Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Lucknow
other_name = लखनऊ
type = capital
locator_position = left
latd = 26.860556
longd = 80.915833
state_name = Uttar Pradesh
district = Lucknow
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Dinesh Sharma
altitude = 123
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 2800000
population_density = 331
official_languages = English,
area_magnitude = 9
area_total = 2345
area_telephone = 91-522
postal_code = 226 xxx
unlocode = INLKO
vehicle_code_range = UP-32
website = lucknow.nic.in
footnotes =:"Lucknow is also a mansion in New Hampshire."Lucknow (Audio|hi-Lucknow.ogg|pronunciation, _hi. लखनऊ, _ur. لکھنؤ, "IAST|Lakhnaū") is the capital city of
Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. It had a population of 2,541,101 in 2006. [cite web
accessdate=2006-09-29] Lucknow is also the administrative headquarters of
Lucknow Districtand Lucknow Division. According to Government of India, the district Lucknow is one of the Minority Concentrated District in Indiaon the basis of the 2001 census data on population, socio-economic indicators and basic amenities indicators [http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=28770] .
Located in what was historically known as the
Awadhregion, Lucknow has always been a multicultural city. Courtly manners, beautiful gardens, poetry, music, and fine cuisine patronized by the Persian-loving Shia Nawabsof the city are well known amongst Indians and students of South Asian culture and history. Lucknow is popularly known as the "The City of Nawabs". It is also known as the "Golden City of the East", " Shiraz-i-Hind" and "The Constantinopleof India".
Today, Lucknow is a vibrant city that is witnessing an economic boom and is among the top ten fastest growing non-major-metropolitan cities of India. [http://www.lucknowcity.com/] It is a centre of
Hindiand Urduliterature and is the second largest city in Uttar Pradeshstate.Fact|date=August 2008
The ancient history of Lucknow is believed to begin after the Suryawanshi king Lord Rama ordered his younger brother
Lakshmanato establish a town at the present site of Lakshman Tila. Lucknow was named Lakshmanpuri or Lakhanpuri or Laknamau after him. Slowly the name Lakhanpuri became 'Lakhnau' and then named 'Lucknow' by the British. [http://niazi.com/Neurons/lucknow.htm] [http://www.lucknow.nic.in/history.htm]
After 1350 AD the Lucknow and parts of
Awadhregion have been under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Nawabs of Awadh, the East India Company and the British Raj. Lucknow has been one of the major centers of First War of Independence, participated actively in India's Independence movement, and after Independence has emerged as an important city of North India.
subahof Awadh was a province of the Mughal Empireadministered by a Governor appointed by the Emperor. Saadat Khanalso called Burhan-ul-Mulk a Persian adventurer was appointed the Nazim of Awadhin 1722 and he established his court in Faizabad [ [http://www.bartleby.com/65/fa/FaizabdInd.html Faizabad, town, India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 ] ] near Lucknow.
Awadh was known as the granary of India and was important strategically for the control of the "Doab", the fertile plain between the Ganga and the
Yamunarivers. It was a wealthy kingdom, able to maintain its independence against threats from the Marathas, the British and the Afghans. The third Nawab, Shuja-ud-Daulafell out with the British after aiding Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal. He was comprehensively defeated in the Battle of Buxarby the East India Company, after which he was forced to pay heavy penalties and cede parts of his territory. The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.
Lucknow's rise to growth and fame begins with its elevation as capital of Awadh by Nawab
Asaf-Ud-Dowlah. He was a great philanthropist and gave Lucknow a unique and enduring legacy. The architectural contributions of these Awadh rulers include several imposing monuments. Of the monuments standing today, the Bara Imambara, the Chhota Imambara, and the Roomi Darwazaare notable examples. One of the more lasting contributions by the "Nawabs" is the syncreticcomposite culture that has come to be known as the "Ganga-Jamuni tehzeeb"..
In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped
Saadat Ali Khanto the throne. Saadat Ali Khan was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favor of a hugely expensive, British-run army. This treaty effectively made the state of Awadh a vassal to the British East India Company, though it notionally continued to be part of the Mughal Empire in name until 1819.
