Max Beerbohm

Max Beerbohm
Max Beerbohm

From The Critic 1901
Born August 24, 1872(1872-08-24)
London, England
Died May 20, 1956(1956-05-20) (aged 83)
Rapallo, Italy
Resting place St. Paul's Cathedral, London
Occupation essayist, parodist, caricaturist

Sir Henry Maximilian "Max" Beerbohm (August 24, 1872 – May 20, 1956) was an English essayist, parodist and caricaturist best known today for his 1911 novel Zuleika Dobson.


Early life

Max Beerbohm, self-caricature (1897)

Born in London, England at 57 Palace Gardens Terrace,[1] Henry Maximilian Beerbohm was the youngest of nine children of a Lithuanian-born grain merchant, Julius Ewald Edward Beerbohm (1811–1892). His mother was Eliza Draper Beerbohm (d. 1918), the sister of Julius's late first wife. It was a well-to-do London family, and Beerbohm grew up with the four sisters from his father's second marriage. One of these sisters was Agnes Mary Beerbohm (1865–1949), who became Mrs Ralph Neville in 1884; she was a friend of the artist Walter Sickert and modelled for him in his 1906 painting Fancy Dress.[2] He was also close to four half-siblings, one of whom, Herbert Beerbohm Tree, was already a renowned stage actor when Max Beerbohm was a child.[3] Other older half-siblings were the author and explorer Julius Beerbohm[4] and the author Constance Beerbohm. His nieces were Viola, Felicity and Iris Tree.

From 1881 to 1885 Max — he was always called simply 'Max' and it is thus that he signed his drawings — attended the day school of a Mr Wilkinson in Orme Square. Mr Wilkinson, Beerbohm later said, ‘gave me my love of Latin and thereby enabled me to write English’.[5] Mrs Wilkinson taught drawing to the students, the only lessons Beerbohm ever had in the subject.[4]

Max Beerbohm as depicted by Walter Sickert for Vanity Fair in 1897

Beerbohm was educated at Charterhouse School and Merton College, Oxford from 1890, where he was Secretary of the Myrmidon Club. It was at school that he began writing. While at Oxford Beerbohm became acquainted with Oscar Wilde and his circle through his brother, Herbert Beerbohm Tree. In 1893 he met William Rothenstein, who introduced him to Aubrey Beardsley and other members of the literary and artistic circle connected with The Bodley Head.[6] Though he was an unenthusiastic student academically, Beerbohm became a well-known figure in Oxford social circles. He also began submitting articles and caricatures to London publications, which were met enthusiastically. In March 1893 he submitted an article on Oscar Wilde to the Anglo-American Times under the pen name 'An American'. Later in 1893 his essay 'The Incomparable Beauty of Modern Dress' was published in the Oxford journal The Spirit Lamp by its editor, Lord Alfred Douglas.[7]

By 1894, having developed his personality as a dandy and humorist, and already a rising star in English letters, he left Oxford without a degree.[3] His A Defence of Cosmetics (The Pervasion of Rouge) appeared in the first edition of The Yellow Book in 1894, his friend Aubrey Beardsley being art editor at the time.

In 1895 Beerbohm went to America for several months as secretary to his brother Herbert Beerbohm Tree's theatrical company. He was fired when he spent far too many hours polishing the business correspondence. There he became engaged to Grace Conover, an American actress in the company, a relationship that lasted several years.

Beerbohm as Writer

On his return to England Beerbohm published his first book, The Works of Max Beerbohm (1896), a collection of his essays which had first appeared in The Yellow Book. His first piece of fiction, The Happy Hypocrite, was published in The Yellow Book in 1897. Having been interviewed by George Bernard Shaw himself, in 1898 he followed Shaw as drama critic for the Saturday Review,[8] on whose staff he remained until 1910. At that time the Saturday Review was undergoing renewed popularity under its new owner, the writer Frank Harris, who would later become a close friend of Beerbohm's. It was Shaw, in his final Saturday Review piece, who bestowed upon Beerbohm the lasting epithet, "the Incomparable Max"[3] when he wrote, "The younger generation is knocking at the door; and as I open it there steps spritely in the incomparable Max".[9]

In 1904 Beerbohm met the American actress Florence Kahn. In 1910 they married and moved to Rapallo in Italy, partly as an escape from the social demands and the expense of living in London. Here they remained for the rest of their lives except for the duration of World War I and World War II, when they returned to Britain, and occasional trips to England to take part in exhibitions of his drawings. In his years in Rapallo Beerbohm was visited by many of the eminent men and women of his day, including Ezra Pound, who lived nearby, Somerset Maugham, John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier and Truman Capote among others.[10] Beerbohm never learned to speak Italian in the five decades that he lived in Italy.[3]

From 1935 onwards, he was an occasional if popular radio broadcaster, talking on cars and carriages and music halls for the BBC. His radio talks were published in 1946 as Mainly on the Air. His wit is shown often enough in his caricatures but his letters contain a carefully blended humour—a gentle admonishing of the excesses of the day—whilst remaining firmly tongue in cheek. His lifelong friend Reginald Turner, who was also an aesthete and a somewhat witty companion, saved many of Beerbohm's letters.

