- Timeline of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes
A timeline of events related to

thermodynamics ,statistical mechanics , andrandom process es.**Ancient times***c.

3000 BC - The ancients viewedheat as that related tofire . Theancient Egypt ians viewed heat as related to origin mythologies. One example, is the theory of theOgdoad , or the “primordial forces”, from which all was formed. These were the elements ofchaos , numbered in eight, that existed before the creation of the sun.cite journal | author =J. Gwyn Griffiths | year = 1955 | title = The Orders of Gods in Greece and Egypt (According to Herodotus) | journal = The Journal of Hellenic Studies | volume = 75 | pages = 21–23 | url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4269%281955%2975%3C21%3ATOOGIG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R | accessdate = 2007-03-16 | doi = 10.2307/629164 ]

*c.500 BC -Heraclitus became famous as the "flux and fire" philosopher for his proverbial utterance: "All things are flowing." Heraclitus argued that the three principal elements in nature were fire, earth, and water. Of these three, however, fire is assigned as the central element controlling and modifying the other two. The universe was postulated to be in a continuous state of flux or permanent condition of change as a result of transformations of fire. Heraclitus summarized his philosophy as: "All things are an exchange for fire." In 460 BC,Hippocrates postulated that: "Heat, a quantity which functions to animate, derives from an internal fire located in the leftventricle ."

*c.485 BC -Parmenides makes theontological argument against nothingness, "essentially denying the possible existence of a void".

*c.460 BC -Leucippus , in opposition to Parmenides' denial of the void, proposes theatomic theory , which supposes that everything in the universe is either atoms or voids; a theory which, according toAristotle , was stimulated into conception so to purposely contradict Parmenides' argument.

*c.350 BC -Aristotle proclaims, in opposition to Leucippus, the dictum "horror vacui" or “nature abhors a vacuum”. Aristotle reasoned that in a complete vacuum, infinite speed would be possible because motion would encounter no resistance. Since he did not accept the possibility of infinite speed, he decided that a vacuum was equally impossible.;Atomic postulates

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5th century BC – theclassical element s are used to support various theories ofcombustion ;Empedocles writes about his four-element theory of earth, water, air, and fire

*5th century BC –Leucippus andDemocritus formulate the philosophy ofatomism

*1st century BC –Lucretius writes his epic atomistic poem "De Rerum Natura "

*Several arguments are proposed supportingAristotle's arguments for the impossibility of a void including,Plato ,Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) and others, but was criticized byLeucippus ,Hero of Alexandria ,Ibn al-Haytham and others.**Before 1800*** 1000s – The Persian physicist and polymath

Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī cites movement andfriction as a cause ofheat , which in turn produces the element of fire, and a lack of movement as the cause of cold near thegeographical pole s. [*citation|title=The Age of Achievement: Vol 4: Part 1 - the Historical, Social and Economic Setting|last=M. S. Asimov|first=Clifford Edmund Bosworth|publisher=*]Motilal Banarsidass |year=1999|isbn=8120815963|pages=211-2 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=ELrRr0L8UOsC&pg=PA212&dq=intitle:%22Age+of+Achievement%22+friction+poles+movement+heated | quote = The earth and the water form one globe, surrounded on all sides by air. Then, since much of the air is in contact with the sphere of the moon, it becomes heated in consequence of the movement and friction of the parts in contact. Thus there is produced fire, which surrounds the air, less in amount in the proximity of the poles owing to the slackening of the movement there.

* 1000s –Avicenna invents the refrigerated coil, which condenses aromatic vapours, in order to produceessential oil s throughsteam distillation . [*citation|title=Aromatherapy: A Practical Approach|first=Vicki|last=Pitman|publisher=Nelson Thornes|year=2004|isbn=0748773460|page=xi*] [*citation|title=The Basics of Chemistry|first=Richard|last=Myers|publisher=*] Marlene Ericksen (2000), "Healing with Aromatherapy", p. 9,Greenwood Publishing Group |year=2003|isbn=0313316643|page=14McGraw-Hill , ISBN 0658003828]

* 1000s –Avicenna gauged the relative "coldness " or "hotness " of air, using a rudimentary airthermometer (orthermoscope ), [] [Robert Briffault (1938). "The Making of Humanity", p. 191*Fatima Agha Al-Hayani (2005). "Islam and Science: Contradiction or Concordance", "Zygon"*] similar in design to an earlier device which could expand and contract the air constructed by**40**(3), p. 565-576.Philo of Byzantium andHero of Alexandria .

