the early seventeenth century and had been officially sent from Crown of Castile to the Republic of Genoa, is conserved in the State Archives of Genoa. The supposed original is in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville.
  2. ^ De Lollis observes that "the history of this important document is so clear that there is no doubt about its authenticity." Caddeo considers it authentic. Harrisse instead considers it a forgery from a later period. Madariaga states that the majorat "cannot be considered authentic," but adds, however, that it cannot be a complete invention and must have been edited on the basis of the 1502 testament, which has disappeared without a trace. Ballesteros refutes that thesis that it is a forgery; the authenticity of the document is proven by the rediscovery of a certificate, dated 28 September 1501, relative to the royal confirmation of the majorat in the archive of Simancas: "After this discovery the authenticity of the institution of the Columbus majorat has been clearly demonstrated and the historical clauses of the document have increased in value, as have Columbus's declarations regarding his Geonese birthplace."[3]
  3. ^ In May 2006, the Dr. Aldo Agosto, a noted Columbus scholar and state archivist at Genoa, has collected — for be officially presented to the conference of studies in Valladolid — one hundred and ten notarial documents, largely unpublished; the result of many years hard work, where reconstructs with precision, the family tree of Christopher Columbus, going back as far as seven generations.
  4. ^ In light of the two acts cited, the tendency to compare, or worse, to confuse or replace the true "Genoese" Columbus family with other similarly named Ligurian, Lombard or foreign families collapses, as does the main argument of the dilettantes who oppose the Genoese documentation and try to maintain that there was indeed a Genoese Christopher Columbus, woolen-weaver, but who was not the discoverer of America.
  5. ^ "The summoned parties are absent and beyond Pisa and Nice."
  6. ^ The city of Piacenza was part of the Duchy of Milan; the Republic of Genoa was the latter's satellite.
  7. ^ Agostino Giustiniani, was a contemporary of Columbus, born at Genoa in 1470.
  8. ^ Angelo Trevisan, chancellor and secretary to Domenico Pisano, the Venetian Republic's envoy to Spain, writing to Domenico Malipiero, member of Venice's Council of Predagi, notes that "I have succeeded in becoming a great friend of Columbus," and goes on to say: "Christoforo Colombo, Genoese, a tall, well-built man, ruddy, or great creative talent and with a long face."[12]
  9. ^ Gaspare Contarini, Venice's ambassador to the courts of Spain and Portugal, reporting to the Senate of the Venetian Republic on 16 November 1525 on the whereabouts of the island of Hispaniola (Haiti), spoke of the Admiral who was living there. The Admiral was Diego, Christopher's eldest son. Ambassador Contarini describes him thus: "This Admiral is son of the Genoese Columbus and has very great powers, granted to his father."[12]
  10. ^ This map was drawn by Piri Reis, a Turkish cartographer and geographer, known as the nephew of Kemal Reis, in Gelibolu, in the month of muharrem of the year 919 (that is, between the 9th of March and the 7th of April of the year 1513). A large fragment of the map was found in 1929 during work to transform the Topkapı Palace. In 1501 the Turkish seamen engaged in a violent naval battle in the western Mediterranean. They captured a few Spanish cargo ships, in one of which they found various objects and products from America. Piri Reis writes thus in his Bahriye: "On the enemy ships which was captured in the Mediterranean, we found a stone similar to jasper." It was on this occasion that the Turks came into possession of the map that Piri Reis used to trace the coastlines of America. According to the notes made on it, the map was constructed using several other maps as source material. There is no doubt as to its authenticity. In note 5 of the map, here is what Piri Reis tells us, in Ottoman Turkish language: « ... Amma şöyle rivayet ederler kim Cinevizden [from Genoa] bir kâfir [an infidel] adına Qolōnbō [named Columbus] derler imiş, bu yerleri ol bulmuştur ... » The note goes on to tell how Columbus proposed the enterprise "to the great men of Genoa" and how, on being rejected by them, he turned "to the king of Spain." It continues: "The deceased Gazi Kemal had a Spanish slave who told Kemal Reis he had been three times to that Land along with Columbus." The importance of the testimony on this Turkish map from a time close to that of the discovery lies in the source of the news it carries: a Spanish ship captured by the Turks in 1501. The document is wholly unconnected with contemporary Christian culture and completely autonomous from the above mentioned references.