The treaty of 1801 formed an arrangement that was very beneficial to the Company. They were able to use Awadh's vast treasuries, repeatedly digging into them for loans at reduced rates. In addition, the revenues from running Awadh's armed forces brought them useful revenues while it acted as a buffer state. The Nawabs were ceremonial kings, busy with pomp and show but with little influence over matters of state. By the mid-nineteenth century, however, the British had grown impatient with the arrangement and wanted direct control of Awadh.
In 1856 the East India Company first moved its troops to the border, then annexed the state, which was placed under a chief commissioner - Sir Henry Lawrence.
Wajid Ali Shah, the then Nawab, was imprisoned, and then exiled by the Company to Calcutta. In the subsequent Revolt of 1857his 14-year old son Birjis Qadr son of Begum Hazrat Mahalwas crowned ruler, and Sir Henry Lawrence killed in the hostilities. Following the rebellion's defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal and other rebel leaders obtained asylum in Nepal.
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh] Those company troops who were recruited from the state, along with some of the nobility of the state, were major players in the events of 1857. The rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, months which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. In 1877 the offices of lieutenant-governor of the North-Western Provinces and chief commissioner of Oudh were combined in the same person; and in 1902, when the new name of United Provinces of Agra and Oudhwas introduced, the title of chief commissioner was dropped, though Oudh still retained some marks of its former independence.
The province of Awadh (anglicized to "Oudh") was annexed by the East India Company in 1856 and placed under the control of a chief commissioner. In the
Indian Rebellion of 1857(also known as the First War of Indian Independenceand the Indian Mutiny), the garrisonbased at the Residency in Lucknow was besieged by rebel forces. The famous Siege of Lucknow was relieved first by forces under the command of Sir Henry Havelockand Sir James Outram, followed by a stronger force under Sir Colin Campbell. Today, the ruins of the Residency, and the picturesque "Shaheed Smarak" offer reminiscences of Lucknow's role in the stirring events of 1857.
The city played an important role in both the First War of Independence and the modern Indian freedom struggle. Whether it was the
Lucknow Pactof 1916 or the Khilafat Movementit brought the citizens on a united platform against the British rule. In the Khilafat Movement Maulana Abdul Bariof Firangi Mahal, Lucknow actively participated and cooperated with Mahatama Gandhiand Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, Freedom fighter and one of the most great parliamentarians, Firoj Gandhi was also releted to the city.
In 1901, after staying the capital of
Oudh, since 1775, Lucknow, with a population of 264,049, was merged in the newly formed United Provinces of Agra and Oudh[ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Lucknow Lucknow, 1911] 1911] . However, it became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad. Upon Indian independencein 1947, Lucknow became the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the erstwhile United Provinces.
source= [http://www.wunderground.com/NORMS/DisplayIntlNORMS.asp?CityCode=42369&Units=both Weather Underground]
clear=noneSituated in the heart of the great
Gangetic plain, Lucknow city is surrounded by its rural towns and villages like the orchard town of Malihabad, historic Kakori, Mohanlal ganj, Gosainganj, Chinhat, Itaunja. On its eastern side lies Barabanki District, on the western side is Unnao District, on the southern side Raebareli District, and on the northern side the Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti River, the chief geographical feature, meanders through the city, dividing it into the Trans-Gomti and Cis-Gomti regions. Lucknow city is located in the seismiczone III . [cite web
Lucknow has a warm subtropical climate with cool, dry winters from December to February and dry, hot summers from April to June. The rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September, when Lucknow gets an average rainfall of 1010 mm mostly from the south-west
monsoonwinds. In winter the maximum temperature is around 21 degrees Celsius and the minimum is in the 3 to 4 degrees Celsius range. Fog is quite common from late December to late January. Summers can be quite hot with temperatures rising to the 40 to 45 degree Celsius range, the average highs being in the high 30's.
title= Lucknow Population
Census of Indiacite web|url=http://localbodies.up.nic.in/luck/chap2.pdf|title=Decadal Growth of Urban Agglomeration|publisher=www.nic.in|accessdate=2008-06-23|format=PDF] The majority of Lucknow's population includes people from Eastern Uttar Pradesh. However, Bengalis, South Indiansand Anglo-Indianshave also settled in Lucknow. Hindus comprise about 77% and Muslims about 20%. There are also small groups of Sikhs, Jains, Christiansand Buddhists. Lucknow is one of the most educated cities in India with a literacy rate of 83.5% (78% for females and 89% for males).
