SV Dynamo

SV Dynamo
SV Dynamo
Founded March 27, 1953; 58 years ago (1953-03-27); dissolved: November 23, 1989; 21 years ago (1989-11-23)
League Olympics, World cup, European Championship Nat. League
Arena Palast der Republik, Dynamo-Sportforum, Altenberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track, Dynamo Sports Hotel
Stadium Dynamo Stadium (Dresden), Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark, Heinz Steyer Stadion and others
Based in East Berlin,  East Germany
Team colors

wine-red white/

wine-red silver
Owner Ministry of Interior of the GDR: Volkspolizei, Zollverwaltung, Ministry for State Security, Feuerwehr
President Erich Mielke
Championships 2.187 nat.; approx. 182 European cup medals approx. 324 World cup medals; approx. 215 Olympic medals[1]

The Sports Club Dynamo (German: Sportvereinigung Dynamo/ SV Dynamo, German pronunciation: [ˈspɔʁtˌfɛɐ̯ˈʔaɪ̯nɪɡʊŋ dyːnamoː]) was the sport organization of the security agencies (Volkspolizei, Zollverwaltung, Ministry for State Security and Feuerwehr) of former East Germany. The sports club was founded on 27 March 1953 and was headquartered in Hohenschönhausen in East Berlin. From the date of its inception until 23 November 1989 the president of SV Dynamo was Erich Mielke, who was also the Minister of State Security. Dynamo was created in accordance with the multi-sports club model developed in the Soviet Union and adopted throughout Eastern Europe. From the beginning it had an overtly political as well as sporting agenda and its many successes were always portrayed as a triumph of the GDR state. After the German reunification in 1990 the SV Dynamo was liquidated. At its height the association had a membership of over 280,000 active members.[2] Athletes of the association enjoyed considerable success both in national and international competitions, winning for example more than 200 olympic medals. After the German reunification the systematic doping of Dynamo athletes from 1971 until 1990 was revealed in German media reports. The systematic doping of athletes was done under the supervision of the Staatssicherheit and with full backing of the government.[3]



Acrobatics- show in 1982

The SV Dynamo was divided into fifteen regional units, corresponding to the fifteen districts of the German Democratic Republic. Within each regional unit individual sports clubs existed, with each sport club specializing in different disciplines. 290 sections were included SG Dynamo Dresden (football), SC Dynamo Hoppegarten (judo, shooting sports, parachuting), the SC Dynamo Klingenthal (Nordic skiing), SG Dynamo Luckenwalde (wrestling), SG Dynamo Potsdam (rowing and canoe sprint), SG Dynamo Weißwasser (ice hockey) and the SG Dynamo Zinnwald in Altenberg (biathlon, bobsleigh, luge, skeleton). The most famous sports club of the SV Dynamo was probably the SC Dynamo Berlin offering most Olympic disciplines. The sports system was not designed for transfers, but on schedule. The athletes had to be viewed in their own country.

Administrators and coaches from Dynamo Berlin were often sent to support their development. The district organizations always worn the initials SV Dynamo ... . The districts been the same districts of the state. As a sports brand only Adidas could be worn by the athletes, in international competitions or the home made brand Champion. If this were not respected, the athletes would have been blocked in intl. competitions for a time, then Dynamo had only hidden contracts with Adidas. Never was an athlete punished.[4] For small children, there was even a Dynamo-Kindergarten. Henceforth the larger children trained every day before and after classes. All children were happy with doing that. For the training, there exists a basic plan. If the children themselves are not good at school, they were being excluded from the training. The emphasis has been respected that the athletes had to pursued themselves the sporting ideology, because otherwise no success would have been guaranteed. The Dynamo athletes should always did stow in their offices sports equipment. This should be at least 10 minutes during working break. These included: dumbbells, expander, impander and poles for pull-ups. In each year, the best Dynamo-athlete were voted. Few could win 50,- M when they themselves were those who chose the sportswoman/ sportsman of the year.[5] Athletes may not overwhelmed, and to do this. Particularly, it should be respected so that there were more athletes than fans there. The officials had always successful attempts by the people to the stadiums to attract these onto the sports fields.[6] Dynamo employed a planning cycle that set out the club's objectives for the upcoming four year period. This sports club was anti-fascistic with the human goals against imperialism. The grounders of thus here were former prisoners in concentration camps and leaders in the battle against National socialists and Social Democrats at the Weimar Republic. The Dynamo-Youth commemorated about it at the Soviet War Memorial (Treptower Park), Sachsenhausen concentration camp. The names of murdered/death communists was given as honourary titles for Dynamo-Clubs, which must fought for it... . For example: SG Dynamo "Feliks E. Dzierzynski" Dresden or SG Dynamo "Dr. Richard Sorge" Erfurt. There were also many hymns and odes of Dynamo, which would written. Gerhard Kube, Helmut Baierl and Kurt Barthel formed many poems, which playing the sports club a role.

