- Father of the House
Father of the House is a term that has by tradition been unofficially bestowed on certain members of some national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. In some legislatures the term refers to the oldest member, but in others it refers the longest-serving member.
The term Mother of the House is also found, although the usage varies between countries. It is used simply as the female alternative to Father of the House, being applied when the relevant member is a woman.
House of Commons
The Father of the House is a title that is by tradition bestowed on the senior Member of the House of Commons who has the longest unbroken service. If two or more MPs have the same length of current uninterrupted service, then whoever was sworn in earliest at its commencement, as listed in Hansard, is named Father.
In the House of Commons, the sole mandatory duty of the Father of the House is to preside over the election of a new Speaker whenever that office becomes vacant. The relevant Standing Order does not refer to this member by the title "Father of the House", referring instead to the longest-serving member of the House present who is not a Minister of the Crown (meaning that if the Father is absent or a government minister, the next person in line presides).
Should Tapsell cease to be a Member of the House of Commons, MPs with continuous service from the 1970 general election will become eligible to be Father of the House. The members with this length of service are: Sir Gerald Kaufman, Kenneth Clarke, Michael Meacher and Dennis Skinner (listed according to the order in which they took the oath after the 1970 election).
The Father of the House is not necessarily the sitting MP with the earliest date of first election: Sir Peter Tapsell was first elected in 1959, and is the only remaining 1950s MP, but lost his seat in 1964 and was out of Parliament until 1966; this meant that Alan Williams was Father of the House until his retirement at the 2010 general election by virtue of his continuous service since the 1964 general election. Michael Foot, as the only remaining MP from the 1945 election between 1987 and 1992, was never Father of the House because he was out of Parliament between 1955 and a by-election in 1960. Similarly, though Sir Winston Churchill was first elected in 1900, he did not become Father of the House until 1959 because he lost his seat in 1922, not returning to the Commons until 1924.
Name Entered House Became Father Left House Party Sir John Fagg 1654 1701 1701 Thomas Turgis 1659 1701 1704 Sir Christopher Musgrave, 4th Baronet 1661 1704 1704 Thomas Strangeways 1673 1704 1713 Sir Richard Onslow 1679 1713 1715 Whig Thomas Erle 1679 1715 1718 Whig Edward Vaughan 1679 1718 1718 Whig Richard Vaughan 1685 1718 1724 Whig Lord William Powlett 1689 1724 1729 Conservative Sir Justinian Isham, 2nd Baronet 1694 1729 1730 Conservative Sir Charles Turner, 1st Baronet, of Warham 1695 1730 1738 Conservative Sir Roger Bradshaigh 1695 1738 1747 Conservative Sir Edward Ashe 1695 1747 1747 Conservative Sir Thomas Cartwright 1701 1747 1748 Conservative Sir Richard Shuttleworth 1705 1748 1749 Conservative Phillips Gybbon 1707 1749 1762 Whig Sir John Rushout, 4th Baronet 1713 1762 1768 Conservative William Aislabie 1721 1768 1781 Whig Charles FitzRoy-Scudamore 1733 1781 1782 Whig The Earl Nugent 1741 1782 1784 Conservative Sir Charles Frederick 1741 1784 1784 Conservative The Lord Mendip 1741 1784 1790 Conservative William Drake 1746 1790 1796 Sir Philip Stephens, 1st Baronet 1759 1796 1806 Conservative Clement Tudway 1761 1806 1815 Sir John Aubrey, 6th Baronet 1768 1815 1826 Conservative Sir Samuel Smith 1788 1826 1832 Conservative George Byng 1790 1832 1847 Whig Charles Watkin Williams-Wynn 1799 1847 1850 Conservative George Harcourt 1806 1850 1861 Whig Sir Charles Burrell, 3rd Baronet 1806 1861 1862 Conservative Henry Cecil Lowther 1812 1862 1867 Conservative Thomas Peers Williams 1820 1867 1868 Conservative Henry Lowry-Corry 