- Native American tribes in Virginia
This page details the history and current status of Indian tribes in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
All of the Commonwealth of Virginia used to be Virginia Indian territory, an area estimated to have been occupied by indigenous peoples for more than 12,000 years. Their population has been estimated to have been about 50,000 at the time of European colonization. The various peoples belonged to three major language families: roughly, Algonquian on the coast, and Siouan and Iroquoian in the interior. About 30 Algonquian tribes were allied in the powerful Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom, estimated to include 15,000 people at the time of English colonization.
Today, enrolled tribal members of the eleven state-recognized tribes number more than 5,000. Collectively they own fewer than 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land. Only two of the tribes, the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, retain reservation lands assigned by treaties signed with the English colonists in the 17th century.
Federal legislation is being considered that would provide recognition to six of Virginia's non-reservation tribes. Hearings established that they would meet the federal criteria for continuity and retention of identity as tribes, but they have been disadvantaged by lacking reservations and by state governmental actions that altered records of Indian identification. Some records were destroyed during the American Civil War. More recently, in the early decades of the 20th century, state officials changed vital records of birth and marriage while implementing the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 and caused Indian individuals and families to lose documentation of their identities.
Documentation suggests that Spanish explorers entered what is now Virginia in two separate places, decades before the English founded Jamestown. They had charted the eastern Atlantic coastline north of Florida by 1525. In 1609, Ecija, seeking to deny the English claim, asserted that Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón's failed colony of San Miguel de Gualdape, which lasted only the three months of winter 1526-27, had been near Jamestown. Modern scholars place this first Spanish colony within the US in Georgia.
In 1542, Hernando De Soto first encountered the Chisca, who then lived in southwestern Virginia. In 1568 the conquistador Juan Pardo, from a base at Fort San Juan, built at the Mississippian culture center of Joara in present-day western North Carolina, sent a detachment under Herman Moyano that destroyed the Chisca village of Maniatique, at present-day Saltville.
Meanwhile, as early as 1559-60, the Spanish had explored Virginia, which they called Ajacàn, from the Chesapeake Bay, while seeking passage to the west. They captured a native, possibly from the Paspahegh or Kiskiack tribe, whom they named Don Luis after baptizing him. They took him to Spain, where he received a Jesuit education. About ten years later, Don Luis returned with missionaries to establish the short-lived Ajacàn Mission. It was attacked in 1571 and all the missionaries killed.
The English made a failed attempt to settle the Roanoke Colony in 1585-1587. Although the site is located in present-day North Carolina, the English then considered it part of the Virginia territory. They collected much ethnological information about the local Croatan tribe, as well as related coastal tribes extending as far north as the Chesapeake (see picture).
Little can be gleaned about native movements in Virginia before the European historical record opens. Even so, archaeological, linguistic and anthropological research has revealed several aspects of their worlds. In addition, contemporary historians have learned to use their oral traditions.
According to the colonial historian William Strachey, Chief Powhatan had slain the weroance at Kecoughtan in 1597, appointing his own young son Pochins as successor there. Powhatan resettled some of that tribe on the Piankatank River. (He annihilated the adult male inhabitants at Piankatank in Fall 1608.)
In 1670 the German explorer John Lederer recorded a Monacan legend. According to their oral tradition, the Monacan, a Siouan-speaking people, settled in Virginia some 400 years earlier by following "an oracle", after being driven by enemies from the northwest. They found the Algonquian-speaking "Tacci" (also known as Doeg) already living there. The Monacan told Lederer they had taught the Tacci to plant maize, but that before then, the Doeg had gathered their food by fishing and hunting.
Another Monacan tradition holds that, centuries prior to European contact, the Monacan and the Powhatan tribes had been contesting part of the mountains in the western areas of today's Virginia. The Powhatan had pursued a band of Monacan as far as the Natural Bridge, Virginia, where the Monacan ambushed the Powhatan on the narrow formation, routing them. The Natural Bridge became a sacred site to the Monacan known as the Bridge of Mahomny or Mohomny (Creator). The Powhatan withdrew their settlements to below the fall line of the Piedmont, far to the east.
Another tradition relates that the Doeg had once lived in the territory of modern King George County, VA. About 50 years before the English arrived at Jamestown (i.e. ca. 1557), they split into three sections, with one part moving to Caroline County, one part moving to Prince William, and a third part remaining in King George.
One expression of the different cultures of the three major language groups was how they constructed their houses, both in style and materials. The Monacan, who spoke Siouan, created dome-shaped structures covered with bark and reed mats.
