- British Royal Family
The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the
United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in his or her role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for the family. [For example, for Canada the family is known as the Canadian Royal Family] Members of the royal family belong to, or are married into, the House of Windsor, since 1917, when George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Although in the United Kingdom there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, [ [http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/britfaq.html#p2-2 alt.talk.royalty FAQ: British royalty and nobility ] ] and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style His or Her Majesty (HM), or His or Her Royal Highness (HRH) are generally considered members, which usually results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch, the male-line grandchildren of the monarch, and the spouses and the widowed spouses of a monarch's son and male-line grandsons.
Members and relatives of the British Royal Family historically represented the monarch in various places throughout the
British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the UK, but, aside from the monarch, have no constitutional role in the affairs of government. This is the same for the other realms of the Commonwealth, in personal unionwith the United Kingdom, though the family there acts on behalf of, is funded by, and represents the sovereign of that particular state, and not Britain.
The Queencircle 281 147 28 The Duke of Edinburghcircle 136 140 28 The Prince of Walescircle 358 150 28 The Duchess of Cornwallcircle 43 141 28
Prince William of Walescircle 420 141 30 Prince Henry of Walescircle 262 90 22 The Duke of Yorkcircle 214 100 22 Princess Beatrice of Yorkcircle 316 102 22 Princess Eugenie of Yorkcircle 364 89 20 The Earl of Wessexcircle 433 102 20 The Countess of Wessexcircle 100 93 20 The Princess Royalcircle 78 66 16 Peter Phillipscircle 158 97 20 Zara Phillipscircle 455 67 20 The Duke of Gloucestercircle 402 82 16 The Duchess of Gloucestercircle 276 53 16 The Duke of Kentcircle 188 62 20 Prince Michael of Kentcircle 233 69 20 Princess Michael of Kentcircle 316 64 16 Princess Alexandra
List of members
This is a list of current members of the Royal Family:
* HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (her
* TRH The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall (The Queen's eldest son and his wife)
Prince William of Wales(The Prince of Wales's elder son)
Prince Henry of Wales
* HRH The Duke of York (The Queen's second son)
Princess Beatrice of York(The Duke of York's elder daughter)
Princess Eugenie of York(The Duke of York's younger daughter)
* TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex (The Queen's third son and his wife)
**Viscount Severn (The Earl of Wessex's son)
Lady Louise Windsor(The Earl of Wessex's daughter)
* HRH The Princess Royal (The Queen's daughter)
* TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester (The Queen's cousin and his wife)
* TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife)
* TRH Prince and
Princess Michael of Kent(The Queen's cousin and his wife)
Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy(The Queen's cousin)
Family tree of members
Relations or spouses or former spouses of members
Sarah, Duchess of York(mother of Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie and former spouse of The Duke of York)
Mark Phillips(father of Mr and Miss Phillips and former spouse of The Princess Royal)
* Mr and Mrs Peter Phillips (The Princess Royal's son and daughter-in-law, Autumn)
Zara Phillips(The Princess Royal's daughter)
Timothy Laurence(The Princess Royal's second husband)
* Viscount and Viscountess Linley (The Queen's nephew, son of Princess Margaret and the Earl of Snowdon, and his wife), and their children (The Hon Charles and
* The Lady Sarah and Mr
Daniel Chatto(The Queen's niece, daughter of Princess Margaret and the Earl of Snowdon, and her husband), and children (Masters Samuel and Arthur Chatto)
* Earl and Countess of Ulster (The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester's son and daughter-in-law) and their son (Lord Culloden)
* The Lady Davina and Mr Gary Lewis (The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester's daughter and her husband)
* The Lady Rose and Mr George Gilman (The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester's daughter and her husband)
* Earl and Countess of St Andrews (The Duke and Duchess of Kent's son and daughter-in-law) and their children (Lord Downpatrick and The Ladies Marina-Charlotte and Amelia Windsor)
* The Lady Helen and Mr Timothy Taylor (The Duke and Duchess of Kent's daughter and son-in-law), and their children (Masters Columbus and Cassius, Misses Eloise and Estella Taylor)
* The Lord and The Lady Nicholas Windsor (The Duke and Duchess of Kent's younger son and his wife)
* The Lord Frederick and The Lady Gabriella Windsor (Prince and Princess Michael of Kent's son and daughter)
* Mr and Mrs James Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's and Sir Angus Ogilvy's son and daughter-in-law, Julia) and their children (Master Alexander and Miss
* Mrs Marina Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra and Sir Angus Ogilvy's daughter) and her children by her former husband Mr Paul Mowatt (Master Christian and Miss Zenouska Mowatt)