  11. ^ Also in K. Kretschmer's Die Entdeckung Amerikas, plate XII.
  12. ^ Décadas da Ásia, begun in 1539 and first published in 1552.[26]
  13. ^ In 1540, Damião de Góis, writes in his Fides, religio, moresque Aethiopum: "In his life [he refers to D. João II] the Genoese Columbus ... offered him his services."[30]
  14. ^ The other authors being Lombards, Venetians, Tuscans, Neapolitans, Sicilians and one Maltese.[40]
  15. ^ "Christophorus Colonus quidam ligur vir" or "a certain Christopher Columbus, man of Liguria"
  16. ^ Peter Martyr d'Anghiera uses the two words, "Ligurian" and "Genoese", interchangeably. In the first Decade of his De Orbe Novo, book I: "homo ligur". In the second Decade, book I: "Christophorum Colonum ligurem" and book VII: "Christophoro Colono Genuensi" (NRC, VI, 1988).
  17. ^ "Duce Christophoro Colono Ligure."
  18. ^ "Christophorus ergo Columbus, prouincia Ligur, vrbe, vt aiunt, genuensis, qui Maderam inhabitabit."
  19. ^ In his map of 1519, writes: "Xpoforum cõlombum genuensem."
  20. ^ They include the two greatest Columbians in Spain, Antonio Ballesteros Beretta, professor at the University of Madrid, and Juan Manzano Manzano, professor of Seville University; the leading North American authority, Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison; and the Argentinian Diego Luis Molinari, professor at the University of Buenos Aires. Obviously there are many more — admirers and detractors alike — who accept Genoa as his birthplace, including Robertson, Navarrete, Milhou, Irving, Boorstin, Demetrio Ramos, Carpentier, D'Avezac, Manuel Alvar, Nunez Jimenez, Munoz, Peschel, Duro, Mollat, Harrisse, Perez de Tudela, Aynashiya, Morales Padron, Magidovic, Roselly de Lorgues, Asensio, Braudel, Winsor, Fiske, Ciroanescu, Ruge, Markham, Serrano y Sanz, Obregon, Laguarda Trias, Thacher, de Gandia, Emiliano Jos, Aurelio Tio, Goldemberg, Vignaud, Ramirez Corria, Alvarez Pedroso, Marta Sanguinetti, Altolaguirre, Breuer, Leithaus, Alegria, Arciniegas, Davey, Nunn, Johnson, Juan Gil, Sumien, Charcot, Ballesteros Gaibrois, Levillier, Dickey, Parry, Young, Streicher, de La Ronciere, Muro Orejon, Pedroso, Brebner, Houben, Rumeu de Armas, de Madariaga, Stefansson, Martinez Hidalgo, Taylor, Mahn Lot, Consuelo Varela, Verlinden, Bradford and Heers. Among the leading Italian authorities on Columbus, who also concur, are Spotorno, Sanguineti, Tarducci, Peragallo, Desimoni, De Lollis, Salvagnini, Uzielli, Assereto, Pessagno, Caddeo, Magnaghi, Almagia, Revelli and Bignardelli. Among the famous historians and geographers who have written general works that make reference to Columbus's Genoese birth, we will mention only Humboldt, the great 19th-century German geographer; Burckhardt, author of the prestigious Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy; Fisher, the distinguished English historian; Pirenne, the eminent Belgian historian; Merzbacher, professor of History of Law at the University of Innsbruck; and Konetzke, professor of Iberian and Latin-American History at Cologne University.[55][56]
  21. ^ The greatest of all Spanish historians Antonio Ballesteros Beretta,[61][62] Professor of the University of Madrid and director of the monumental series of publications on the Historia de America y de los pueblos americanos, engaged in an deeper scrutiny of the Catalan thesis. He writes: "[Ulloa] penetrates the great labyrinth of Columbus court documents to gather arguments in favor of his preconceived theory. It is not possible to follow him in all of his lucubrations. His fiery imagination pushes him into a continuous hermeneutics." "But what document, what proof," Ballesteros continues, "can be exhibited which affirms that Columbus was Catalonian ? Absolutely none" and concludes that "with the Catalonian thesis we are faced by a system of clues based essentially on a negative approach, which declares that anything which can prove that the discoverer was Genoese is false."[63]


  1. ^ (French) Jacques Heers, Christophe Colomb, Hachette, 1981, p. 21-23.