Lucknow is the political and administrative capital of
Uttar Pradesh. The city elects members to the "Lok Sabha" as well as the Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha(State Assembly).
The city is under the jurisdiction of a
District Collector, who is an IAS officer. The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government, and oversee the national elections held in the city. The Collector is also responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.
The city is administered by the Lucknow Municipal Corporation with executive power vested in the Municipal Commissioner of Lucknow also called the City Mayor. An Assistant Municipal Commissioner oversees each ward for administrative purposes.
The Lucknow Police is headed by a Inspector General, who is an IPS officer. The Lucknow Police comes under the state Home Ministry. The city is divided into several police zones and traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Inspector General of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Lucknow Police. The Lucknow Fire Brigade department is headed by the Chief Fire Officer, who is assisted by Deputy Chief Fire Officers and Divisional Officers.
Former Prime Minister
Atal Bihari Vajpayeeis the sitting MP for the Lucknow Parliamentary constituency.
Lucknow is not only a major market & trading city in Northern India, but is also an emerging hub for producers of goods and services. Being the capital of
Uttar Pradeshstate, the Government departments and the public sector undertakings are the principal employers of the salaried middle class. Liberalization has created many more opportunities in the business and service sector and self-employed professionals are burgeoning in the city.
Lucknow also provides a good catchment area for the recruitment of quality personnel by
information technologycompanies for the BPO hubs of nearby Noidaand Gurgaonas well as for Bangaloreand Hyderabad.
The city is the headquarters of both the Small Industries Development Bank of India (
SIDBI) and the Pradeshiya Industrial and Investment Corporation of Uttar Pradesh (PICUP). The Regional office of the Uttar Pradesh State Industries Development Corporation (UPSIDC) is also located here.
The other business-promoting institutions that have a presence in Lucknow are the
Confederation of Indian Industry(CII) and Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India(EDII).
Manufacturing and Processing
Among the bigger manufacturing units, Lucknow has
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Tata Motors, Eveready Industriesand Scooters India Limited. Processing industries include milk production, steel-rolling units and LPG bottling.
The city's small-scale and medium-scale industrial units are located in the industrial enclaves of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amousi.
Real estate is one of the many booming sectors of the economy. There are several malls, residential complexes and business complexes throughout the city. Real estate giants like Parshvanath, DLF, Omaxe, Sahara,
Unitech, Ansal API are here.
Lucknow is one of the few Indian cities that follows vertical outgrowth plan like Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Gazhiabad. The city boasts handsome skylines in
Gomti Nagar, Hazrat Ganj and Kapoorthala. The highest under-construction building is Sahara Hospital which will have 35 floors followed by Metro City (30 floors), Parshvanath Planet (25 floors) and Omaxe Heights (23 floors). Presently the highest buildings are Shakti Bhawan (21 floors) and OCR (20 floors). The city boasts a high property expansion rate. It is expected that city will have a $2.5 billion organised real estate by 2010,hiegest in North India except NCR.
Traditionally, Lucknow has been a "mandi" town for mangoes, melons, and grains grown in the surrounding areas.
Sugarcane-growing plantations and sugar industries are also in close proximity. This attracted Mohan Meakins Brewery to set up a unit based on molassesin the city. Meakins was incorporated in 1855 and is Asia's first commercial brewery. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2007/mar/28/foodanddrink.travelnews]
Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and "Lakhnawi
Zardozi", both of which are significant foreign exchange earners. Chikan has caught the fancy of fashion designers in Bollywoodand abroad.