SV Dynamo districts

Flag example

The districts been the same districts of the state with: Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Rostock, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Neubrandenburg, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Schwerin, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Magdeburg, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Potsdam, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Frankfurt (Oder), Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Berlin, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Cottbus, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Halle, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Leipzig, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Erfurt, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Gera, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Suhl, Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Dresden and Sportvereinigung Dynamo District - Organisation Karl-Marx-Stadt. Every district has owned a wine-red silk banner with these writing. The measure is 2.8 × 1.5 m, with, of course, a logo of the SV.


Districts of Dynamo

Key to East German sporting success was a pyramid system with schoolchildren being assessed for athletic potential and the best (typically the top 2.5%) in each school-year being offered specialised coaching. A small fraction of those would go on to become the top adult athletes of the next generation. This model was initially derided in the West as a "sausage machine" but it has since been adopted in modified form by Australia, France, Spain and others with thousands of children being educated at specialised (often residential) sports schools rather than going through the normal high school system. Overall, 3,7 million[clarification needed] athletes were in the GDR at the German Sports federation (DTSB) registered in many other successful clubs in 1989.

Members by year[7]
Year Adults Children Total
1953 23162 none 23162
1955 55991 10874 66856
1958 90160 18846 109006
1961 105530 42822 148352
1966 118651 54691 173306
1970 131752 74266 206018
1972 139013 85295 224308
1974 144356 93071 237427
1975 146127 96666 242793
1976 148054 99337 247391
1983 170.000 110.000 280.000


Most coaches were also even teachers or other specific occupations. They were all in principle to took members fears before starting competitions. Also said that never was like everything bad could happen if .... Problems are always packed at its source in order to eradicate this. At the same time, they were also the guardian of morality.

Trainers by year[8]
Year Level 1 Level 2 Level 3/4 Total
1964 none none none 9989
1965 none none none 9673
1966 6785 2466 1362 10613
1967 6717 2476 1489 10682
1968 7078 2731 1712 11521
1969 7536 3009 1915 12460
1970 7321 3211 2058 12590
1971 7215 3412 2119 12746
1972 7334 3598 2580 13512
1973 7394 3791 3016 14201
1974 11358 3906 3098 18362
1975 11812 3949 3407 19168
1976 12369 4219 3524 20112

Controversies surrounding the Sport Club Dynamo Berlin

The case of doping

Birgit Meineke with coach Rolf Gläser
Rosemarie Gabriel with coach Rolf Gläser

The Sportvereinigung Dynamo[9] was especially singled out as a center for doping in the former East Germany.[10] Many former club officials and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of the country. A special page on the internet was created by doping victims trying to gain justice and compensation, listing people involved in doping at the club, the so called Dynamo Liste.[11]

State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War when every eastern bloc gold was an ideological victory. From 1974, Manfred Ewald, the head of the GDR's sports federation, imposed blanket doping. At the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, the country of 17 million collected nine gold medals. Four years later the total was 20 and in 1976 it doubled again to 40.[12] Ewald was quoted as having told coaches, "They're still so young and don't have to know everything." He was given a 22-month suspended sentence, to the outrage of his victims.[13]