1825 1868 1873 Conservative George Weld-Forester 1828 1873 1874 Conservative Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot 1830 1874 1890 Liberal Charles Pelham Villiers 1835 1890 1898 Liberal Unionist Sir John Mowbray, 1st Baronet 1853 1898 1899 Conservative William Wither Beach 1857 1899 1901 Conservative Michael Hicks Beach 1864 1901 1906 Conservative George Finch 1867 1906 1907 Conservative Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman 1868 1907 1908 Liberal Sir John Kennaway, 3rd Baronet 1870 1908 1910 Conservative Thomas Burt 1874 1910 1918 Lib-Lab T. P. O'Connor 1880 1918 1929 Irish Nationalist David Lloyd George 1890 1929 1945 Liberal The Earl Winterton 1904 1945 1951 Conservative Sir Hugh O'Neill 1915 1951 1952 Ulster Unionist David Grenfell 1922 1952 1959 Labour Sir Winston Churchill 1924 1959 1964 Conservative R. A. Butler 1929 1964 1965 Conservative Robin Turton 1929 1965 1974 Conservative George Strauss 1934 1974 1979 Labour John Parker 1935 1979 1983 Labour James Callaghan 1945 1983 1987 Labour Bernard Braine 1950 1987 1992 Conservative Sir Edward Heath 1950 1992 2001 Conservative Tam Dalyell 1962 2001 2005 Labour Alan Williams 1964 2005 2010 Labour Sir Peter Tapsell 1966 2010 Incumbent Conservative
House of Lords
The current Father of the House of Lords is Lord Carrington (Conservative), who entered the House on his 21st birthday in 1940, having succeeded to the title in 1938 while still a minor. After the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, Carrington (along with all former Leaders of the House) was given a life peerage to enable him to continue to sit.
Should Carrington cease to be a Member of the House of Lords, the remaining peers who first sat in the 1940s will become eligible to be Father of the House. There are currently two: Lord Montagu of Beaulieu (1947) and Lord Denham (1947). Both are hereditary peers who were elected to remain in the House under the provisions of the 1999 Act.
The senior life peer by date of creation is Lord Chalfont, who entered the House in 1964.
Name Entered House Became Father Left House Party The Earl of Mansfield 1840 ? 1898 Conservative The Lord Templemore 1842 1898 1906 Conservative The Earl of Leicester 1844 1906 1909 Conservative The Earl Nelson 1845 1909 1913 Conservative The Earl of Ducie 1853 1913 1921 Liberal The Earl of Coventry 1859 1921 1930 Conservative The Marquess of Huntly 1869 1930 1937 Liberal The Marquess of Ailsa 1870 1937 1938 Conservative The Lord Grantley 1877 1938 1943 Conservative The Lord Romilly 1920 1943 1983 Conservative The Lord Oranmore and Browne 1927 1983 1999 Conservative The Earl Jellicoe 1939 1999 2007 Conservative The Lord Carrington 1940 2007 Incumbent Conservative
House of Commons of Northern Ireland (defunct)
Name Entered House Became Father Left House Party J. M. Andrews 1921 1949 1953 Ulster Unionist Cahir Healy 1925 1953 1965 Nationalist (NI) The Viscount Brookeborough 1929 1965 1968 Ulster Unionist Sir Norman Stronge, Bt 1938 1968 1969 Ulster Unionist Terence O'Neill 1946 1969 1970 Ulster Unionist Brian Faulkner 1949 1970 1972 Ulster Unionist
In Australia, the current member of the House of Representatives with the longest period of continuous service, whether a Minister or not, is known as "Father of the House". Similarly, the current member of the Senate with the longest period of continuous service is known as "Father of the Senate". The longer serving of the two Fathers is called "Father of the Parliament".
As in Britain, these terms have no official status. However, unlike Britain:
- the term Father of the House/Senate applies where there is one member whose continuous service is unequivocally longer than any other, as determined by the date of election (House) or the date of the start of the term (Senate). Where two or more members have equal length of continuous service, more than any other members, they are considered joint Fathers of the House/Senate. Some state parliaments, however, follow the British convention.