  2. ^ Irving, Washington. "The Complete Works of Washington Irving." Elibron.com. p. 877. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
  3. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Cristoforo Colombo: Genius of the Sea". Italian Academy Foundation, 1991. pp. 5–37. 
  4. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design." Orbis, 1985. p. 17. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
  5. ^ Columbus, Christopher. "The authentic letters of Columbus" (Volume I). Field Columbian Museum, 1894. p. 129. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  6. ^ File 2, relating to the years 1474-1504, no. 266.
  7. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design." Orbis, 1985. p. 18. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  8. ^ Bedini, Silvio A. "The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia" (Volume I). Simon & Schuster, 1992. p. 163. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
  9. ^ English translation: The life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his son Ferdinand, translated by Benjamin Keen, Greenwood Press (1978)
  10. ^ "Liber Liber: Biblioteca | Autori C | Colombo, Fernando". Liberliber.it. http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/c/colombo_fernando/. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  11. ^ Greene, Robert ; Elffers, Joost. "The 48 Laws of Power." Profile Books, 2000. pp. 284-285. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
  12. ^ a b Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design". Orbis, 1985. p. 21. http://books.google.it/books?id=toILAAAAYAAJ&q. Retrieved 2010-11-30. 
  13. ^ University of Bristol. "Pedro de Ayala, the Spanish envoy in London, to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in Spain, 25 July 1498." Bris.ac.uk, 2007. Retrieved 2010-02-23.
  14. ^ (Spanish) de las Casas, Bartolomé ; Saint-Lu, André. "Historia de las Indias" (Volume I). Fundacion Biblioteca Ayacuch, 1986. p. 26. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  15. ^ (Spanish) de Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo Fernández. "Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y tierra-firme del mar océano" (Volume I). Real Acad. de la Historia, 1851. Page 12. Retrieved 2011-11-10.
  16. ^ (Spanish) de Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo Fernández. "Historia general y natural de las Indias, islas y tierra-firme del mar océano" (Volume III). Real Acad. de la Historia, 1855. Page 619. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  17. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design." Orbis, 1985. pp. 234-236. Retrieved 2010-11-17.
  18. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Cristoforo Colombo: Genius of the Sea" (Volume II). Italian Academy Foundation, 1991. pp. 5-37. Retrieved 2011-02-05.
  19. ^ K. Kretschmer's atlas, Die Entdeckung Amerikas, Berlin 1892, plate XII.
  20. ^ AE Nordenskiold, Facsimile Atlas, Stockholm 1889, plate XXXVIII.
  21. ^ K. Kretschmer, Die Entdeckung Amerikas, plate XIII.
  22. ^ Historia general de las Indias of 1533, under the fourteenth title in part I.
  23. ^ Crónica de D. João II, published in 1544, p. 110.
  24. ^ De Geographia, liber unus, published Venice 1534, p. 45.
  25. ^ Dos Libros de Cosmographia, published Milan 1556, p. 186.