The Powhatan tribes, who spoke Algonquian, lived in houses they called yihakans/yehakins and which the English described as "longhouses". They were made from bent saplings lashed together at the top to make a barrel shape. The saplings were covered with woven mats or bark. The 17th-century historian William Strachey thought since bark was harder to acquire, families of higher status must own bark-covered houses. In summer, when the heat and humidity increased, the people could roll up or remove the mat walls for better air circulation.
Inside a Powhatan house, bedsteads were built along both walls. They were made of posts put in the ground, about a foot high or more, with small cross-poles attached. The framework was about 4 feet (1.2 m) wide, which was covered with reeds. One or more mats was placed on top for bedding, with more mats or skins for blankets. A rolled mat served as a pillow. During the day, the bedding was rolled up and stored so the space could be used for other purposes.
In 1607, when the English made their first permanent settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, the area of the current state was occupied by numerous tribes of Algonquian, Siouan, and Iroquoian linguistic stock. Several of the Algonquian tribes were associated with the politically powerful Powhatan Confederacy (alternately Powhatan Chiefdom), whose homeland occupied much of the area east of the fall line. It spanned 100 by 100 miles (160 km), and covered most of the tidewater Virginia area and parts of the Eastern Shore, an area they called Tsenacommacah. Each of the more than 30 tribes of this Confederacy had its own name and chief (weroance or werowance, female weroansqua). All paid tribute to a paramount chief (mamanatowick) Powhatan, whose personal name was Wahunsenecawh. Succession in the tribe was matrilineal — passed through the mother's side.
Below the fall line, other related Algonquian groups who were not tributary to Powhatan included the Chickahominy and the Doeg in Northern Virginia. The Accawmacke (later Gingaskin) of the Eastern Shore, and the Patawomeck of Northern Virginia, were fringe members of the Confederacy. The Accawmacke, being isolated by water from Powhatan's domains, enjoyed some measure of semi-autonomy under their own paramount chief, Debedeavon aka "The Laughing King".
The Piedmont and area above the fall line were occupied by Siouan groups, such as the Monacan and Manahoac; Iroquoian peoples of the Cheroenhaka and Meherrin lived in what is now Southside Virginia. The region beyond the Blue Ridge (including West Virginia) was considered part of the sacred hunting grounds. Like much of the Ohio Valley, it had been depopulated by the Five Nations during the later Beaver Wars (1670–1700); its previous occupants are known from French Jesuit maps to have included the Siouan "Oniasont" (Nahyssan) and the Tutelo or "Totteroy," the former name of Big Sandy River — actually another name for the Yesan or Nahyssan. (Similarly, the Kentucky River in Kentucky was said to be anciently known as the Cuttawah, i.e., "Catawba" River, while the name still borne by the Kanawha River is held to indicate a former homeland of the Conoy aka Piscataway centuries earlier.)
When the English first established the Virginia Colony, the Powhatan tribes had a combined population of about 15,000. Relations between the two peoples were not always friendly. After Captain John Smith was captured in the winter of 1607 and met with Chief Powhatan, relations were fairly good. Powhatan sent food to the English, and was instrumental in helping the newcomers survive. By the time Smith left Virginia in the fall of 1609, due to a gunpowder accident, relations between the two peoples had begun to sour. Their competition for land and resources led to the First Anglo-Powhatan War.
In April 1613, Captain Samuel Argall learned that Powhatan's "favorite" daughter, Pocahontas was visiting the Patawomeck village. He kidnapped her to force Powhatan to return English prisoners and stolen weapons. Negotiations between the two peoples began. It was not until after Pocahontas converted to Christianity and married Englishman John Rolfe in 1614 that peace was reached between the two peoples. The peace continued until after Pocahontas died in England in 1617 and her father in 1618.
After Powhatan's death the chiefdom passed to his brother Opitchapan. His succession was brief and the chiefdom was then passed to Opechancanough. It was Opecancanough who, on March 22, 1622, planned a coordinated attack on the English settlements. He wanted to punish English encroachments on Indian lands and hoped to run them off. Out of a population of about 1,200, his warriors killed about 350-400 settlers during the attack, known as the Indian massacre of 1622. Jamestown was spared because Chanco, an Indian boy living with the English, warned the English about the impending attack. The English retaliated. Conflicts between the peoples continued for the next 10 years, until a tenuous peace was reached.