Often, doping was carried out without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age. It is estimated that around 10,000 former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse,[14] one of them is Rica Reinisch, a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the Moscow Games in 1980, has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts. Athletes like Renate Vogel, silver medalist at the 1972 Olympics in the swimming competitions, were told the injections were vitamins but failed to believe the explanation and quit her sport.[15]

Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team from 1976 to 80, and Bernd Pansold, in charge of the sports medicine center in East-Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances.[16] Binus was sentenced in August,[17] Pansold in December 1998 after both being found guilty of administering hormones to underage female athletes from 1975 to 1984.[18]

Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drug test, though Stasi files show that many did, indeed, produced positive tests at Kreischa, the Saxon laboratory (German:Zentrale Dopingkontroll-Labor des Sportmedizinischen Dienstes) that was at the time approved by the International Olympic Committee,[19] now called the Institute of Doping Analysis and Sports Biochemistry (IDAS).[20]

In 2005, fifteen years after the end or the GDR, the manufacturer of the drugs in former East Germany, Jenapharm, still finds itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost 200 former athletes.[21] Many of the substances handed out were, even under East German law, illegal.[22]

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly admitted to doping, accusing their coaches[23]:

Former Sport Club Dynamo athletes disqualified for doping:

  • Ilona Slupianek[24] (Ilona Slupianek tested positive along with three Finnish athletes at the 1977 European Cup, becoming the only East German athlete ever to be convicted of doping[25]). Based on the self-admission by Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the 1976 Olympics.[26] Despite court rulings in Germany that substantiate claims of systematic doping by some East German swimmers, the IOC executive board announced that it has no intention of revising the Olympic record books. This is an understandable decision as it could otherwise trigger a flood of such claims involving former eastern block athletes. In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies, the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future.[27]

The Stasi and Erich Mielke

Erich Mielke, chief of Dynamo, was also the all-powerful leader of the Stasi,[28] the Secret Police of East Germany, mother organisation of Dynamo. The Stasi was widely regarded as one of the most effective intelligence agencies in the world. The intensity of state surveillance was probably without parallel anywhere in the world. In 1989, the Stasi had 91,000 staff members and 174,000 unofficial collaborators - a ratio of one spy for every 62 citizens.[29] Some of them were well known athletes, like Harald Czudaj, who admitted working as an informer for the Stasi, writing at least 10 reports about teammates and officials of the Dynamo bobsled club in Altenberg, East Germany, from 1988 to 1990. He apologized to his teammates. After his admission, Czudaj's teammates appealed to German officials to let him compete in the 1992 Winter Olympics because they had not been harmed by his work for the Stasi.[30] Mielke himself was sentenced in Berlin to six years in prison in 1993 for the murder of two policemen in 1931. However he was freed after two years when he was diagnosed as senile.[31]

After reunification, the members of the Felix Dzerzhinsky Watch Regiment, all soldiers were automatically members of Dynamo, got no pension, although they could win sporting successes. It is proven that only an elite army members and no spies were known from the MFS, which has been belonged to. That these members of agencies weren't been agents. Also only if they are served for terrorism defense.[32] Some also get little pension, although they worked as a teacher, and their acts would have been checked. [33]

Employees of the State Security were camouflaged as civilians in events. Sometimes they did recognize themselfes with the same souvenirs. For example: Bananas and Sandwiches. These was a sort of a "sport-police". On Hooligans are even used agent's. That happened for years and nobody could it remember. This were often happened with the BFC Dynamo and the SG Dynamo Dresden. Members of the organs of the Ministry of Interior of the GDR had to support the SV, otherwise, there was not a good omen for them.[34]