Beerbohm's best known works include A Christmas Garland (1912), a parody of literary styles, Seven Men (1919), which includes "Enoch Soames", the tale of a poet who makes a deal with the Devil to find out how posterity will remember him, and Zuleika Dobson (1911), his only novel.


Club Types published in Strand Magazine Volume 4, 1892
Caricature of Oscar Wilde by Beerbohm (1916) from Rossetti and His Circle
'Dante Gabriel Rossetti in His Back-Garden' from The Poets' Corner (1904)

In the 1890s, while a student at Oxford University, Beerbohm showed great skill at observant figure sketching. His usual style of single-figure caricatures on formalized groupings, drawn in pen or pencil with delicately applied watercolour tinting, was established by 1896 and flourished until about 1930. In contrast to the heavier artistic style of the Punch tradition he showed a lightness of touch and simplicity of line. Beerbohm's career as a professional caricaturist began when he was twenty: in 1892 the Strand Magazine published thirty-six of his drawings of ‘Club Types’. Their publication dealt, Beerbohm said, ‘a great, an almost mortal blow to my modesty’.[11] The first public exhibition of his caricatures was as part of a group show at the Fine Art Society in 1896; his first one-man show at the Carfax Gallery in 1901.

He was influenced by French cartoonists such as 'Sem' (fr:Georges Goursat) and 'Caran d'Ache' (Emmanuel Poir).[12] Beerbohm was hailed by The Times in 1913 as "the greatest of English comic artists", by Bernard Berenson as "the English Goya", and by Edmund Wilson as "the greatest...portrayer of personalities - in the history of art".[13]

Usually inept with hands and feet, Beerbohm excelled in heads and with dandified male costume of a period whose elegance became a source of nostalgic inspiration. His collections of caricatures included Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen (1896), The Poets' Corner (1904), Fifty Caricatures (1913) and Rossetti and His Circle (1922). His caricatures were published widely in the fashionable magazines of the time, and his works were exhibited regularly in London at the Carfax Gallery (1901-8) and Leicester Galleries (1911–57). At his Rapallo home he drew and wrote infrequently and decorated books in his library. These were sold at auction by Sotheby's of London on 12 and 13 December 1960 following the death of his second wife and literary executor Elisabeth Jungmann.[12]

His Rapallo caricatures were mostly of late Victorian and Edwardian political, literary and theatrical personalities. The court of Edward VII had a special place as a subject for affectionate ridicule. Many of Beerbohm's later caricatures were of himself.[4]

Major collections of Beerbohm's caricatures are to be found in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; the Tate collection; the Victoria and Albert Museum; Charterhouse School; the Clark Library, University of California; and the Lilly Library, University of Indiana; depositories of both caricatures and archival material include Merton College Library, Oxford; the Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin; the Robert H. Taylor collection, Princeton University Library; the Houghton Library, Harvard University; and the privately owned Mark Samuels Lasner collection.[4]

Personal life

Beerbohm in his later years
Beerbohm's ashes are interred under the tile marked 'MB'

Beerbohm married the actress Florence Kahn in 1910. There has been speculation that he was a non-active homosexual (Malcolm Muggeridge, who much disliked him, imputed homosexuality to him), that his marriage was never consummated, that he was a 'natural celibate' or even just asexual.[14][15] David Cecil wrote that, "though he showed no moral disapproval of homosexuality, [Beerbohm] was not disposed to it himself; on the contrary he looked upon it as a great misfortune to be avoided if possible." Cecil quotes a letter from Beerbohm to Oscar Wilde's friend Robert Ross in which he asks Ross to keep Reggie Turner from the clutches of Lord Alfred Douglas, "I really think Reg is at a rather crucial point of his career - and should hate to see him fall an entire victim to the love that dare not tell its name."[16] The fact is that not much is known of Beerbohm's private life.