In 1644, Opechancanough planned a second attack to turn the English out. Their population had reached about 8,000. His warriors again killed about 350-400 settlers in the attack. It led to the Second Anglo-Powhatan War. In 1646, Opechancanough was captured by the English and a guard — against orders — shot him in the back and killed him. His death began the death of the Powhatan Confederacy. This was cemented in the signing of the first treaty between Opechancanough's successor, Necotowance, and the English in October 1646.
The 1646 treaty delineated a racial frontier between Indian and English settlements, with members of each group forbidden to cross to the other side except by special pass obtained at one of the newly-erected border forts. The extent of the Virginia Colony open to patent by English colonists was defined as: All the land between the Blackwater and York rivers, and up to the navigable point of each of the major rivers - which were connected by a straight line running directly from modern Franklin on the Blackwater, northwesterly to the Appomattoc village beside Fort Henry, and continuing in the same direction to the Monocan village above the falls of the James, where Fort Charles was built, then turning sharp right, to Fort Royal on the York (Pamunkey) river. Necotowance thus ceded the English vast tracts of still-uncolonized land, much of it between the James and Blackwater. Yearly tribute payment, made to the English, of fish and game was also set up by the treaty as well as reservation lands.
All Indians were at first required to display a badge made of striped cloth while in white territory, or they could be murdered on the spot. In 1662, this law was changed to require them to display a copper badge, or else be subject to arrest.
In 1677, following Bacon's Rebellion, the Treaty of Middle Plantation was signed, this time by even more of the Virginia tribes. The treaty reinforced the yearly tribute payments, and a 1680 annexe added the Siouan and Iroquioan tribes of Virginia to the roster of Tributary Indians. It also allowed for more reservation lands to be set up, and was an acknowledgement that the Virginia Indian leaders were subjects of the King of England.
Meanwhile, around the year 1670, Seneca warriors from New York conquered the territory of the Manahoac of Northern Piedmont, making the Virginia Colony de facto neighbours of the Iroquois Five Nations; although the Iroquois never settled this area, they did use it for hunting and marauding. The first treaties conducted at Albany between the two powers in 1674 and 1684 formally recognized the Iroquois claim to Virginia above the Fall Line, which they had conquered from the Siouans.
In 1693 the College of William and Mary officially opened its doors. One of the goals of the college was to educate Virginia Indian boys. Funding from a farm named "Brafferton," in England, were sent to the school in 1691 for this purpose. The funds paid for living expenses, classroom space, and a teacher's pay. Only those tribes who were still under treaty could attend, and at first none of these tribes would send their children. By 1711, Governor Spotswood offered to remit the tribes' yearly tribute payments if they would send their boys to the school. The idea worked and that year twenty boys were sent to the school. As the years passed the number of Brafferton students decreased. By late in the 18th century the Brafferton Fund was diverted elsewhere. The College was then closed to non-whites until 1964.
From among the early Crown Governors of Virginia, Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood had one of the most cohesive policies toward Native Americans during his term (1710–1722), and one that was relatively humane; he envisioned having Forts built along the frontier, which Tributary Nations would occupy, acting as buffers and go-betweens for trade with the tribes farther afield, while receiving Christian instruction and civilization. A government monopoly on the thriving trade with the whites would be held by the Virginia Indian Company. The first such project, Fort Christanna, was a success in that the Tutelo and Saponi tribes happily took up residence, however private traders, resentful of losing their lucrative share, lobbied for change, leading to its break-up and privatization by 1718.
Spotswood then turned to making peace with his Iroquois neighbours, brilliantly winning a concession from them of all the land they had conquered as far as the Blue Ridge and south of the Potomac. This clause was to be a bone of contention decades later, as it seemed to make the Blue Ridge the new demarcation between the Virginia Colony and Iroquois land, while in fact it technically stated that this mountain range was the border between the Iroquois and the Virginia Colony's Tributary Indians - meaning that in the white colonists' eyes, they could still cross them with impunity. This dispute. which first flared in 1736 as Europeans began to settle the Shenandoah Valley, came to a head in 1743 and was finally resolved the next year by the Treaty of Lancaster.
Even following this treaty, some dispute remained as to whether the Iroquois had ceded only the Shenandoah Valley, or all their claims south of the Ohio. Moreover, much of this land beyond the Alleghenies was also still disputed by the Shawnee and Cherokee nations. The Iroquois recognised the English right to settle south of the Ohio at Logstown in 1752. The Shawnee and Cherokee claims remained, however, and the Proclamation of 1763 confirmed all land beyond the Alleghenies as Indian Territory.