* 1500s-1600s –Cornelius Drebbel ,Robert Fludd ,Galileo Galilei andSantorio Santorio were able to gauge the relative "coldness " or "hotness " of air, using an airthermometer (orthermoscope ), likely influenced by an earlier device which could expand and contract the air constructed byPhilo of Byzantium andHero of Alexandria .

*1600 –Francis Bacon surmised: "Heat itself, its essence and quiddity is motion and nothing else."

*1620 – Francis Bacon reviews a wide range of observations about heat and related phenomena, and suggests thatheat is related to motion ("Novum Organum", Book II, XI)

*1643 –Galileo Galilei , while generally accepting the "horror vacui" of Aristotle, believes that nature’s vacuum-abhorrence is limited. Pumps operating in mines had already proven that nature would only fill a vacuum with water up to a height of 30 feet. Knowing this curious fact, Galileo encourages his former pupilEvangelista Torricelli to investigate these supposed limitations and in doing so invented the firstvacuum andmercury thermometer .

*1650 –Otto von Guericke builds the firstvacuum pump

*1660 –Robert Boyle experimentally discoversBoyle's Law , relating the pressure and volume of a gas

*1665 –Robert Hooke stated: "Heat being nothing else but a very brisk and vehement agitation of the parts of a body."

*1669 –J.J. Becher puts forward a theory ofcombustion involving "combustible earth" (Latin "terra pinguis").

*1676 –1689 –Gottfried Leibniz develops the concept of "vis viva ", a limited version of theconservation of energy

*1694 –1734 –Georg Ernst Stahl names Becher's combustible earth asphlogiston and develops the theory

*1702 –Guillaume Amontons introduces the concept ofabsolute zero , based on observations ofgas es

*1738 –Daniel Bernoulli publishes "Hydrodynamics", initiating thekinetic theory

*1761 –Joseph Black discovers thatice absorbsheat without changing itstemperature when melting

*1772 – Black's studentDaniel Rutherford discoversnitrogen , which he calls "phlogisticated air", and together they explain the results in terms of thephlogiston theory

*1776 –John Smeaton publishes a paper onexperiment s related to power, work,momentum , andkinetic energy , supporting the conservation of energy

*1777 –Carl Wilhelm Scheele distinguishesheat transfer bythermal radiation from that byconvection and conduction

*1783 –Antoine Lavoisier discoversoxygen and develops an explanation for combustion; in his paper "Réflexions sur le phlogistique", he deprecates the phlogiston theory and proposes acaloric theory

*1784 –Jan Ingenhousz describesBrownian motion of charcoal particles on water

*1791 –Pierre Prévost shows that all bodies radiate heat, no matter how hot or cold they are

*1798 – Count Rumford (Benjamin Thompson ) performs measurements of thefriction al heat generated in boringcannon s and develops the idea that heat is a form ofkinetic energy ; his measurements refute caloric theory, but are imprecise enough to leave room for doubt**1800–1847***

1804 – Sir John Leslie observes that a matte black surface radiates heat more effectively than a polished surface, suggesting the importance ofblack body radiation

*1805 –William Hyde Wollaston defends the conservation of energy in "On the Force of Percussion"

*1808 –John Dalton defends caloric theory in "A New System of Chemistry" and describes how it combines with matter, especiallygas es; he proposes that theheat capacity of gases varies inversely withatomic weight

*1810 – Sir John Leslie freezeswater to ice artificially

*1813 –Peter Ewart supports the idea of the conservation of energy in his paper "On the measure of moving force"; the paper strongly influences Dalton and his pupil, James Joule

*1819 –Pierre Louis Dulong andAlexis Thérèse Petit give theDulong-Petit law for thespecific heat capacity of acrystal