- the Father of the House and the Father of the Senate in Australia have no parliamentary role at all. The election of the presiding officers is conducted by the Clerk of the House and the Clerk of the Senate respectively.
Since 1 July 2008, Senator Ron Boswell, who was first elected in 1983, has been the Father of the Senate.
Since 1 September 1998, Philip Ruddock, who was first elected in 1973, has been the Father of the House of Representatives and Father of the Parliament.
The longest-serving member of the House of Commons who is not a cabinet minister is known as the Dean of the House, and presides over the election of the Speaker at the beginning of each Parliament. The same term is used for the equivalent position in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Starting with the Frankfurter Nationalversammlung (Frankfurt Parliament) of 1848, all democratic German parliaments had a Father (or Mother) of the House, usually called Alterspräsident (President by right of age).
Under the current constitution (Grundgesetz) of 1949, the Alterspräsident will preside over the Parliament (Bundestag) at the start of each legislative period.
Following tradition, the Alterspräsident will first ascertain himself that he is the oldest member of the Bundestag by stating his birth date and asking if anyone is present who was born before his date. If no older member of the Bundestag is present (which is usually the case) he will formally declare that he indeed is the Alterspräsident and will start proceedings.
As acting President of the Bundestag (Bundestagspräsident) he delivers the first programmatic speech and oversees the elections of the President of the Bundestag and the Vicepresidents of the Bundestag (Bundestagsvizepräsidenten). He then stands down and yields his power to the newly elected Bundestagspräsident. As the position of Father of the House usually draws a certain public attention, the PDS twice nominated old independents (Stefan Heym in 1994, Fred Gebhardt in 1998) to obtain this office. None of them served a complete term (Heym resigned in 1996, Gebhardt died in 2000). This was considered a manipulation.
Alterspräsidenten (Fathers of the House) of the German Bundestag Bundestag Name Term Parliamentary
Notes 1st 1949–1953 Paul Löbe 1949–1953 SPD 2nd 1953–1957 Marie Elisabeth Lüders 1953–1957 FDP stood in for Konrad Adenauer, the oldest member,
who refused the office due to his position as Chancellor
3rd 1957–1961 Marie Elisabeth Lüders 1957–1961 FDP 4th 1961–1963 Robert Pferdmenges 1961–1963 CDU/CSU Konrad Adenauer 1963–1965 CDU/CSU resumed the office after his resignation as Chancellor 5th 1965–1967 Konrad Adenauer 1965–1967 CDU/CSU died in 1967 William Borm 1967–1969 FDP 6th 1969–1972 William Borm 1969–1972 FDP 7th 1972–1976 Ludwig Erhard 1972–1976 CDU/CSU 8th 1976–1980 Ludwig Erhard 1976–1977 CDU/CSU died in 1977 Johann Baptist Gradl 1977–1980 CDU/CSU 9th 1980–1983 Herbert Wehner 1980–1983 SPD 10th 1983–1987 Willy Brandt 1983–1987 SPD stood in for Egon Franke 11th 1987–1990 Willy Brandt 1987–1990 SPD 12th 1990–1994 Willy Brandt 1990–1992 SPD died in 1992 Alfred Dregger 1992–1994 CDU/CSU 13th 1994–1998 Stefan Heym 1994–1995 PDS resigned his seat in 1995 Alfred Dregger 1995–1998 CDU/CSU 14th 1998–2002 Fred Gebhardt 1998–2000 PDS died in 2000 Hans-Eberhard Urbaniak 2000–2002 SPD 15th 2002–2005 Otto Schily 2002–2005 SPD 16th 2005–2009 Otto Schily 2005–2009 SPD 17th 2009–2013 Heinz Riesenhuber since 2009 CDU/CSU
In the beginning of each Knesset, before the election of a permanent speaker, there is a temporary speaker. In the past it was the oldest member of Knesset, now it is the longest-serving member. Michael Eitan is the most recent Knesset member to serve in this capacity, doing so from February 24 - March 30, 2010.