The Proclamation Line was considered adjusted in 1768 when the Iroquois Six Nations formally sold the British all their claim west of the Alleghenies, and south of the Ohio by the Treaty of Fort Stanwix. Nonetheless, this region (which included the modern states of Kentucky, and West Virginia, as well as southwestern Virginia) was then still populated by the other tribes, as well as Lenape, Mingoes and others, who were not party to the sale. The resulting conflict led to Dunmore's War (1774). By the Treaty of Camp Charlotte concluding this conflict, the Shawnee and Mingo relinquished their claim south of the Ohio, and the Cherokee sold Richard Henderson a portion of their land encompassing extreme southwest Virginia in 1775 as part of the Transylvania purchase. This sale was not recognized by the royal colonial government, nor by renegade Cherokee chief Dragging Canoe; however as one of the acts of the Revolution, settlers soon began pouring into Kentucky. In 1776, the Shawnee joined Dragging Canoe's faction in again declaring war on the "Long Knives" (Virginians); he was raiding Abingdon, Virginia on the Holston on July 22, 1776 (see Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794)).
Throughout the 18th century several tribes lost their reservation lands. Shortly after 1700 the Rappahannock tribe lost its reservation; the Chickahominy tribe lost theirs in 1718, and the Nansemond tribe sold theirs in 1792. After losing their reservations these tribes faded from public view. By the 1790s, most of the surviving Powhatan tribes had converted to Christianity, and spoke only English.
The 19th century saw pressure from whites who wanted to push the Virginia Indians off of the remaining reservations and end their status as tribes. By 1850, one of the reservations was sold to the whites and another reservation was officially divided by 1878, although many families held onto their lands into the 20th century. The only two tribes to resist the pressure and hold onto their reservations were the Pamunkey and Mattaponi tribes. These two tribes still maintain their reservations today.
After the Civil War, the reservation tribes began to reclaim their cultural identities and to improve their image in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The main message they wanted to get across was that Powhatan Indian descendants were still alive and well and proud of their heritage.
In the early 20th century, many Virginia Indians began to reorganize into official tribes. They were opposed by Walter Ashby Plecker, the head of the Bureau of Vital Statistics in Virginia (1912–1946). Plecker was a white supremacist and a follower of the eugenics movement. He wanted to keep the white "master race" "pure." He believed there were few "true" Virginia Indians left, since, according to his terms, Indians of mixed race could not qualify.
In 1924, Virginia passed the Racial Integrity Act, one of a series of laws passed by states to regulate racial relations. Among other provisions, it prohibited marriage between whites and non-whites, and recognized only the terms of "white" and "colored". Plecker was a strong proponent for the Act. He also wanted to ensure that blacks were not "passing" as Virginia Indians, in his terms. Plecker directed local offices to use only the designations of "white" or "colored" on birth certificates, death certificates, marriage certificates, voter registration forms, etc. He further directed them to evaluate some specific families, saying he believed they were black and trying to pass as Indian.
The 1924 law institutionalized the "one-drop rule", defining as black an individual with any black ancestry. This was a much more stringent definition than had prevailed legally during the 18th and 19th century. A person could then legally qualify as white who had up to one-quarter (equivalent to one grandparent) African or Indian ancestry. In addition, many court cases dealing with racial identity were decided on the basis of community acceptance, which usually followed how a person looked and acted. During Plecker's time, many Virginia Indians left the state to escape its segregationist strictures. Others tried to fade into the background until the storm passed. Plecker's "paper genocide" began to end after he retired in 1946.
The Racial Integrity Act was not repealed until 1967, after the ruling of the US Supreme Court case Loving v. Virginia, which stated anti-miscegenation laws were unconstitutional. In the ruling the court stated: "The freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race lies with the individual and cannot be infringed by the State." Virginia Indians could marry whoever they wanted. For some, it was more significant that they could have their birth certificates changed to note their Indian identity, but the government charged a fee. After 1997, when Delegate Harvey Morgan's bill HB2889 passed, any Virginia Indian who had been born in Virginia could have his or her records changed for free to reflect the identity of Virginia Indian.
Virginia Indians today
As of 2010, there are only eight tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia related to the Powhatan paramountcy. The state also recognizes the Monacan Nation, the Nottoway, and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway), never part of the paramountcy. Several other Virginia Indian and Powhatan-descended tribes still live in Virginia and other locations. Several located in Virginia that do not have state recognition are seeking it.