The following persons are descendants (or widows) of the younger children of Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, and King George V:
* The Earl of Harewood (grandson and first grandchild of George V through his daughter Mary, Princess Royal), his second wife, and his children, and grandchildren, as well as the children and grandchildren of his now deceased brother,
* The Duke of Fife (female-line great-grandson of Edward VII) and his children and grandchildren
* The Lady Saltoun (widow of
Alexander Ramsay of Mar, a female-line grandson of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the third son of Queen Victoria), and her children and grandchildren
* The Marquess of Milford Haven (grandson of
George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, and great-grandson of H.G.D.H. Princess Victoria, eldest daughter of H.R.H. The Princess Alice The Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, 2nd daughter of H.M. Queen Victoria, and his family
* The Countess Mountbatten of Burma (elder daughter of
Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, youngest son of H.G.D.H. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine, and her family
The Earl of Harewood is a female-line first cousin of the Queen. The Duke of Fife, the Marquess of Milford Haven, the Countess Mountbatten of Burma, and the Lady Saltoun, and their respective families, as well as Lord Harewood's descendants, are so distant from the reigning sovereign that they are relatives of, rather than members of, the Royal Family.
None of these persons receive any monies from the State or undertake official engagements on behalf of the Queen. However, the Queen does invite them to private family functions and to participate in official royal occasions, such as the
Trooping the Colour, the Golden Jubileecelebrations, and ceremonial or state funerals.
There are three living former spouses of members of the British Royal Family:
* Sarah, Duchess of York (the former wife of The Duke of York),
* Capt Mark Phillips (the first husband of The Princess Royal), and
* The Earl of Snowdon (the former husband of Princess Margaret).
Recently deceased members of the Royal Family include:
* HM Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (widow of King George VI and mother of The Queen)
* HRH The
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon(sister of The Queen)
Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester(widow of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and mother to the present Duke of Gloucester)
The Prince of Wales' first wife,
Diana, Princess of Wales, died in a car crash in 1997. They had divorced in 1996. She lost the HRH title but was allowed the style "Princess of Wales" and remained a member of the Royal Family to reflect the fact she was the mother of the second and third in line to the throne, Princes William and Henry ("Harry").
In the United Kingdom
=Public role and
Members of the Royal Family engage in hundreds of public engagements yearly, throughout the United Kingdom, as formally recorded in the
Court Circular, to honour, encourage and learn about the achievements or endeavors of individuals, institutions and enterprises in a variety of areas of life. As representatives of the Queen, they often also join the nation in commemorating historical events, holidays, celebratory and tragic occurrences, and may also sponsor or participate in numerous charitable, cultural and social activities. Their travels abroad on behalf of the UK (called State Visits when the sovereign officially meets with other heads of state) draw public attention to amicable relations within and between the Commonwealth and other nations, to British goods and trade, and to Britain as a historical, vacation, and tourist destination. Their presence, activities and traditional roles constitute the of a modern "royal court," and provide a distinctly British and historical to ceremonies (e.g. Trooping the Colour) and flavour to public events (e.g. Garden Parties, Ascot). Throughout their lives they draw enormous media coverage in the form of photographic, written and televised commentary on their activities, family relationships, rites of passage, personalities, attire, behaviour, and public roles.
In a lengthy [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/royals/interviews/hastings.html interview] conducted by PBS prior to the death of
Diana, Princess of Walesin August 1997, Max Hastings, editor of the " Daily Telegraph" between 1986 and 1995, discussed the impact of Andrew Morton's and Jonathan Dimbleby's biographies of, respectively, the Princess and Charles, Prince of Waleson subsequent news coverage of the Royal Family in the UK:
Monies to support the Queen in the exercise of her duties as head of state of the United Kingdom (the Head of State Expenditure) come from the
Civil List. This is a return of a small portion of the revenue from the Crown Lands that are surrendered by the monarch to parliament at the beginning of each reign; all Crown Land being administered by The Crown Estates, an institution that is answerable to parliament. In the 2003-04 fiscal year, the amount surrendered was £176.9 million, where the Head of State Expenditure was £36 million. The Head of State Expenditure does not include the cost of security.