In the Republic of Ireland, the term Father of the Dáil is an unofficial title applied to the longest-serving Teachta Dála (TD) in the house, regardless of their position. The current Father is the Taoiseach and Fine Gael party leader, Enda Kenny, TD, since the retirement of Séamus Pattison at the 2007 general election. On a number of occasions two or more people have shared the position of Father of the Dáil.
Name Entered Dáil Became Father Left Dáil Party Frank Fahy 1918 election 4 February 1948 14 July 1953 Fianna Fáil Éamon de Valera 23 June 1959 Fianna Fáil Gerald Boland 1923 election 23 June 1959 4 October 1961 Fianna Fáil James Ryan 7 April 1965 Fianna Fáil Patrick McGilligan 7 April 1965 Fine Gael James Everett 18 December 1967 Labour Party Thomas McEllistrim 18 June 1969 Fianna Fáil Frank Aiken 28 February 1973 Fianna Fáil Paddy Smith 5 July 1977 Fianna Fáil Liam Cosgrave 1943 election 5 July 1977 11 June 1981 Fine Gael Dan Spring 11 June 1981 Labour Party Oliver J. Flanagan 17 February 1987 Fine Gael Neil Blaney Dec. 1948 by-election 17 February 1987 8 November 1995 Independent Fianna Fáil Paddy Harte 1961 election 8 November 1995 6 June 1997 Fine Gael Seán Treacy 6 June 1997 Labour Party Séamus Pattison 14 June 2007 Labour Party Enda Kenny Nov. 1975 by-election 14 June 2007 Incumbent Fine Gael
In New Zealand, the term Father- or Mother of the House is an unofficial title applied to the longest-serving MP in the house, regardless of their position. The Father of the House has no official role in Parliament. The current Father of the House in the New Zealand Parliament is Jim Anderton, the leader of the New Zealand Progressive Party. Anderton has served in Parliament since 1984.
In New Zealand's first elections of 1854, the Bay of Islands electorate was the first to declare the election of a successful candidate, the unopposed candidate Hugh Francis Carleton. In the subsequent General Assembly of 1854, Carleton liked to be known as the Father of the House.
List of Fathers (and Mothers) of the House
- Hugh Francis Carelton 1853-1870 (first elected 1853)
- Alfred Brandon 1870-1881 (first elected 1858)
- James Macandrew 1881-1887 (first elected 1853, re-elected 1859)
- Sir Maurice O'Rorke 1887-1890 (first elected 1861, defeated 1890 and re-elected 1893)
- John Bryce 1890-1891 (first elected 1866, re-elected 1871)
- Ebenezer Hamlin 1891-1893 (first elected 1876)
- Richard John Seddon 1893-1906 (first elected 1879) (PM 1893-1906)
- Sir Arthur Robert Guinness 1906-1913 (first elected 1884)
- Sir James Carroll 1913-1919 (first elected 1887)
- Sir James Allen 1919-1920 (first elected 1887, re-elected 1892)
- William Ferguson Massey 1920-1925 (first elected 1894) (PM 1912-1925)
- (Sir) Thomas Mason Wilford 1925-1929 (first elected 1896, re-elected 1899)
- Sir Apirana Ngata 1930-1943 (first elected 1905)
- Peter Fraser 1943-1950 (first elected 1918) (PM 1940-1949)
- William Parry 1950-1951 (first elected 1919)
- Robert McKeen 1951-1954 (first elected 1922)
- Henry Greathead Rex Mason 1954-1966 (first elected 1926) (longest-serving MP in NZ's history)
- Sir Walter Nash 1966-1968 (first elected 1929) (PM 1957-1960)
- (Sir) Keith Jacka Holyoake 1968-1977 (first elected 1932, re-elected 1938) (PM 1957 & 1960-1972)
- Warren Freer 1977-1981 (first elected 1947)
- (Sir) Robert David Muldoon 1981-1991 (first elected 1960) (PM 1975-1984)
- Jonathan Lucas Hunt 1991-2005 (first elected 1966)
- Helen Elizabeth Clark 2005-2009 (to April 18) (first elected 1981) (PM 1999-2008)
- Michael John Cullen 2009 (April 18 to 29?) (first elected 1981)
- James Patrick Anderton 2009- (from April 29) (first elected 1984)
In Norway it is the representative of the Storting with longest seniority that is temporary Stortingspresident (speaker). Per Kristian Foss had this position in 2009 until Dag Terje Andersen was elected.