The population of Powhatan Indians today is estimated to be about 8,500-9,500, though only about 3,000-3,500 are tribal members; the Monacan Nation's tribal membership is about 2,000. Being a tribal member may demand commitment. Generally, members must pay dues, as well as attend tribal meetings (which are usually monthly in the "home" areas); serve as tribal officers when asked (unpaid); help to put on tribal events; belong to the tribal church if they are able; teach their children their people's history and learn traditional crafts; represent the tribe at the Virginia Council on Indians, the United Indians of Virginia, and/or at other tribes' powwows (unpaid); answer questions they may be asked; speak at engagements for civic or school groups; and live in a good way so as to best represent their tribe and Indian people in general.
Virginia Indians are proud of their heritage and history, and want to tell their side of the story. They are still here. In fact, two of the state-recognized tribes, the Pamunkey and the Mattaponi, maintain their reservations from the 17th century treaties. These two tribes continue to make their yearly tribute payment to the Virginia governor, as stipulated by the 1646 and 1677 treaties. Every year around Thanksgiving they hold a ceremony to pay the annual tribute of game, usually a deer, and pottery or a "peace pipe."
Today some Virginia Indians feel like they live in two worlds. During the week they work regular jobs with everyone else, and on weekends they are involved in working for and with their individual tribes. When they are doing tribal work, it could mean wearing regalia and attending pow wows, heritage festivals, or tribal homecomings. For such individuals, their lives are about the balance between the Indian world and the outside world.
Tribes recognized today
The following tribes have been recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia.
- Mattaponi Tribe 
- Upper Mattaponi Tribe 
- Pamunkey Tribe 
- Chickahominy Tribe 
- Eastern Chickahominy Tribe 
- Monacan Indian Nation 
- Nansemond Tribe 
- Rappahannock Tribe 
- Patawomeck Tribe 
- Nottoway Indian Tribe of Virginia, Inc. 
- Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe of Southampton County Virginia 
There have been various bills before Congress with the goal of acquiring federal recognition for six Virginia Tribes. Sponsors of such Federal recognition bills have been Senator George Allen, R-Va and Rep. Jim Moran, D-Va. These bills would grant federal recognition to the Chickahominy, Eastern Chickahominy, Upper Mattaponi, Rappahannock and Nansemond Tribes, and Monacan Indian Nation. These are six non-reservation tribes whose members have demonstrated continuity of community even during times of extreme pressure. Records were lost during the American Civil War, and, under the Racial Integrity Act, numerous individual birth and marriage records were changed, so that members lost historical documentation as to their continuing identity as Indians. Federal recognition of these tribes would compensate for some of the historic injustices and recognize their continuing identities as Virginia Indians and American citizens.
On May 8, 2007, the US House of Representatives passed a bill extending federal recognition to the six tribes mentioned above. It was not passed by the Senate. The bill died in the Senate.
On March 9, 2009 the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2009 was sent to the House Committee on Natural Resources. Hearings for the bill were heard before the committee on March 18, 2009 and on April 22, 2009 the committee referred the bill to the US House of Representatives. On June 3, 2009 the House approved the bill and the following day it was introduced in the Senate where it was read twice and referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs, which approved the bill on October 22. On December 23, 2009 the bill was placed on the Senate Legislative Calendar under general orders. This is the furthest the bill has gotten in the Congressional process. The bill currently has a hold on it placed for "jurisdictional concerns." Senator Tom Coburn (R-Ok.) believes requests for tribal recognition should be processed through the Bureau of Indian Affairs, a process the Virginia tribes cannot utilize because of Walter Plecker. The hold prevented the bill from reaching the Senate floor and it died with the end of the Congressional session.
The two reservation tribes, the Pamunkey and Mattaponi, are not part of the federal recognition bill. They are trying to get federal recognition through applying to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, under current regulations and administrative process.
On February 17, 2011 two bills that would grant 6 Virginia Indian tribes federal recognition were introduced in the 112th Congress, one in the Senate (S.379) and one in the House of Representatives (H.R.783). The Senate bill has been referred to the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. The House bill was referred to the House Committee on Natural Resources, who then referred it to the Subcommittee Indian and Alaska Native Affairs on February 25.
On July 28, 2011 the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs ordered the Senate version of the bill "to be reported without amendment favorably."
Unofficial and former tribes
- ^ a b Karenne Wood, ed., The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail, Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2007.
- ^ Virginia Tribes Virginia Council on Indians
- ^ a b c Kimberlain, Joanne. “We’re Still Here”, The Virginian-Pilot. June 7–9, 2009: Print
- ^ Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesvile: University of Virginia Press, 2005.