Army Gen. and Minister Erich Mielke, 1983

Targets and Soviet brotherhood phrases for affluence fakes

Dynamo was created in accordance with the multi-sports club model developed in the Soviet Union and adopted throughout Eastern Europe. From the beginning it had an overtly political as well as sporting agenda and its many successes were always portrayed as a triumph of the GDR state. It was frequently lauded by East German leaders in their speeches. For example - "If we speak of the good results the GDR sport, then the Sports Club Dynamo has of it an important portion. But we say dear friends and comrades of the Sports Club all ranges of the physical culture and the sport to you affect. We appreciate however not the large achievements in the area the physical culture and the sport, but say also all comrades of our protection and safety organs thanks for the fact that them us altogether in our work, with which education, with which development of physical culture and sport supported and also with the security of our results and successes in the whole past years in so outstanding way. If we speak of new tasks and new far-stretched goals, then we count on the fact that the sport. Dynamo may be as in the past also in the future an equally strong asset in ours, German gymnastic and sport organisation. The Sport Club Dynamo always took an outstanding place. In the competition of the Sports Club and district organizations it often distinguished, also in districts represent our comrades the Sports Club Dynamo a strong position of our sport organization. We all however know that our tasks become in the future not only larger, but also still various possibilities to open are to carry a still better work out in order to justify hopes of the people and the party."[35] „We have the certainty that you use all your power; because SV Dynamo, means more than only driving power; (…)

Athletes of Dynamo in their pride.

The name Sport Club Dynamo, that is progress that is socialism, communism, means, after the progressive theory of mankind to work after Marxism and Leninism. (…)Sport Club Dynamo that is undestructable friendship to the Soviet Union, to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and for Soviet brother organization Dynamo. (…)Sports Club Dynamo , is bounded with the party, with the working class and the workers of the German Democratic Republic. (…) Sports Club Dynamo is called to give to the DTSB of the GDR large support with the fulfilment of the tasks is called to work as progressive powers in the selection crews of the GDR, in the district organizations, everywhere, where Dynamo sportsmen work. (…) Sports Club Dynamo, that means, to carry out the resolutions with humans in the interest of humans for the further stabilization of the GDR.”[36]

Professional soccer- cheating with GDR "Oberliga" championships

"Officer in special mission" (MfS: "OibE, OSKAR") Adolf Prokop

The controversies surrounding this club are therefore part of this clubs article. The other Dynamo football departments however remained under the authority of the Sportvereinigung. The accusations of match fixing associated with the BFC Dynamo do not extend to the other Dynamo clubs and a club like Dynamo Dresden remains immensely popular in former East Germany and beyond. According to a denunciation by IM in October 1980 it was recommended initially, remove the three players of Dynamo Dresden to face down for the GDR national team, Dynamo soccer player such as Peter Kotte (invalid by malpractice), Gerd Weber, Klaus Müller (all three at Dynamo Dresden) when the Stasi had a lack of time and the players were picked on day of departure "and arrested two other men and two women...". The harsh sentences against Weber (which will be discussed by IM entanglement Pleil), end of career and other consequences for released players are observed impressively. It is also exciting that students and the public developed forms of protest against the victimization of those affected with the slogan "Kotte; Müller; Weber, Gerd: Alle sind sie eingesperrt! (English: Kotte; Müller; Weber, Gerd: They are all locked up!). The MfS controlled the press and responded with misinformation and pressure. They had hard existential problems with the Stasi or became a labor ban.[37] Successful escaped athletes were not always secure like Lutz Eigendorf (BFC Dynamo). He died under mysterious circumstances. His wife were been watched around the clock in East Berlin by agents.

One of the best known East German Referee is Adolf Prokop. He is mostly known for supervising two matches in the FIFA World Cup, one in 1978 and one in 1982. He was also active at UEFA Championships 1984. As an officer for special missions of the Ministry for State Security, he was during his time a referee of the DDR-Oberliga and accused for dominating BFC Dynamo match results. The referees of the set for BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden games were recorded as IM, as research has confirmed. However, it is often misunderstood, that the BFC Dynamo was punctuated by MfS only and never been Dynamo Dresden. This is a fairy tale, at least 18 Dyn. players has been exposed (without officials, coaches, doctors, gardeners etc. ...) in Dresden as "IM". But much love tales of these stories. In addition, the SV Dynamo won over 15 DFV championships in a row. The Dresden Socialist Unity Party of Germany was interested in a successful representation of the district. It happened with Dynamo Dresden an arbitrary doping with knowledge of the SED and the Stasi - the officials access to doping, to strengthen the position of the "Black- Yellows" for honour, friends, Intershop consumption (The Ministry of State Security monitored the Intershop's very strong, often members of Stasi employees or officials were working as shop assistants.). It has completed and researched the faculty of Social and Cultural Studies at Humboldt University of Berlin and University of Potsdam in 2002.[38] Moreover, the style of football was very much geared to endurance than for duel tactics or techniques. A book with the title "Mielke, power and championships" (German: "Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft")[39] deals extensively with the issue to call the victims with their names and not the trigger, but it is not exactly received by the author for doping as it should then he was strong biased for Dynamo Dresden. Interviews with former athletes confirmed that they didn't live under a rock and were able to get some funds administered in tablets and injections.