During the period of the Nawabs,
kite-making reached a high level of artistry, [cite web
accessdate=2006-10-23] and is still a small-scale industry. Lucknow has also been an industrial producer of tobacco products like 'Kivam', edible fragrances like 'attars' and
handicraftssuch as pottery, earthen toys, silver and gold foil work, and bone carvingproducts.
Lucknow, with its excellent educational, commercial, banking and legal infrastructure, is witnessing rapid growth in information technology, banking, retailing, construction and other service sectors. Private coaching institutions for preparing aspirants of competitive exams and services is another business that is flourishing in Lucknow.
Lucknow houses hundreds of established real estate brands and dozens of niche and specialised developers like High-end premium residential projects, Malls, IT parks, Commercial property,
SEZs, Plots, Business centres, Multiplexes, Clubs, Banks, Food courts, Entertainment centres and Finance institutions.
All the major public and private sector banks of India,
Reserve Bank of India(RBI) and foreign banks like Citibank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN-AMROand HSBChave their presence in the city. The big oil marketing companies like Indian Oil Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleumand Reliancehave their offices in Lucknow.
Leading IT companies like TCS and
IBMare also operating in Lucknow. The Regional Manager of Tata Consultancy Services is Jayant Krishna. The Ministry of Communications & Information Technology has set up Software Technology Parks of India[http://lucknow.stpi.in STPI] in 2001 which is playing an important role to promote IT/ITes Units in the region. Insurance companies, both public and private, as well as leading cellular phone companies are present in the city as well.
biotechnologyand information technology are the two focus areas to promote economic development in and around the city. The Ministry of Science and Technology is setting up a biotech park [cite web
title=Biotech city Lucknow
accessdate=2006-10-23] in the city. Lucknow is also one of the selected cities for the "Smart City" project of STPI, under which IT is being used to promote economic development.
Places to see
Asafi Imambara(popularly known as Bara Imambara), the Chhota Imambara, Residency, and Shah Najaf are monuments of architectural importance at Lucknow. The famous 'Bhul Bhulaiyan' (Labyrinth) is part of Asafi Imambara complex. Some other places of interest are the Picture Gallery, Chattar Manzil, State Museum / Lucknow Zoo, Shaheed Smarak, Dilkusha, Ambedkar Memorial, Planetarium, Baradari and Ram Krishna Math.
The British-built architectural sights in Lucknow include the "Vidhan Sabha" (State Legislative Assembly), the Clock Tower and the
Charbagh Railway Station, with its distinctive domes, arches and pillars.
St Joseph's Cathedral in Lucknow is the seat of the
Roman Catholic Diocese of Lucknow.
Some of the oldest schools in India are also situated in Lucknow:
La Martiniere Lucknow, Loreto Convent Lucknowand the Colvin Taluqdar's College.Amiruddaula islamia Inter collge is about 100 years old.
Lucknow has several well-kept parks that attract the citizenry in large numbers on evenings, holidays and weekends. The bigger parks are Ambedkar Memorial and Lohia park in
Gomti Nagar, Swarn Jayanti park and Aurobindo Park in Indiranagar, Dilkusha Park, Begum Hazrat MahalPark, Globe Park, Mukherjee Phuhaar, Haathi Park, Buddha park, and Neebu Park. The sprawling National Botanical Garden at Sikandarbagh on the banks of Gomtiriver is also worth visiting.
The city also has the Kukrail Reserve Forest(a picnic spot and
Gharialrehabilitation centre) [ [http://www.wii.gov.in/envis/crocodile/up.htm Conservation status of Gharial in UP ] ] . Moosa Bagh and Utretia are other popular picnic spots.
Natural attractions accessible from Lucknow are Katarnia Ghat,
Dudhwa National Park, Nawabganj Bird Sanctuaryand Samaspur Bird Sanctuary.
Aminabad, a quaint bazaar like
Delhi's Chandni Chowk, is situated in the heart of the city. It is a large shopping centre that caters to a wide variety of consumers.