*1820 –John Herapath develops some ideas in the kinetic theory of gases but mistakenly associates temperature with molecularmomentum rather thankinetic energy ; his work receives little attention other than from Joule

*1822 –Joseph Fourier formally introduces the use ofdimension s for physical quantities in his "Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur"

*1822 –Marc Séguin writes toJohn Herschel supporting the conservation of energy and kinetic theory

*1824 – Sadi Carnot analyzes the efficiency ofsteam engine s using caloric theory; he develops the notion of areversible process and, in postulating that no such thing exists in nature, lays the foundation for thesecond law of thermodynamics , and initiating the science of thermodynamics

*1827 – Robert Brown discovers theBrownian motion ofpollen and dye particles in water

*1831 –Macedonio Melloni demonstrates that black body radiation can be reflected, refracted, and polarised in the same way as light

*1834 –Émile Clapeyron popularises Carnot's work through a graphical and analytic formulation

*1841 –Julius Robert von Mayer , anamateur scientist, writes a paper on the conservation of energy, but his lack of academic training leads to its rejection

*1842 – Mayer makes a connection between work, heat, and thehuman metabolism based on his observations ofblood made while a ship's surgeon; he calculates themechanical equivalent of heat

*1842 –William Robert Grove demonstrates the thermal dissociation of molecules into their constituent atoms, by showing that steam can be disassociated into oxygen and hydrogen, and the process reversed

*1843 –John James Waterston fully expounds the kinetic theory of gases, but is ridiculed and ignored

*1843 –James Joule experimentally finds the mechanical equivalent of heat

*1846 –Karl-Hermann Knoblauch publishes "De calore radiante disquisitiones experimentis quibusdam novis illustratae"

*1846 – Grove publishes an account of the general theory of the conservation of energy in "On The Correlation of Physical Forces"

*1847 –Hermann von Helmholtz publishes a definitive statement of the conservation of energy, thefirst law of thermodynamics **1848–1899***

1848 –William Thomson extends the concept of absolute zero from gases to all substances

*1849 –William John Macquorn Rankine calculates the correct relationship between saturated vapour pressure andtemperature using his "hypothesis of molecular vortices"

*1850 – Rankine uses his "vortex" theory to establish accurate relationships between the temperature,pressure , anddensity of gases, and expressions for thelatent heat ofevaporation of aliquid ; he accurately predicts the surprising fact that the apparentspecific heat of saturatedsteam will be negative.

*1850 –Rudolf Clausius gives the first clear joint statement of the first and second law of thermodynamics, abandoning the caloric theory, but preserving Carnot's principle.

*1851 – Thomson gives an alternative statement of the second law.

*1852 – Joule and Thomson demonstrate that a rapidly expanding gas cools, later named theJoule–Thomson effect or Joule–Kelvin effect

*1854 – Helmholtz puts forward the idea of theheat death of the universe

*1854 – Clausius establishes the importance of "dQ/T" (Clausius's theorem ), but does not yet name the quantity.

*1854 – Rankine introduces his "thermodynamic function", later identified asentropy

*1856 –August Krönig publishes an account of the kinetic theory of gases, probably after reading Waterston's work

*1857 – Clausius gives a modern and compelling account of the kinetic theory of gases in his "On the nature of motion called heat"

*1859 –James Clerk Maxwell discovers the distribution law of molecular velocities

*1859 –Gustav Kirchhoff shows that energy emission from ablack body is a function of only temperature and frequency

*1865 – Clausius introduces the modernmacroscopic concept of entropy

*1865 –Josef Loschmidt applies Maxwell's theory to estimate the number-density of molecules in gases, given observed gas viscosities.

*1867 – Maxwell asks whetherMaxwell's demon could reverse irreversible processes

*1870 – Clausius proves the scalarvirial theorem

*1872 –Ludwig Boltzmann states theBoltzmann equation for the temporal development ofdistribution function s inphase space , and publishes hisH-theorem

*1874 – Thomson formally states thesecond law of thermodynamics .