Historical circumstances

In addition, the Dresden Sportclub (the successor of Dresden English Football Club) has been dissolved by strange action before the founding of the SG Dynamo Dresden. Erich Mielke himself ordered the ban in lifeless behaviour. The DSC was previously the most popular club in Dresden and at the last German championship celebration were hundreds of thousands of fans. Moreover, the switch in the professional field athletes were assessed on personality and attitude so true talents often missed the train. In the 70's and 80's of the 20th century, there was no international morality in the sense of doping. Seldom gave anybody the technical resources, laws and controls and it is nothing to the latest WADA control standards of today. In addition other clubs, associations suspects against each other for doping at a hight international level, especially in the era of atomized Cold War.

Dynamo-Hall of fame

A winner procession for a Dynamo member at the Olympics.

They lived across in normal rented houses besides workers or even came from peasant families. They got no million contracts for their actions. Some also studied along their athletic careers, with extra curriculas has been prepared for them. This is proved as progressive.

  • Gerhard Kaminski awarded the German Federal Cross of Merit for his super trainer career at the Dynamo-Sports-Hall in Gymnastics. He trained world class gymnasts in a 50 years record era, for the Olympic Games. In 1999, he awarded the Manfred von Richthofen - price.[40]
  • Dynamo athletes won medals in many Olympic and World Championship events. The annual contribution defrauded per year only converted 0,60 - € / 0,90- $/ 12,- M. The citizen of the GDR deserved in average approximately 500,- East German mark (Mark) per month.
  • The genius Dr. med. orth. hab. Karin Büttner-Janz (Olympic winner, medical scientist on the Humboldt University), is the gymnast 20th century. She also invented the artificial intervertebral disc.
  • Dipl. Ing. Sigmund Jähn was the first cosmonaut in space from the GDR. He was also an honorary member of the SV. The honorary title does he won for the SV Dynamo district Karl-Marx-Stadt; at the SC Dynamo Klingenthal, in 1978. When he got the certificate, he said: "As a skijumper were Harry Glaß my personal model for the start to the Cosmos." This skijumper had nearly broken neck, and was in pension of ability.[41]
  • Dynamo athletes were also the one, which may could learn karate or even jujutsu as well as the general citizens could only learn judo.
  • Spies in the United States has earned the complete knowledge about the martial arts training of the CIA and Dynamo became this informations.[42]
  • One of the best of the bests, were Maxi Gnauck (very famous), Bernd Wiesner, Jutta Hampe, Katrin Boron, Caren Metschuck mostly in rowing, gymnastics and parashuting.

Among the Dynamo top scorers were:[43] [44] [45]



The sports club won approx. 215 Olympic medals in a 37 years period.[46]


The sports club won approx. 324 World Cup medals in a 37 years period. Completely won the SV Dynamo more as World champion titles as hundreds of other nations (2008).The most titles have won the rowers.[47]


The athletes won approx. 182 European titles.[48]


The Dynamo-Athletes won altogether 2.187 titles in 35 sport-sections in a 37 year period.[49] The Dynamo-Athletes won altogether 2.187 titles in 35 sport-sections over a 37 year period.[50]

With 280,000 members, it is not surprising that the SV Dynamo multi-sport club has a lot of championships won in the GDR, so that a separate category should be needed. [51] [52] [53] [54]