Chowk and Nakhhas are markets in the old Lucknow area where you can get a feel of traditional Lucknow. Some other important shopping centres are
Alambagh, Kapoorthala, Indiranagar, Mahanagar and Nishatganj.
Hazratganjarea is an upscale shopping market with colonial- style buildings. Interestingly, a popular pastime among the locals is window-shopping in the Hazratganjmarket. It is popularly referred to in Hinglishas "Ganjing". The Janpath market, Rovers, Lovers Lane, Mayfair building, Kwality, and Universal book store are some popular landmarks of the area.
Lucknowites are also experiencing the new waves of
shopping malls and multiplex culture in India. The first shopping mall-cum-multiplex to open in Lucknow was the East End Mall in Gomti Nagar. Now Lucknow has many Mall-cum-multiplex like Saharaganj (PVR Cinemas), Fun Republic (Fun Cinemas) , Riverside Mall (Inox Theatre) and East End Mall (Wave Cinemas).
The urban area is spread equally on both sides of the
Gomti River. The commercial and residential areas on Cis-Gomtiside are Hazratganj, Alambagh, RDSO Colony, Charbagh, Aishbagh, Kaiserbagh, Aminabad, Husainganj, Model Houses, Lal Bagh, Golaganj, Wazirganj, Rajendra Nagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojini Nagar, Aishbagh, Rajajipuram, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Chowk and Saadatganj.
The residential settlements in the
Trans-Gomti areaare Nirala Nagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Mahanagar, Old and New Hyderabad, Nishatganj, Indira Nagar, Manas Enclave near kukrail picnic spot, Gomti Nagarand Gomti NagarExtn., Nilmatha cantt. Vikas Nagar and Janakipuram.
Aminabad is the heart of the city and the oldest traditional marketplace after Chowk. It is among the most crowded place of Lucknow.
Lucknow is bravely struggling to retain its old world charm while at the same time acquiring a modern lifestyle. Regarded as one of the finest cities of India, Lucknow represents a culture that combines emotional warmth, a high degree of sophistication, courtesy, and a love for gracious living. The "Pehle-Aap" (after you) culture, popularised as a tagline for the society of Lucknow, is waning. But a small part of Lucknow's society still possesses such
etiquette. This sublime cultural richness famous as "Lakhnawi tehzeeb" blends the cultures of two communities living side by side for centuries, sharing similar interests and speaking a common language.
Many of the cultural traits and customs peculiar to Lucknow have become living legends today. The credit for this goes to the secular and syncretic traditions of the
Nawabsof Awadh, who took a keen interest in every walk of life, and encouraged the traditions to attain a rare degree of sophistication.
Language and Poetry
Hindiand Urduare spoken in Lucknow, but Urdu has been the lingua francaof the city for centuries. Under the rule of Nawabs, Urdu flourished and turned into one of the most refined languages. Hinduand Muslimpoets like Brij Narayan Chakbast, Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, Amir Meenai, Mirza Hadi Ruswa, Nasikh, Daya Shankar Kaul Nasim, Musahafi, Insha, Safi Lakhnavi, and the great Meer Taqi Meertook Urdu poetryto dizzy heights and established the Lakhnavi form of the language. [ cite web
title=National Council of Promotion of Urdu Language
Lucknow is one of the world's great cities for
Shiiteculture. Two poets, Mir Anisand Mirza Dabeer, became legendary exponents of a unique genre of Shiaelegiacal poetry called " Marsia" centred on Imam Husain's supreme sacrifice in the Battle of Karbalawhich is commemorated during the annual observance of Muharram.
In recent years the use of
Urduhas reduced significantly. Day-to-day transactions in the city are typically performed in Hindi or English. Nevertheless, Lucknowites are still known for their polite and polished way of speaking which is noticed by visitors to this charming city. The revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil, who was hanged by the British at Kakorinear Lucknow, was largely influenced by poetry and wrote verses under the pen name of "Bismil". The surrounding towns like Kakori, Daryabad, Barabanki, Rudauliand Malihabadproduced many eminent poets and literateurs of Urdu like Mohsin Kakorvi, Majaz, Khumar Barabankviand Josh Malihabadi.