*1876 –Josiah Willard Gibbs publishes the first of two papers (the second appears in1878 ) which discuss phase equilibria,statistical ensemble s, the free energy as the driving force behindchemical reaction s, andchemical thermodynamics in general.

*1876 – Loschmidt criticises Boltzmann's H theorem as being incompatible with microscopic reversibility (Loschmidt's paradox ).

*1877 – Boltzmann states the relationship between entropy andprobability .

*1879 – Jožef Stefan observes that the total radiant flux from a blackbody is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature and states theStefan–Boltzmann law .

*1884 – Boltzmann derives the Stefan–Boltzmann blackbody radiant flux law from thermodynamic considerations.

*1888 –Henri-Louis Le Chatelier states his principle that the response of a chemical system perturbed from equilibrium will be to counteract the perturbation.

*1889 –Walther Nernst relates the voltage of electrochemical cells to their chemical thermodynamics via theNernst equation .

*1889 –Svante Arrhenius introduces the idea ofactivation energy for chemical reactions, giving theArrhenius equation .

*1893 –Wilhelm Wien discovers the displacement law for a blackbody's maximum specific intensity.**1900–1944***

1900 –Max Planck suggests that light may be emitted in discrete frequencies, giving his law of black-body radiation

*1905 –Albert Einstein argues that the reality of quanta would explain thephotoelectric effect

*1905 – Einstein mathematically analyzesBrownian motion as a result of random molecular motion

*1906 – Nernst presents a formulation of thethird law of thermodynamics

*1907 – Einstein uses quantum theory to estimate theheat capacity of anEinstein solid

*1909 –Constantin Carathéodory develops anaxiomatic system of thermodynamics

*1910 – Einstein andMarian Smoluchowski find the Einstein–Smoluchowski formula for the attenuation coefficient due to density fluctuations in a gas

*1911 –Paul Ehrenfest and Tatjana Ehrenfest–Afanassjewa publish their classical review on the statistical mechanics of Boltzmann, "Begriffliche Grundlagen der statistischen Auffassung in der Mechanik"

*1912 –Peter Debye gives an improved heat capacity estimate by allowing low-frequencyphonons

*1916 – Sydney Chapman andDavid Enskog systematically develop the kinetic theory of gases.

*1916 – Einstein considers the thermodynamics ofatomic spectral line s and predictsstimulated emission

*1919 –James Jeans discovers that the dynamical constants of motion determine the distribution function for a system of particles

*1920 –Megh Nad Saha states his ionization equation

*1923 – Debye andErich Huckel publish a statistical treatment of the dissociation ofelectrolyte s

*1924 –Satyendra Nath Bose introducesBose–Einstein statistics , in a paper translated by Einstein

*1926 –Enrico Fermi andPaul Dirac introduceFermi–Dirac statistics forfermions

*1927 –John von Neumann introduces thedensity matrix representation and establishesquantum statistical mechanics

*1928 –John B. Johnson discoversJohnson noise in a resistor

*1928 –Harry Nyquist derives the fluctuation-dissipation relationship for a resistor to explainJohnson noise

*1929 –Lars Onsager derives theOnsager reciprocal relations

*1942 –Joseph Leo Doob states his theorem onGauss–Markov process es

*1944 –Lars Onsager gives an analytic solution to the 2DIsing model including itsphase transition **1945–present***

1948 –Claude Elwood Shannon establishesinformation theory .

*1957 –Aleksandr Solomonovich Kompaneets derives his Compton scatteringFokker–Planck equation .

*1957 –Ryogo Kubo derives the first of theGreen-Kubo relations for linear transport coefficients.

*1957 –Edwin T. Jaynes gives MaxEnt interpretation of thermodynamics from information theory.

*1972 –Jacob Bekenstein suggests thatblack holes have an entropy proportional to their surface area.

*1974 –Stephen Hawking predicts that black holes will radiate particles with a black-body spectrum which can cause black hole evaporation**References****See also***

History of physics

*History of thermodynamics

*Timeline of information theory

*List of notable textbooks in statistical mechanics

*Physics

*Thermodynamics

* Parmenides influence on the development of thermodynamics

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