Only the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh receive funding from the Civil List. The Duke receives £359,000 per year.
Only some members of the Royal Family carry out public duties; these individuals receive an annual payment known as a Parliamentary Annuity, the funds being supplied to cover office costs.
* The Duke of York: £249,000 per annum
* The Earl and Countess of Wessex: £141,000 per annum
* The Princess Royal: £228,000 per annum
* The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester: £175,000 per annum
* The Duke and Duchess of Kent: £236,000 per annum
* Princess Alexandra £225,000 per annum
These amounts are repaid by The Queen from her private funds.
Though always voluntarily subject to the Value Added Tax and other indirect taxes, the Queen agreed to pay taxes on income and capital gains from 1992, although the details of this arrangement are both voluntary and secret. At the same time it was announced that only the Queen and Prince Philip would receive
civil listpayments. Since 1993 the Queen's personal income has been taxed as any other Briton. The Queen's private estate (eg shareholdings, personal jewellery, Sandringham Houseand Balmoral Castle) will be subject to Inheritance Tax, however bequests from Sovereign to Sovereign are exempt. [ [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page4237.asp Royal website Fact Files] ]
Royal styles and titles
The style "His Majesty" or "Her Majesty" (HM) is enjoyed by a King, a Queen (regnant), a
Queen consort, and a former Queen consort (a Queen Dowageror a Queen Mother).
Use of the style "His Royal Highness" or "Her Royal Highness" (HRH) and the titular dignity of "Prince" or "Princess" are governed by Letters Patent issued by George V on 30 November 1917 and published in the "
London Gazette" on 11 December 1917. These Letters Patent state that henceforth only the children of the Sovereign, the children of the sons of the Sovereign, and the eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Waleswould "have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour." They further state, "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales) shall have the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes."
Under these conventions, The Queen's children and the children of The Prince of Wales, The Duke of York and The Earl of Wessex are titled Princes or Princesses and styled Royal Highness. However, upon Prince Edward's marriage in 1999, it was announced that his children would be styled as earl's children, but no Letters Patent were issued to deny them their princely status or HRH. The Duke of Gloucester, The Duke of Kent, Princess Alexandra, the Hon. Lady Ogilvy and
Prince Michael of Kentenjoy the titular dignity of Prince or Princess and the style Royal Highness as male-line grandchildren of George V. However, none of their children has a royal title. For example, the children of Prince Michael of Kent are known as Lord Frederick Windsor and Lady Gabriella Windsor, the courtesy titles as children of dukes. They are not entitled to any royal title. The children of The Princess Royal, Princess Alexandra and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, are not entitled to any royal title since princesses do not transmit their titles to their children. An exception to this rule was when George VI issued Letters Patent such that his heiress presumptive, Princess Elizabeth, could transmit her title to her children. Princess Margaret's son enjoys the courtesy title Viscount Linley as the son and heir of the Earl of Snowdon, while her daughter enjoys the courtesy title Lady. The children of the Princess Royal and Princess Alexandra have no titles, because Mark Phillipsand Sir Angus Ogilvy did not accept hereditary peerages upon marriage.
Women marrying sons and male-line grandsons of a Sovereign are normally styled Her Royal Highness followed by the feminised version of her husband's highest title. The wives of royal peers are known as "HRH The Duchess of ..." or " HRH The Countess of ..." Thus, the wives of the Duke of Kent, the Duke of Gloucester, and the Earl of Wessex are "HRH The Duchess of Kent," "HRH The Duchess of Gloucester," and "HRH The Countess of Wessex," respectively. Before her divorce,
Diana, Princess of Walesenjoyed the title and style of "HRH The Princess of Wales." However, when a woman marries a prince who does not hold a peerage, she is known as HRH Princess [Her husband's Christian name] , followed by whatever territorial or titular designation. For example, the former Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz enjoys the title and style of "HRH Princess Michael of Kent," and not "HRH Princess Marie-Christine of Kent." Similarly, the former Birgitte Eva van Deurs was titled "HRH Princess Richard of Gloucester" from her weddinguntil her husband succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974. The widows of princes remain HRH. However, under Queen Elizabeth II's 21 August 1996 Letters Patent, a divorced wife of a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland "shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness."
There has been one exception to the convention that wives of princes take their husband's rank. In Letters Patent dated 28 May 1937, King George VI specifically denied the style HRH to the wife of the Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII. Therefore, the former Wallis Warfield Simpson was known as "Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor," not "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Windsor."