Recently in 2008 which is the 150th year of 'mutiny' of 1857 a novel has been released which uses 1857 as a backdrop. 'Recalcitrance' is the first English novel by a Lucknowite on the 'mutiny' of 1857.
When it comes to dining, Lucknow is a culinary delight as the Awadh region has its own distinct
Nawabi style cuisine, with various kinds of biryanis, kebabs and breads like 'sheermal' / 'roomali roti' all very popular delicacies.
Lucknow has also pioneered the slow-fire cooking called
Dum Pukht. The world-famous chef Imtiaz Qureishihails from Lucknow.
The city has a range of fine restaurants catering to all tastes and budgets.
From authentic restaurants like 'Oudhyana', 'Zaika', 'Royal Cafe', 'Falaknuma', 'Dastarkhwan', 'Daal Mein Kaala', 'Tundeys' and 'Rahims' in the Akbari Gate area and 'Naushi-Jaan' to fastfood joints like
Pizza Hutand McDonalds, the choice is wide."Makkhan Malai", 'Malai Ki Gilori' of Ram Asrey (an oldest shop of pure ghee sweets, established in 1805) Chowk , the famous "Tundey Kebabs", named after the one-armed chef Haji Murad Ali, [cite web | url=http://www.zeenews.com/articles.asp?aid=356097&sid=LIF&ssid=23 |title= Lucknow Kebabs continue to be gourmets' delight beyond time| accessdate=2007-04-21] and 'Kakori kebabs' are very popular with food lovers.
Chaat" in Lucknow is one of the best in the country. There are quite a few places serving outstanding "chaat", like "Shukla Chaat" and "Moti Mahal" in Hazratganj, "Radhey Lal" in Aliganj, "Chhappan Bhog" in Sadar and Neel Kanth in Gomti Nagar.
After a delicious dinner, one can have "
Paan" at any of the innumerable Paan vendors.
Dance and music
KathakClassical Dance] " Kathak", the classical Indian dance form took shape here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great patron and a passionate champion of "Kathak". Lachhu Maharajand Birju Maharajhave kept this tradition alive.
Lucknow is also the city of eminent
Ghazalsinger Begum Akhtar. She was a pioneer in Ghazal singing and took this aspect of music to amazing heights. "Ae Mohabbat Tere anjaam pe rona aaya" is one of her best musical renditions of all times.
The Bhatkande music university at Lucknow is named after the great musician
Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.
Lucknow has given music legends like
Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anup Jalotaand Baba Sehgalto the entertainment industry. It is also incidentally the birthplace of British pop legend Sir Cliff Richard.
Lucknow has traditionally been a sports-loving city. In the past
pehlwani, kabbadi, chess, kite flying, pigeon flying, and cock fightingwere popular pastimes. For decades Lucknow hosted the prestigious Sheesh Mahal Cricket Tournament. Today cricket, football, badminton, golfand hockeyare among the most popular sports in the city. Gulli Danda has become a benchmark for the youth to achieve.
The main sports hub is the
K. D. Singh Babu Stadiumwhich also has a world-class swimming and indoor games complex. The other stadiums are at Charbagh, Mahanagar, Chowk and Sports College.
The Lucknow Golf Club, on the sprawling greens of La Martinière College, is one of the most famous golf courses in India.
The city has a good record in modern sports and has produced several national and world-class sporting personalities. Lucknow sports hostel has produced national-level cricketers such as
Mohammed Kaif, Piyush Chawla, Suresh Rainaand R. P. Singh. Other famous sports personalities include hockey Olympians K. D. Singh, Mohammed Shahidand Ghaus Mohammad Khan, the tennis player who became the first Indian to reach the quarter finals at Wimbledon.