See also

For other famous multi-sport clubs:

Further reading


  • Dynamosport
  • Gläser, Andreas (1976). SV Dynamo Ein Almanach. ASIN B0027432ZC.  (German)
  • SV Dynamo Mut und Kraft. Offizin Andersen Nexö Leipzig. 1984. ASIN none.  (German)


  1. ^ Data bank for the Magazine Dynamo sport/ Please insert Dynamosport for searching (atttention:German language) It is for proving the medals; extra beside the linked athletes here.
  2. ^ Michael, Barsuhn; Jutta Braun and Hans Joachim Teichler. "Chronik der Sporteinheit vom Mauerfall bis zur Aufnahme der fünf neuen Landessportbünde am 15. Dezember 1990 in den Deutschen Sportbund". Deutscher Sportbund. Retrieved 2008-05-13. 
  3. ^ "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2003-02-26.,2144,786574,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-04. 
  4. ^ Gymn Forum: Maxi Gnauck Biography
  5. ^ Dynamosport: 1974
  6. ^ Dynamosport:page: 6; first edition; 1974
  7. ^ SV Dynamo Almanach 1977
  8. ^ SV Dynamo Almanach
  9. ^ Pain And Injury in Sport: Social And Ethical Analysis, Section III, Chapter 7, Page 111, by Sigmund Loland, Berit Skirstad, Ivan Waddington, Published by Routledge in 2006, ASIN: B000OI0HZG
  10. ^ "Dynamo Liste" (in German). September 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  11. ^ "Dynamo Liste: Die Täter" (in German). September 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  12. ^ "Jenapharm says drugs were legal". ESPN. 28 April 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  13. ^ "Obituary: Manfred Ewald". The Independent. 25 October 2002. Retrieved 2008-03-11. [dead link]
  14. ^ "GDR athletes sue over steroid damage". BBC News Europe. 13 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  15. ^ "Doping im DDR-Sport: "Wir waren Versuchskaninchen"" (in German). 3 February 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  16. ^ "New doping charges against East German doctors". BBC News. 25 November 1997. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  17. ^ "East German coaches fined over doping". BBC News. 31 August 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  18. ^ "Doping of underage athletes in the former GDR" (in German). Schwimmverein Limmat Zürich. 23 March 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-10. 
  19. ^ "Drug claim could be a bitter pill". Times Online. 2 March 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  20. ^ "Accredited Laboratories". World Anti-Doping Agency. January 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  21. ^ Harding, Luke (1 November 2005). "Forgotten victims of East German doping take their battle to court". London: The Guardian.,10082,1605761,00.html. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  22. ^ "Eine gewisse Geheimniskrämerei" (in German). Times Online, Grit Hartmann. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  23. ^ "Drugs update". Sports Publications. July 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-11. [dead link]
  24. ^ "1977: Here comes Mr. Doping". European Cup - Milan 2007. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  25. ^ Michael Janofsky (4 July 1988). "Article on Sports in East Germany". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 
  26. ^ Longman, Jere (25 October 1998). "OLYMPICS; U.S. Seeks Redress for 1976 Doping In Olympics". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  27. ^ "Despite Doping, Olympic Medals Stand". International Herald Tribune. 16 December 1998. Retrieved 2008-03-12. [dead link]
  28. ^ "Ex-Stasi chief dies". BBC News. 25 May 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  29. ^ "GERMANY AND THE GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC - Truth and justice". Amnesty International, Daan Bronkhorst. June 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  30. ^ "Germany Won't Ban Sledder Who Informed". The New York Times. 11 February 1992. Retrieved 2008-03-12. 
  31. ^ "Erich Mielke—the career of a German Stalinist". World Socialist Web Site, Ludwig Niethammer. 24 August 2000. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  32. ^ Aus der Petition einer Angestellten der Sportvereinigung „Dynamo“
  33. ^ Aus der Petition einer Angestellten der Sportvereinigung „Dynamo“
  34. ^ Willmann, Frank; Stadionpartisanen Fans und Hooligans in der DDR; Neues Leben Publishers, August 2007; 223 Pages - Language: German - 213x149x27 mm; ISBN 9783355017442
  35. ^ Manfred Ewald, chairman of the DTSB of the GDR, in the welcoming address on the 6. Conference of the centers line of the Sportvereinigung Dynamo March 23, 1973
  36. ^ Rudi Hellmann, chairman of the department of sport in the ZK of the SED, on the VII. central delegate conference of the Sports Club Dynamo 1974
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^ Dynamosport Magazine; 1978; 20th edition on page 2
  42. ^ MfS
  43. ^ International Olympic Committee - Athletes
  44. ^ Sport Complete
  45. ^ Competition Results / Resultados de Competiciones
  46. ^
  47. ^ Data bank for the Magazine Dynamo sport/ Please insert Dynamosport for searching (atttention:German language) It is for proofing the medals; extra beside the linked athletes here.
  48. ^ Data bank for the Magazine Dynamo sport/ Please insert Dynamosport for searching (atttention:German language) It is for proving the medals; extra beside the linked athletes here.
  49. ^ - Sportnachrichten, Sportergebnisse, Sportstatistiken, Sporthistorie, Autogramme, Sportveranstaltungen, Sportbücher
  50. ^ - Sportnachrichten, Sportergebnisse, Sportstatistiken, Sporthistorie, Autogramme, Sportveranstaltungen, Sportbücher
  51. ^ (all about the facts and figures at the archives)
  52. ^ International Olympic Committee - Athletes
  53. ^ Sport Complete
  54. ^ Competition Results / Resultados de Competiciones