  26. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot. "Admiral of the ocean sea: a life of Christopher Columbus". Time Inc., 1962. p. 65. http://books.google.it/books?ei=BqezTordNobqOZu7tOUB&ct=result&hl=it&id=uMV1AAAAMAAJ&dq=. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  27. ^ Da Ásia, translated by Alfonso Ulloa, Venice 1562, p. 55.
  28. ^ / costumi, le leggi et l'usanze di tutte le genti, Venice 1564, p. 193.
  29. ^ Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Antwerp 1570, folio 11.
  30. ^ Vasco, Graça Moura. "Cristóvão Colombo e a floresta das asneiras" (in Portuguese). Quetzal Editores, 1991. p. 94. http://books.google.it/books?ei=c_2zTvDODoTwsgaepci8Aw&ct=result&hl=it&id=90MaAQAAIAAJ&dq=. Retrieved 2011-11-04. 
  31. ^ De Rebus Aethiopicis, in De Rebus Oceanicis et Novo Orbe, Cologne 1574, p. 455.
  32. ^ Primera y segunda y tenera partes de la Historia medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales que sirven en Medicina, Seville 1574, p. 1.
  33. ^ Commentarius brevis rerum in orbe gestarum, ab anno salutis MD usque in annum MDLXXIIII, Cologne 1574, p. 6.
  34. ^ K. Kretschmer, Die Entdeckung Amerikas, plate XVIII.
  35. ^ De Rebus Gestis a Francisco Ximenio Cisnerio, Archiepiscopo Toletano, Frankfurt 1581, Vol. III, p. 38.
  36. ^ Chronographiae Libri Quatuor, Paris 1580, p. 399.
  37. ^ Historiae Americanae Secunda Pars conscripta a Jacobo Le Moyne, dicto De Morgues., Frankfurt 1591, p. 4.
  38. ^ Saxonia at anno Christi 1550 usque MDXCIV published by the printer Henning Gros, in Leipzig, in 1599.
  39. ^ Historia de los Reyes Catolicos don Fernando y dona Isabel, Vol. I, p. 357.
  40. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design". Orbis, 1985. p. 21. http://books.google.it/books?id=toILAAAAYAAJ&q. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 
  41. ^ (Spanish) Ballesteros Beretta, Antonio. "Cristóbal Colón y el descubrimiento de América" (Volume I). Salvat editores, s.a., 1945. p. 157. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  42. ^ (Italian) Martini, Dario G. "Cristoforo Colombo tra ragione e fantasia." ECIG, 1987. p. 513. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  43. ^ (Spanish) Díaz-Trechuelo, María Lourdes. "Cristóbal Colón". Ediciones Palabra, 2006. p. 30. Retrieved 2010-12-08.
  44. ^ Granzotto, Gianni. "Christopher Columbus." University of Oklahoma Press, 1987. pp. 10–11.
  45. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (1956). Christopher Columbus, Mariner. New American Library. p. 72. 
  46. ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto, "Columbus", Oxford Univ. Press, (1991) pp. 103-104.
  47. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot. "Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Sea". United States. 1942, pages 680. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
  48. ^ Taggie, Benjamin F. ; Clement, Richard W. ; Bjork, Robert E. ; Mermier, Guy. "Mediterranean studies" (Volume VI). Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1996. p. 53. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  49. ^ Crowley, Jeremiah J. "Romanism a menace to the nation". J. J. Crowley, 1912. p. 146.
  50. ^ Schiavo, Giovanni Ermenegildo. "Four centuries of Italian-American history." Center for Migration Studies, 1992. Page 50. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  51. ^ (Spanish) Zurita y Castro, Jerónimo. "Historia del Rey don Hernando el Catholico: de las empresas y ligas de Italia." College of S. Vicente Ferrer, by Lorenço de Robles. 1610, p. 17. Retrieved 2010-12-11.