It should also be noted due a reluctance by the public to universally support the second wife of The Prince of Wales, it has been announced by
Clarence Housethat should The Prince of Wales become King, that his wife HRH The Duchess of Cornwall will not be known as HM The Queen but will take the lesser title of HRH The Princess Consort. Out of respect for Diana, Princess of Wales, it was also announced that HRH The Duchess of Cornwall would not be known as HRH The Princess of Wales.
The daughters and male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign do not lose their royal titles upon marriage. Men who marry the daughters and the male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign, however, do not acquire their wives' royal rank and the style HRH. The only exception to this convention is
Prince Philip, who, as a then-future consort, was granted British titles in his own right (rather than in his wife's). Born a Prince of Greece and Denmark, it was only after his wartime service that he renounced the use of his title and became a naturalised British subject, as Lieutenant Philip MountbattenRN (although he was already a British citizen as a descendant of the Electress Sophia). The day before his marriage he was created Duke of Edinburghwith the style HRH by King George VI's Letters Patent of 19 November 1947. The Duke of Edinburgh was not created a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland until 22 February 1957. Since that date, his full title has been "HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh."
As grandchildren of the Sovereign through the female line, the children of the then Princess Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh would not have been entitled to use HRH or Prince or Princess of the United Kingdom until their mother became Queen, had those titles and styles not been granted in Letters Patent of 22 October 1948. They could neither be styled HRH Prince or Princess of Greece and Denmark through their father, as the Duke of Edinburgh had renounced these use of these royal titles and styles. Their highest styles would therefore have been "the Earl of Merioneth" and "Lady Anne Mountbatten".
Female consorts of the Sovereign have generally not been created peers or peeresses. A notable exception occurred in 1532, when Henry VIII created
Anne BoleynMarchioness of Pembroke before marrying her. Male consorts, however, have sometimes been granted dukedoms. The husband of Mary I was already King of Naples, and that of Mary II was jointly Sovereign in England, so neither of them received peerage dignities. Prince George of Denmark, the husband of Anne (later Queen Anne), was created Duke of Cumberland in 1683 . Victoria's husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was given the style Royal Highness before his marriage. In 1857, Queen Victoria granted him title of Prince Consort; however, Prince Albert was not made a British peer. Prince Philip, husband of the present Queen, was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style Royal Highness the day before his wedding (which occurred prior to her accession).
Generally, the sons of the Sovereign are awarded peerage dignities to mark either adulthood or marriage. Originally, younger sons of the Sovereign were not styled Princes (except the Prince of Wales); thus, in order to indicate their exalted rank, peerage dignities were conferred upon them. From the time of Edward III, nearly every son of a Sovereign surviving into adulthood became a Duke. Certain dukedoms were granted more often than others, including the Dukedoms of York, Albany and Clarence. Normally, a peerage once awarded to a member of the Royal Family is not thereafter granted to any person outside the Royal Family (though some exceptions do exist).
The Dukedom of York is generally created for the second son of the Sovereign. The first creation was in 1384; the dukedom merged in the Crown in 1483 . Every Duke thereafter has either died without heirs or succeeded to the Crown, and so has not been able to leave the Royal Family. The pattern of awarding the dukedom to the second-eldest son of the Sovereign was upset by George I, who gave the Dukedom of York and Albany to his younger brother. The Dukedom of York and Albany was next granted by George II to the second son of his son, who had predeceased him. York and Albany featured one last time as a dukedom in 1784, when George III granted it to his second son. Thereafter, the dukedom has always borne the designation "York", rather than "York and Albany". The current duke is The Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Dukedom of Albany served a function similar to the Dukedom of York in Scotland. The dukedom was created in 1398 for Robert Stewart, brother of King Robert III. It was at the time the only dukedom other than the Dukedom of Rothesay. It was created thrice more in Scotland: twice for the second son of a Sovereign, and once for a brother of a Sovereign. It was last created in 1881 for the fourth son of Victoria; the dukedom was then suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act after its holder fought on the side of
Germanyduring World War I.
There are several other dukedoms that have been used for members of the Royal Family. Clarence was first used as a dukedom in 1362, most of the time being granted to the third son of the Sovereign. Among the dukedoms granted to still younger sons of the Sovereign are Cambridge, Connaught, Cumberland, Edinburgh, Gloucester, Kent and Sussex — others in the Scottish peerage have included Ross and Kintyre. Some of those dukedoms were used for younger brothers, nephews and other kinsmen of Sovereigns. The dukedom of Windsor was also a Royal dukedom, being granted to Edward VIII after he abdicated so that he could marry against the tenets of the
Church of England.