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dynamo (disambiguation) — Dynamo or Dinamo may refer to: Contents 1 In Science and Engineering 1.1 In Engineering 1.2 Software …   Wikipedia

  • Dynamo Dresden — Nombre completo Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden e. V. Apodo(s) Dynamo (en Sajonia también SGD) Fundación 12 de abril de 1953 Estadio …   Wikipedia Español

  • Dynamo FC — or Dinamo FC may refer to: Contents 1 Africa 2 Asia 3 Europe 4 …   Wikipedia

  • dynamo — [ dinamo ] n. f. • 1881; de dynamoélectrique ♦ Machine dynamoélectrique, transformant l énergie mécanique en énergie électrique. (1872 ) Dynamo à courant continu de Gramme. Dynamo à courant alternatif (⇒ alternateur) . Une dynamo comprend un… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Dynamo Sports Club — Dinamo, also Dynamo, (Russian and Ukrainian: Динамо, Belarusian: Дынама) is the oldest sports and physical training (fitness) society that was created in 1923. Contents 1 Overview 1.1 …   Wikipedia

  • Dynamo Hohenschönhausen — Voller Name Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Hohenschönhausen Gegründet 1952 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • DYNAMO (programming language) — DYNAMO (DYNAmic MOdels) was a simulation language and accompanying graphical notation developed within the system dynamics analytical framework. It was originally for industrial dynamics but was soon extended to other applications, including… …   Wikipedia

  • Dynamo (magician) — Dynamo Birth name Steven Frayne[1] Born 17 December 1982 (1982 12 17) (age 28) Origin Bradford, England …   Wikipedia

  • Dynamo Youth Theatre — is a performance based theatre company offering drama, dance and music experience for young people aged between 11 and 18. The company was founded in 1981 by local Bosmere Junior School teacher, Andrew Bowker. They are currently located and have… …   Wikipedia

  • Dynamo de Berlín — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda BFC Dynamo Nombre completo Berliner Fußballclub Dynamo Fundación 27 de marzo de 1953 15 de enero de 1966 Estadio Sportforum Hoh …   Wikipedia Español

  • Dynamo — bezeichnet: den Fahrraddynamo allgemein einen elektrischen Generator Sportverbände der Sicherheitsorgane in der Sowjetunion (Dynamo (Verein)) und deren Satellitenstaaten (z.B. Sportvereinigung Dynamo), teilweise noch heute in den Namen ehemaliger …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”