An inspiration for films
Lucknow has been a major influence on the Hindi film industry of India and it would be true to say that without the Lakhnavi touch,
Bollywoodwould not have been what it is today. Many script writers and lyricists hailing from Awadh like Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed AkhtarAli Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar Wajahat Mirza (writer of " Mother India" and " Ganga Jamuna"), Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jafriand K. P. Saxenahave enriched Indian Cinema.
Moreover, several famous movies have used Lucknow as their backdrop, such as
Shashi Kapoor's "Junoon", Muzaffar Ali's " Umrao Jaan" and " Gaman", Satyajit Ray's " Shatranj Ke Khiladi". Ismail Merchant's " Shakespeare Wallah" was also partly shot in Lucknow.
"Bahu Begum", "Mehboob ki Mehndi", "Mere Hazoor", "
Mere Mehboob", " Chaudhvin Ka Chand", " Pakeezah", "Main Meri Patni Aur Woh", "", " Saher", and many more films have either been shot in Lucknow or have Lakhnavi backdrops.
Education and Research
Lucknow is a hub of education and research with many premier institutions.
Schools and higher educational institutions in Lucknow are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the UP government, or private organizations.
Higher education institutions in the city include six universities—UPTU, LU, RMLNLU,
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity Universityand Integral University; medical institutes like Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences(SGPGIMS), Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University(CSMMU) and ERA's Lucknow Medical College; and management institutes like IIM Lucknow and Jaipuria Institute of Management.
Private schools in Lucknow—which employ either English or Hindi as the language of instruction—are affiliated to one of two administering bodies: the
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education(ICSE) or the Central Board for Secondary Education(CBSE). Public schools employ the UP Board of Education. Lucknow is home to prestigious schools such as La Martinière College, Loreto Convent, St. Francis, City Montessori School, Spring Dale Collegeand Jaipuria. After completing the ten-year secondary phase of their education under the 10+2+3 plan, students typically spend the next two years either in junior colleges or in schools with "senior secondary" facilities, during which their studies become more focused. They select a "stream" of study— liberal arts, commerce, science, or, less commonly, vocational. Upon completion, those who choose to continue, either study for a 3-year undergraduate degree at a college, or a professional degree in law, engineering, or medicine.
Notable higher education or research institutes in Lucknow include [http://www.cdriindia.org/home.asp Central Drug Research Institute] (CDRI), [http://www.nbri-lko.org/ National Botanical Research Institute] (NBRI), [http://www.iitrindia.org/ Indian Institute of Toxicology Research] (IITR) (Formerly : Industial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC)), [http://www.iisr.nic.in/ Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research] (IISR) and [http://www.bsip.res.in/home.htm Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany] .
The available multiple modes of public transport in the city are taxis, city buses,
cycle rickshaws, auto rickshaws and CNG Buses. CNG has been introduced recently as an auto fuel to keep the air pollutionin control. The city bus service is run by "Lucknow Mahanagar Parivahan Sewa" [ cite web. |url=http://www.upsrtc.com/citybus.htm
title=Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation
accessdate=2006-09-20] a division of Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (UPSRTC).
Lucknow has good road, rail and air links with the rest of the country.
Hazratganjintersection in Lucknow city, four Indian National Highways originate, viz, NH-24 to Delhi, NH-25 to Raksa, Jhansi(M.P. Border), NH-56 to Varanasi and NH-28 to Mokama (Bihar). The major bus terminus is Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar bus station at Alambagh. It has all modern facilities and is the main inter and intrastate terminal. Another important bus station is at Kaiserbagh. Earlier, another bus terminus operated at Charbagh, directly in front of the main railway station, but has now been reestablished as a city bus depot. The move was taken to remove congestion in front of the railway station.