Often, sons of the Sovereign were granted titles associated with England and Scotland, later with Ireland, and most recently with Wales. Thus, the Dukedom of Strathearn (named after a place in Scotland) has been held with the Dukedoms of Connaught (named after an Irish province), Kent and Cumberland (both named after English places). This pattern continues in the present Royal Family. The current Duke of York, for example, is also Earl of
Invernessand Baron Killyleagh; the subsidiary titles are associated with Scotland and Northern Ireland, respectively.
The convention of granting dukedoms to senior members of the Royal Family was broken most recently in 1999, when The Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex. The Earldom of Wessex had not been created earlier by an English or British Sovereign since 1066. It has been suggested that the Dukedom of Edinburgh will eventually be granted to the Earl of Wessex. The current dukedom will descend to Charles, Prince of Wales, however, and not to the Earl of Wessex. When The Prince of Wales becomes Sovereign, or if he is already Sovereign when the dukedom passes to him, the dukedom will merge in the Crown and then only become available for a regrant.
The highest peerage dignity belonging to a Prince may be used as a part of the title of that Prince's children. Thus, the sons of The Prince of Wales are
Prince William of Walesand Prince Harry of Wales; the daughters of the Duke of York are Princess Beatrice of Yorkand Princess Eugenie of York; the daughter of the Earl of Wessex is Princess Louise of Wessex. (In the last case, the Princess is normally referred to as "Lady Louise Windsor" at the wishes of her parents, but officially remains a Princess.)
Sovereigns, especially Charles II, have sometimes granted peerage dignities to illegitimate children. James Scott became Duke of Monmouth in 1663 . Many more creations, mostly earldoms, followed in the 1670s: Charles FitzCharles became Earl of Plymouth, Charles FitzRoy Duke of Southampton, Henry FitzRoy Earl of Euston, George FitzRoy Earl of Northumberland, Charles Beauclerk Earl of Burford and Charles Lennox Duke of Richmond and Lennox. Many of the earls who were sons of Charles later became Dukes. Of the current Dukes, four are male-line descendants of Charles in the illegitimate line: the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon, the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of St Albans.
In other Commonwealth realms
As the Royal Family is shared by other
Commonwealth realms, its members will often also conduct official and non-official duties outside the United Kingdom, on behalf of the relevant state.:"Further information: Royal Family's role in the realms"
* Canadian Royal Family
Other related articles
Commonwealth realm monarchies
List of monarchs in the British Isles
Lists of members of the British Royal Family through history
House of Windsor
British monarchs' family tree
Line of succession to the British Throne
List of godchildren of members of the British Royal Family
Genealogy of the British Royal Family
*"Burke’s Guide to the Royal Family". Burke’s Peerage, 1973.
*Cannon, John Ashton. "The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy". Oxford University Press, 1988.
*Churchill, Randolph S. "They Serve the Queen: A New and Authoritative Account of the Royal Household". (“Prepared for Coronation Year”) Hutchinson, 1953.
*Fraser, Antonia (ed). "The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England". Revised & updated edition. University of California Press, 1998.
*Hayden, Ilse. "Symbol and Privilege: The Ritual Context of British Royalty". University of Arizona Press, 1987.
*Longford, Elizabeth Harman (Countess of Longford). "The Royal House of Windsor". Revised edition. Crown, 1984.
*Weir, Alison. "Britain’s Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy". Pimlico/Random House, 2002.
*"Royal Family" (1969) is a celebrated and reverential
BBCdocumentary made by Richard Cawstonto accompany the investiture of the current Prince of Wales. The documentary is frequently held responsible for the greater press intrusion into the Royal Family's private life since its first broadcast.
* [http://www.royal.gov.uk/ Official website of the British monarchy]
* [http://www.tree.familyhistory.uk.com Royal Families of Europe Family Tree and Genealogy.]
* [http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/britfaq.html alt.talk.royalty FAQ: British Royal and Noble Families]
* [http://www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/windsor_5.htm The Family of Elizabeth I]
* [http://www.crownestate.co.uk/ The Crown Estates]
* http://www.queensimages.com -Original press photos of Queen Elizabeth and Princess Margaret
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.