Evelyn Waugh also speculated that Beerbohm had made a mariage blanc with Florence Kahn, but added, 'Beerbohm remarked of Ruskin that it was surprising he should marry, without knowing he was impotent.' Waugh also observed, 'the question is of little importance in an artist of Beerbohm's quality.'[17]

There was also some speculation during his lifetime that Beerbohm was Jewish. Muggeridge assumed that Beerbohm's Jewishness was certain. Beerbohm responded to the allegation by saying that, disappointingly for him, he was not. However, both of his wives were German Jews. When asked by George Bernard Shaw if he had any Jewish ancestors, Beerbohm replied: "That my talent is rather like Jewish talent I admit readily... But, being in fact a Gentile, I am, in a small way, rather remarkable, and wish to remain so."[16] In his poem Hugh Selwyn Mauberley Ezra Pound, a neighbour in Rapallo, caricatured Beerbohm as 'Brennbaum', a Jewish artist.[18]

He was knighted by George VI in 1939; it was thought that this token of esteem had been delayed by his mockery in 1911 of the king's parents, about whom he had written a satiric verse. In 1942 the Maximilian Society was created in Beerbohm's honour, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. Formed by a London drama critic, it was made up of 70 distinguished members, and planned to add one more member on each of Beerbohm's successive birthdays. In their first meeting a banquet was held to pay homage to the great man, and he was presented with seventy bottles of wine.[3]

He died at the Villa Chiara, a private hospital in Rapallo, Italy aged 83, shortly after marrying his former secretary and companion, Elisabeth Jungmann.[19]

Beerbohm was cremated in Genoa and his ashes were interred in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral, London on 29 June 1956.

Media Portrayals

In the BBC 1982 Playhouse drama Aubrey, written by John Selwyn Gilbert, Beerbohm was portrayed by actor Alex Norton. The drama followed Aubrey Beardsley's life from the time of Oscar Wilde’s arrest in April 1895, which resulted in Beardsley losing his position at The Yellow Book, to his death from tuberculosis in 1898.[20]

Books of Max Beerbohm's works

Written works

Two of Beerbohm's self-portraits. "The Theft" depicts him stealing a book from the library in 1894. "The Restitution" shows him returning that book in 1920.
  • The Works of Max Beerbohm, with a Bibliography by John Lane (1896)
  • The Happy Hypocrite (1897)
  • More (1899)
  • Yet Again (1909)
  • Zuleika Dobson; or, An Oxford Love Story (1911)
  • A Christmas Garland, Woven by Max Beerbohm (1912)
  • Seven Men (1919; enlarged edition as Seven Men, and Two Others, 1950)
  • Herbert Beerbohm Tree: Some Memories of Him and of His Art (1920, ed. by Max Beerbohm)
  • And Even Now (1920)
  • A Peep into the Past (1923)
  • Around Theatres (1924)
  • A Variety of Things (1928)
  • The Dreadful Dragon of Hay Hill (1928)
  • Lytton Strachey (1943) Rede Lecture
  • Mainly on the Air (1946; enlarged edition 1957)
  • The Incomparable Max: A Collection of Writings of Sir Max Beerbohm" (1962)
  • Max in Verse: Rhymes and Parodies (1963, ed. by J. G. Riewald)
  • Letters to Reggie Turner (1964, ed. by Rupert Hart-Davis)
  • More Theatres, 1898–1903 (1969, ed. by Rupert Hart-Davis)
  • Selected Prose (1970, ed. by Lord David Cecil)
  • Max and Will: Max Beerbohm and William Rothenstein: Their Friendship and Letters (1975, ed. by Mary M. Lago and Karl Beckson)
  • Letters of Max Beerbohm: 1892–1956 (1988, ed. by Rupert Hart-Davis)
  • Last Theatres (1970, ed. by Rupert Hart-Davis)
  • A Peep into the Past and Other Prose Pieces (1972)
  • Max Beerbohm and "The Mirror of the Past" (1982, ed. Lawrence Danson)

Collections of caricatures

  • Caricatures of Twenty-five Gentlemen (1896)
  • The Poets' Corner (1904)
  • A Book of Caricatures (1907)
  • Cartoons: The Second Childhood of John Bull (1911)
  • Fifty Caricatures (1913)
  • A Survey (1921)
  • Rossetti and His Circle (1922)
  • Things New and Old (1923)
  • Observations (1925)
  • Heroes and Heroines of Bitter Sweet (1931) five drawings in a portfolio
  • Max's Nineties: Drawings 1892–1899 (1958, ed. Rupert Hart-Davies and Allan Wade)
  • Beerbohm's Literary Caricatures: From Homer to Huxley (1977, ed. J. G. Riewald)
  • Max Beerbohm Caricatures (1997, ed. N. John Hall)
  • Enoch Soames: A Critical Heritage (1997)