- 1993 Lukava - Liberal Democratic Party of Russia
- 1995 Galaziy - Our Home – Russia, Irkutsk
- 1999 Ligachev - Pens, Tomsk
- 2003 Varennikov - Rodina
- 2007 Alferov - Communist Party of the Russian Federation
Note: this is a list of longest-serving Finnish MPs; however, before the election of the Speaker, the Finnish Parliament is chaired by the oldest MP, not the longest-serving one.
- Kyösti Kallio (first elected 1907) -1937
- Kalle Lohi (first elected 1909) 1937-1945
- Miina Sillanpää (first elected 1907, re-elected 1914, 1919 and 1936) 1945-1948
- Jussi Tolonen (first elected 1914, re-elected 1919 and 1927) 1948-1951
- John Österholm (first elected 1919) 1951-1960
- Viljo Rantala (first elected 1922) 1960-1962
- Karl-August Fagerholm (first elected 1930) 1962-1966
- Eino Raunio (first elected 1939) 1966-1970
- Hertta Kuusinen (first elected 1945) 1970-1972
- Johannes Virolainen (first elected 1945) 1972-1983
- Veikko Vennamo (first elected 1945, re-elected 1966) 1983-1987
- Johannes Virolainen (re-elected 1987) 1987-1991
- Henrik Westerlund (first elected 1966) 1991-1995
- Pertti Salolainen (first elected 1970) 1995-1996
- Håkan Malm (first elected 1975) 1996-1999
- Paavo Väyrynen (first elected 1970, re-elected 1999) 1999
- Esko-Juhani Tennilä (first elected 1975) 1999-2011
- Ilkka Kanerva (first elected 1975) 2011-
- Per Westerberg (first elected 1979) 2006-
- Lennart Nilsson (first elected 1976) 2004-2006
- Bo Lundgren (first elected 1976) 2003-2004
- Anders Björck (first elected 1969) 2002-2003
- Jan Bergqvist (first elected 1969) 1998-2002
- Börje Nilsson (first elected 1965) 1996-1998
- Ingvar Carlsson (first elected 1965) 1994-1996
- Stig Alemyr (first elected 1957) 1988-1994
- Ingemund Bengtsson (first elected 1951) 1985-1988
- Gunnar Sträng (first elected 1946) 1979-1985
- Henry Allard (first elected 1945) 1976-1979
- Torsten Nilsson (first elected 1941) 1973-1976
- Tage Erlander (first elected 1932) 1971-1973
- Oldest member (European Parliament)
- Baby of the House
- Dean of the House
- Dean of the House (Canada)
- Dean of the U.S. House of Representatives
- List of longest-serving members of the Australian House of Representatives
- President pro tempore of the United States Senate
- ^ a b "The Father of the House". Factsheet M3. London: House of Commons Information Office. March 2009. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/m03.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- ^ "Members Sworn". Hansard. Hansard Digitisation Project. 30 June 1970. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1970/jun/30/members-sworn. Retrieved 2009-10-05. (Cormack was the 191st member to take the oath in 1970, Strang 205th, Prescott 225th, Kaufman 351st, Clarke 365th.)
- ^ "Members Sworn". Hansard. Hansard Digitisation Project. 1 July 1970. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1970/jul/01/members-sworn. Retrieved 2009-12-01. (Meacher was the 540th member to take the oath in 1970, Skinner 579th.)
- ^ "Why Taoiseach Enda doesn't sound so funny". 13 June 2009. http://www.independent.ie/national-news/why-taoiseach-enda-doesnt-sound-so-funny-1772668.html. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
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