  52. ^ Galvão, António ; Hakluyt, Richard ; Bethune, Charles Ramsay Drinkwater. "The discoveries of the world: from their first original unto the year of our Lord 1555". Hakluyt Society, 1862. Pages 242. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
  53. ^ (Portuguese) Graça Moura, Vasco. "Cristóvão Colombo e a floresta das asneiras". Quetzal Editores. 1991, pages 205. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
  54. ^ Sarton, George. "Isis" (Volume XXII). Publication and Editorial Office, University of Pennsylvania. 1935, page 515. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
  55. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: the grand design". Orbis, 1985. p. 237. http://books.google.it/books?id=toILAAAAYAAJ&q. Retrieved 2010-12-07. 
  56. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Cristoforo Colombo: Genius of the Sea (Vol. II)". 1991. pp. 5–37. 
  57. ^ Paolo Emilio Taviani, Columbus the Great Adventure, Orion Books, New York (1991) p. 185
  58. ^ Davidson, Miles H. ,Columbus then and now: a life reexamined. United States, 1997, pages 609.
  59. ^ V.I. Milani, "The written language of Christopher Columbus", Buffalo: State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973.
  60. ^ "Biografia de Luis Ulloa". Biografiasyvidas.com. http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/u/ulloa_luis.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  61. ^ Martini, Dario G. "Cristoforo Colombo tra ragione e fantasia" (in Italian). ECIG, 1987. p. 12. http://books.google.it/books?id=8TEaAQAAIAAJ&q=. Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  62. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: His Birthplace and His Parents". Five Hundred Magazine, 1989. Volume 1/No. 2. 
  63. ^ Taviani, Paolo Emilio. "Christopher Columbus: Genius of the Sea". Italian Academy Foundation, 1991. pp. 5–37. 
  64. ^ Telegraph, 14 Oct 2009, Georgetown University team led by Professor Estelle Irizarry claims that Christopher Columbus was Catalan
  65. ^ "Scholar casts doubt on claims that Columbus was a Catalan". Medieval News. 2009-10-26. http://medievalnews.blogspot.com/2009/10/scholar-casts-doubt-on-claims-that.html. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  66. ^ a b Interview with Charles J. Merrill (Spanish)
  67. ^ Charles J. Merrill, Colom of Catalonia: Origins of Christopher Columbus Revealed, Spokane, WA: Demers Books, 2008.
  68. ^ a b c d solarnavigator.net, Columbus's national origin: subject of debate
  69. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea pp. 37-39
  70. ^ Canoutas, Seraphim G., Christopher Columbus: A Greek Nobleman, privately published (St. Marks Press, New York 1943). See also Durlacher-Wolper, Ruth G., The Identity of Christopher Columbus, privately published (New World Museum, San Salvador 1982), which relied on Canoutas’s work.
  71. ^ “The first cause of the Admiral’s coming to Spain and devoting himself to the sea was a renowned man of his name and family, called Colombo, who won great fame on the sea because he warred so fiercely against infidels and the enemies of his country that his name was used to frighten children in their cradles. . . . He was called Colombo the Younger to distinguish him from another Colombo who in his time also won fame on the sea. . . . I return to my main theme. While the Admiral was sailing in the company of the said Colombo the Younger (which he did for a long time) . . ..” Keen, Benjamin (trans.), The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand (Rutgers Univ. Press, New Brunswick 1959), pp. 12-13. Ferdinando's biography is found at: Historie del S.D. Fernando Colombo(Italian)
  72. ^ Canoutas cited: Harrisse, Henry, Les Colombo de France et d’Italie (Paris 1872); Salvagnini, Alberto, “Cristoforo Colombo e i corsari Colombo,” Commissione Colombiana: Raccolta di documenti e studi pubblicati dalla R. Commissione Colombiana (Rome 1892-1896), Pt. II, vol. III; Vignaud, Henry, Études critiques sur la vie de Christophe Colomb avant ses découvertes (Paris 1905), pp. 129-189; and Gonzales de la Rosa, Manuel, La solution de tous les problèmes relatifs à l’origine et la vie de C. Colomb (Paris 1902), p. 19 (also in Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists, Sess. 12 (1900), pp. 43-62).