Further reading

  • Behrman, S. N., Portrait of Max. (1960)
  • Cecil, Lord David, Max: A Biography of Max Beerbohm. (1964, reprint 1985)
  • Danson, Lawrence. Max Beerbohm and the Act of Writing. (1989)
  • Felstiner, John. The Lies of Art: Max Beerbohm's Parody and Caricature. (1972)
  • Gallatin, A. H. Bibliography of the Works of Max Beerbohm. (1952)
  • Gallatin, A. H. Max Beerbohm: Bibliographical Notes. (1944)
  • Grushow, Ira. The Imaginary Reminiscences of Max Beerbohm. (1984)
  • Hall, N. John. Max Beerbohm: A Kind of a Life. (2002)
  • Hart-Davis, Rupert A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm. (1972)
  • Lago, Mary, and Karl Beckson, eds. Max and Will : Max Beerbohm and William Rothenstein, their friendship and letters, 1893-1945. (1975).
  • Lynch, Bohun. Max Beerbohm in Perspective. (1922)
  • McElderderry, Bruce J. Max Beerbohm. (1971)
  • Riewald, J. G. Sir Max Beerbohm, Man and Writer: A Critical Analysis with a Brief Life and Bibliography. (1953)
  • Riewald, J. G. The Surprise of Excellence: Modern Essays of Max Beerbohm. (1974)
  • Riewald, J. G. Remembering Max Beerbohm: Correspondence Conversations Criticisms. (1991)
  • Viscusi, Robert. Max Beerbohm, or the Dandy Dante: Rereading with Mirrors. (1986)
  • Waugh, Evelyn. "Max Beerbohm: A Lesson in Manners." (Atlantic, September 1956)

See also

Book collection.jpg Novels portal
  • Beerbohm family


  1. ^ "On the 24th instant, at 57 Palace Gardens Terrace, Kensington, the wife of J. E. Beerbohm, Esq., of a son." The Times August 26, 1872
  2. ^ Baron, Wendy 'Sickert: Paintings and Drawings' Published by Yale University Press (206) pg 315 ISBN 0-300-11129-0
  3. ^ a b c d e Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 34: British Novelists, 1890-1929: Traditionalists, edited by Thomas F. Staley, Gale Research (1984)
  4. ^ a b c d N. John Hall, ‘Beerbohm, Sir Henry Maximilian [Max] (1872–1956)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, January 2008
  5. ^ William Rothenstein, 'Men and Memories: recollections of William Rothenstein, 1900–1922' (1932) pgs 370–71
  6. ^ Max Beerbohm: An Inventory of His Art Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
  7. ^ Mix, Katherine Lyon 'Max and the Americans' The Stephen Greene Press, Vermont (1974) pg 3
  8. ^ Oscar Levant, The Unimportance of Being Oscar, Pocket Books 1969 (reprint of G.P. Putnam 1968), p. 49. ISBN 0-671-77104-3.
  9. ^, Beerbohm on Victorian Web
  10. ^, Max Beerbohm: Wit, Elegance and Caricature (2005)
  11. ^ Beerbohm, Max ‘When 9 was nineteen’, Strand Magazine, October 1946, pg 51
  12. ^ a b, Beerbohm on
  13. ^ Hall, N. John 'Max Beerbohm's Caricatures' Yale University Press (1997) ISBN 0-300-07217-1
  14. ^ Hall, pgs 120–21
  15. ^ Muggeridge, Malcolm. 'The legend of Max' in Tread Softly For You Tread on My Jokes. Fontana, 1966. Muggeridge does not speculate, he asserts, but without providing clear evidence. He also asserts Beerbohm's Jewish ancestry, again without supplying confirmation. The article describes Muggeridge's visit to Beerbohm in Rapallo late in Beerbohm's life.
  16. ^ a b 'The Beerbohm Cult' by Joseph Epstein in The Weekly Standard November 11, 2002
  17. ^ Waugh, Evelyn. 'The Max Behind the Mask.' in Gallagher, Donat (ed.) Evelyn Waugh: a little order. A selection from his journalism. Eyre Methuen, London, 1977, pp 114-117. ISBN 0-413-32700-0. Waugh does not give a source for this remark of Beerbohm's, though the two had met and corresponded occasionally.
  18. ^, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley on
  19. ^ Hall, pg 246
  20. ^, Aubrey by John Sewyn Gilbert

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