The city is served by several Railway stations at different parts of the city. The main railway station is Lucknow Railway Station at Charbagh. It has an imposing structure built in 1923. The main terminal belongs to
Northern Railway(NR) (station code: LKO) division of Indian Railwaysand the second terminal is run by the North Eastern Railway (NER) (Station Code: LJN). Lucknow is a major junction with links to all major cities of the state and country. Lucknow has a further thirteen railway stations viz. Alamnagar, Malhaur, Utretia, Transport Nagar, Dilkhusha, Gomti Nagar, Badshahnagar, Manak Nagar, Amausi, Aishbagh junction, Lucknow City, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Now meter gauge services originate from Aishbagh and connect to Lucknow city, Daliganj and Mohibullapur. Except Mohibullapur all the stations are also connected to Broad gauge. All the stations are within city limits and are well connected with each other via road networks and public road transport. Other suburban stations include Bakshi Ka Talab and Kakori.
Amausi International Airportserves as the city's main airport and is located about 20 km from the city center. Lucknow is directly connected by air with New Delhi, Patna, Kolkata, Mumbaiand other major Indian cities. Oman Air and Cosmo Air are a few international airlines that are successfully operating direct international flights from Lucknow to international destinations & vice versa. International destinations include London, Dubai, Jeddah, Muscatand Sharjah. Flights to Bangkok Singaporeand Hong Kongmay also commence soon. During Hajspecial flights are also operated from Lucknow.
Lucknow has historically been a major center of journalism. The National Herald, the newspaper started by India's first prime minister
Jawaharlal Nehrubefore World War IIwas published from Lucknow and edited by the legendary Manikonda Chalapathi Rau.
The prominent English dailies of the city are
The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Pioneer and Indian Express. Several daily newspapers in Hindi, Urdu, and English are published in the city. Among the Hindi papers are Dainik Jagran, Amar Ujala, Dainik Hindustan, Rashtriya Sahara, Jansatta and I Next. The main Urdu papers are Rashtriya Sahara, Sahafat, Qaumi Khabrein and Aag.
Press Trust of Indiaand United News of Indiahave their offices in the city and all major newspapers of the country have their correspondents and stringers in Lucknow.
One of the earliest stations of
All India Radiohas been operational in Lucknow for quite some time.
FM radio transmission started in Lucknow in 2000, and the city today has following FM radio stations. [ cite web
title=FM Radio Stations
*91.1 MHz Radio City
*93.5 MHz S FM
*100.7 MHz AIR FM Rainbow,
*105.6 MHz Gyanvani-Educational
The city has broadband internet connectivity and video conferencing facilities. Major players like
BSNL, Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, Tata Communications& STPI, have a wide infrastructure to provide broadband Internet Bandwidth to home users, corporates etc.
Montreal, Canada(2000 [ [http://www.mastindia.com/montreal.html Little India Montreal ! ] ] )
*Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. "City of Illusion". Prestel Verlag, 2006, 295pp. ISBN-10: 3791331302. ISBN-13: 978-3791331300.
*Rosie Llewellyn-Jones. "Lucknow Then and Now. Marg Publications, India, 2003. ISBN-10: 8185026610. ISBN-13: 978-8185026619.
*Anurag Kumar. "Recalcitrance- a historical novel on events of Great Uprising of 1857 AIP Books, India, 2008.
Siege of Lucknow
Architecture of Lucknow
* [http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl2402/stories/20070209003713000.htm "Splendour and decline", Frontline, Volume 24 - Issue 02 :: Jan. 27-Feb. 09, 2007]
* [http://www.citypopulation.de/World.html The Principal Agglomerations of the World]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE5D71430F936A15751C0A966958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1 The India of the Nawabs, The New York Times, Published: February 25, 1990]
* [http://www.lucknowcity.com Lucknow's local search engine for complete information]
* [http://www.lucknowuniversity.org A Cyber Joint for Lucknow University Alumni]
* [http://www.elucknow.com Lucknow city portal]
* [http://www.uttarpradeshtoday.com For information on Uttar Pradesh and Lucknow]
* [http://allaboututtarpradesh.blogspot.com/ A blog on happenings in Lucknow]
* [http://www.tornosindia.com Lucknow city information website-private site hosted by a tour operator]
* [http://www.sahayogindia.org Sahayog] Non-profit organization based in Lucknow working towards gender equality, women’s health and human rights
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