  73. ^ Du Cange, Charles du Fresne, Historia Byzantina duplici commentario illustrata (Paris 1680), Vol. 1 Familiae Byzantinae, Ch. XLII Familia Palaeologorum Bissipatorum, pp. 256-257. Found at: Historia Byzantina
  74. ^ Renet, Pierre-Rieul-César, “Les Bissipat du Beauvaisis,” Mémoires de la Société Académique d’Archéologie, Sciences & Arts du Départment de L’Oise, Tome XIV, Première Partie (Beauvais 1889), pp. 31-98. Found at: Les Bissipat du Beauvaisis(French)
  75. ^ Cf. Entries for “Dishypatos,” The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. 1 (Oxford Univ. Press, New York & Oxford 1991), pp. 638-639.
  76. ^ Cf. Entry for “Palaiologos,” The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. 3 (Oxford Univ. Press, New York & Oxford 1991), pp. 1557-1560.
  77. ^ Canoutas, op cit. pp. 68, 123.
  78. ^ "Georgetown University". Explore.georgetown.edu. http://explore.georgetown.edu/people/irizarry/?action=viewpublications. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  79. ^ Three Sources of Textual Evidence of Columbus, Crypto Jew. Estelle Irizarry, Professor Emerita, Georgetown University North American Academy of the Spanish Language.
  80. ^ Simon Wiesenthal, "Sails of Hope: The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus," Segel der Hoffnung - Die geheime Mission des Christoph Columbus [translated from German by Richard and Clara Winston, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1973.]
  81. ^ ISBN 0312079486
  82. ^ "Armas & Troféus", Revista de História, Heráldica, Genealogia e Arte. 1999 - IX Série — Tomo I — Janeiro — Dezembro - 1999, p. 181 to p. 248
  83. ^ Antonio Rumeu de Armas, El «Portugués» Cristóbal Colon en Castilla. Ediciones Cultura Hispánica del Instituto De Cooperación Iberoamericana, Madrid 1982, p. 29.
  84. ^ Congreso de Historia del Descubrimiento (1492-1556), Real Academia de la Historia (Spain) 1992. Pg. 99
  85. ^ Christopher Colombus 'was Polish not Portuguese': Historians claim explorer was son of exiled King Vladislav III, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1333895/Christopher-Columbus-Polish-Portuguese-claim-historians.html
  86. ^ Manuel da Silva Rosa "COLON. La Historia Nunca Contada", Esquilo - Ediciones y Multimedia, Badajoz 2009 EAN 9789898092663
  87. ^ Q+A with Manuel Rosa, IT analyst at the Duke Comprehensive Cancer Center. Reviewed by Jessica Chang. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  88. ^ Historian unmasks Columbus’ true identity. http://vilnews.com/?p=9332
  89. ^ Govan, Fiona (November 28, 2010). "Christopher Columbus 'was son of Polish king'". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/poland/8166041/Christopher-Columbus-was-son-of-Polish-king.html. Retrieved December 1, 2010. 
  90. ^ Manuel da Silva Rosa, "Colon, La Historia Nunca Contada" 2010 ISBN 978-989-8092-66-3".
  91. ^ Medievalists.net
  92. ^ Polish King in Exile Was Christopher Columbus’s True Father, Nov 24, 2010 – (Badajoz, Spain)
  93. ^ Borch Sannes, Tor (1991). "Columbus – en europeer fra Norge?". Norsk maritimt forlag (Oslo). 
  94. ^ "''After the trail of history and DNA''". Translate.google.com. http://translate.google.com/translate?sourceid=mozclient&scoring=d&u=http://www.abc.es/20090308/cultura-cultura/jornadas-colombinas-marbella-tras-20090308.html. Retrieved 2010-02-23. 
  95. ^ Christopher Columbus was actually a Scotsman called Pedro Scotto, historian says, The Daily Telegraph Online, 10/03/09

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