- ^ Lewis, Clifford M. and Albert J. Loomie. The Spanish Jesuit Mission in Virginia, 1570-1572, 1953.
- ^ Rountree, Pocahontas's People, p. 11, 27, 284, citing Smith 1608 and Strachey 1612.
- ^ T.E. Campbell, 1954, Colonial Caroline, p. 4.
- ^ "Monacan Nation History" Monacan Nation
- ^ a b Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, 1989
- ^ a b c d e Egloff, Keith and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville: The University Press of Virginia, 1992.
- ^ a b c Rountree, Helen C. and E. Randolph Turner III. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans and Their Predecessors. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
- ^ Charles Hanna, The Wilderness Trail pp. 117-19.
- ^ Gleach, Frederic W. Powhatan’s World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
- ^ a b Cotton, Lee. "Powhatan Indian Lifeways" Colonial National Historical Park-Historic Jamestowne.
- ^ a b c d Waugaman, Sandra F. and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D. We're Still Here: Contemporary Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories. Richmond: Palari Publishing, 2006 (revised edition).
- ^ Cherokee Land Cessions
- ^ Helen Rountree, 1990, Pocahontas's People, p. 175 ff.
- ^ a b c Fiske, Warren. “The Black-and-White World of Walter Ashby Plecker”, The Virginian-Pilot, 18 Aug 2004
- ^ “U.S. Supreme Court Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. (1967).” FindLaw.” 1994-99. Accessed 3 February 2000.
- ^ VCI - Virginia Tribes
- ^ Patawomeck Indians of Virginia, Patawomeck Indians of Virginia
- ^ HJ 150 Patawomeck Indian Tribe; General Assembly to extend state recognition & representation on VCI.
- ^ SJ 12 Nottoway Indian Tribe; extending state recognition thereto and grants representation on VCI.
- ^ SJ 127 Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe; extending state recognition thereto, representation on VCI.
- ^ Moran Hails Senate Leadership in VA Indian Struggle
- ^ "H.R. 1385: Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2009", Govtrack.us.
- ^ "S. 1178: Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2009", Govtrack.us.
- ^ http://www.abpnews.com/content/view/5456/53/
- ^ http://articles.dailypress.com/2011-02-18/news/dp-nws-indian-federal-recognition-20110218_1_eastern-chickahominy-monacan-and-nansemond-tribes-virginia-tribes
- ^ http://184.108.40.206/News/2011/000560.asp
- ^ http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d112:SN00379:@@@X
- ^ http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d112:HR00783:@@@X
- ^ http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d112:SN00379:@@@X
- Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans and Their Predecessors by Helen C. Rountree and E. Randolph Turner III.
- First People: The Early Indians of Virginia by Keith Egloff and Deborah Woodward.
- Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians Through Four Centuries by Helen C. Rountree.
- Powhatan Foreign Relations: 1500-1722 edited by Helen C. Rountree.
- Powhtan Indian Lifeways: Their Traditional Culture by Helen C. Rountree.
- Nature and History in the Potomac Country: From Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Jefferson by James D. Rice.
- Powhtan's World and Colonial Virginia: A Conflict of Cultures by Frederic W. Gleach.
- Settling with the Indians: The Meeting of the English and the Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640 by Karen Ordahl Kupperman.
- The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail edited by Karenne Wood.
- We're Still Here: Contemporary Virginia Indians Tell Their Stories by Sandra F. Waugaman and Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D.
- The Black and White World of Walter Ashby Plecker by Warren Fiske. The Virginian Pilot. online: http://www.manataka.org/page1275.html
- Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America by Dr. Daniel K. Richter.
- We're Still Here by Joanne Kimberlain. The Virginian Pilot. online http://hamptonroads.com/2009/06/special-report-virginias-indians-threepart-series
- Virginia Council on Indians: http://indians.vipnet.org/
- Virginia Indian Tribal Alliance for Life: http://www.vitalva.org/
- Virginia Pow-Wow Schedule - http://virginiapowwow.com/
- Brigid Schulte, "With Trip to England, Va. Tribes Seek a Place in U.S. History", Washington Post, 13 Jul 2006
- Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2007
- Brigid Schulte, "As Year's End Nears, Disappointment: Va. Tribes Had Hoped Jamestown Events Would Help Them Gain Sovereign Indian Nation Status", Washington Post, 25 Nov 2007
- Native American tribes in Virginia
- Native American history
- Pre-state history of Virginia
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