- Samuel Argall
A sea captain, in 1609, Argall was the first to determine a shorter northern route from England across the
Atlantic Oceanto the Virginia Colonybased at Jamestown, and made numerous voyages to the New World. As a sea warrior, he is best-known for actions against the Powhatan Confederacy, successfully kidnapping the Chief's daughter, Pocahontas, and in actions against the French efforts at colonization in New Englandand North Africa.
Knighted by King James I, Argall was less successful in his term as Deputy Governor of Virginia, where he was considered autocratic and unpopular. Like many mariners before and later, he was unsuccessful in his mission of locating a
Northwest Passageto India. The Northwest Passage was eventually found by Roald Amundsen around 1904.
Samuel Argall was the son of
Richard Argall, a military man of East Suttonand his wife Mary, daughter of Sir Reginald Scott of Scott’s Hall (both in the English county of Kent).
horter route to Virginia
In 1609, Argall, an English ship captain employed by the
Virginia Company of London, was the first to develop a shorter, more northerly route for sailing from England across the Atlantic Oceanto the Virginia Colonyand its primary port and seat of government at Jamestown. Rather than following the normal practice of going south to the tropics and west with the trade winds, Captain Argall sailed west from the Azores Islandsto Bermudaand then almost due west to the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. His voyage took only nine weeks and six days including two weeks becalmed. This new route enabled the English to avoid enemy Spanish ships and to save on provisions.
Upon his arrival at Jamestown, Captain Argall found the colonist in dire straits. He resupplied the colonists with all the food he could spare, and returned to England at the end of the summer. The help came to the colony at one of the most critical moments in its history, as it began the Starving Time, during which less than 20% survived. However, without the provisions Argall had left, the colony may have been totally wiped out.
Under Lord Delaware
He arriving back at the Colony in the summer of 1610, when Royal Governor
Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warrstarted a period of aggressive and hostile action of the English against the Native Americans in Virginia. Lord Delaware, as West later became known, became so ill that in the spring of 1611 he sailed home to England, and Sir Thomas Daletook his place as Deputy Governor in charge of the Virginia Colony. When he returned to England, Lord Delaware wrote a book, "The Relation of the Right Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, of the Colonie, Planted in Virginia", and remained nominally the Royal Governor until his death in 1618.
Serving under Dale, in March 1613, Captain Argall, who was looking for food for the settlement, sailed up the
Potomac River. There, he traded with the Patawomecks, a Native American tribe. They lived at the village of Passapatanzy in present-day Stafford County on the Potomac Rivernear Fredericksburg.
When two English colonists began trading with the Patawomecks, they discovered the presence of
Pocahontas, the daughter of Wahunsunacock, Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy. According to a book by Captain John Smith, she had been living there for several years. As soon as he heard this, Argall resolved to get kidnap Pocahontas. Sending for the local chief, Japazaws, Argall told him he must bring her on board his ship.
With the help of Japazaws, they tricked Pocahontas into captivity. Their purpose, as they explained in a letter, was to ransom her for some English prisoners held by Chief Powhatan, along with various weapons and tools that the Powhatans had stolen. [Argall, Letter to Nicholas Hawes. p. 754.] Powhatan returned the prisoners, but failed to satisfy the colonists with the amount of weapons and tools he returned, and a long standoff ensued. During the year-long wait, Pocahontas was kept at
Henricus, in modern-day Chesterfield County. While in captivity, the young Indian princess converted to Christianity, eventually marrying John Rolfein 1614. While holding Pocahontas as a hostage had not worked to bring peace with the Powhatans, her marriage did, and era of peace lasted about 3 years.
After the capture of Pocahontas, later in 1613, under orders from London, Argall eradicated a French
Jesuitcolony on Mount Desert Islandin Maine. After the first of two trips to accomplish this, he carried 14 prisoners back to Jamestown.
In the Virginia Colony, as one of the leaders, Argall was viewed as an autocrat who was especially insensitive to the poorer of the colonists. After he served what was considered an unsatisfactory term as deputy governor of Virginia beginning in 1617, Lord Delaware was en route from England to investigate complaints about Argall when he died at sea in 1618. Argall was replaced as Deputy Governor by Sir
George Yeardleyin 1619.
Fighting the French, New England, Knighthood
In 1620 he was captain of a merchant vessel which took part in an expedition against
Algiers, which at the time was a French Colony in North Africa. On his return, he was made a member of the Council of New England. Later he was named admiral for New England.
On 26 June 1622, he was knighted by King James I. In 1625, he was the admiral of a fleet of 28 vessels which took many prizes off the coast of
Franceand in October commanded the flagshipin an unsuccessful attack on Cadiz.
Argall was never married. He died at sea on or about 24 January 1626. He left a will dated 23 May 1625, which was proved 21 Mar 1626. In it he mentions the following relations: sister Filmer, niece Sarah Filmer, nephew Samuel Filmer; sister Bathurst, nephew Samuel Bathurst; sister Fleetwood; brother John Argall esq and John's son Samuel Argall ["Genealogical Gleanings in England, Vol II"]
* [http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=27 Dictionary of Canadian Biography]
*"The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants", Gary Boyd Roberts, 2004, Genealogical Publishing Company
* [http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=27 Biography at the "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online"]
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